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The Qrooked S^ D^C^rrd^pp 

Streets of the 

Toypn of 'Boston 

1630— 1822 

^Annie Haven ThlppingJ "t^l 


i3^arshall Jones Qompany 





4 ^' ■->. 









HUXLEY was once asked by one of his pupils 
how much he should J:ake for granted that his 
audience knew of the subject of which he was 
to speak, and the answer was, "Nothing." In writing 
on historical subjects, however, it is a different story. 
Every tolerably well-read person knows the salient facts 
of American history. Reference books are always at hand 
when the details of any given place or period are wanted. 
Therefore, in speaking of the streets of Boston, it will 
only be necessary to go rapidly and briefly over the few 
facts of how Boston came to be Boston. Many able 
writers have written books about the town, and the ground 
has been well covered; but in the following pages it is 
the object not so much to repeat the history of the town 
as to try to interest the present generation in the city in 
which they live, by telling them just where their ancestors 
lived and the neighborhood in which they were brought 
up. The history of each street has also been considered. 
Perhaps also those who, living at a distance, remember 
with affection the home of their fathers may value this 
record of them, for our ancestors are responsible for our 
lives, and their influence is still felt by us. 

The books consulted have been chiefly the Colony 
records, and reprints of the early writers in the collections 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society and Prince 
Society. For the details of the town itself I have drawn 
on my own work, "Inhabitants and Estates of the Town 
of Boston, 1 630-1 800," now in the Massachusetts His- 


torjcal Society, a work consisting of upwards of 125,000 
cards giving details of the lives of the principal inhabi- 
tants, and 22 volumes of extracts from the Suffolk Deeds, 
where it will be found that every estate has been traced 
between 1630 and 1800, with the authority for each fact 
recorded. Boston has been a prolific field for writers 
of fiction. Hawthorne, Cooper, and many others have 
drawn on its people, streets, and houses for interesting 
stories which have attracted the imagination of children 
as well as of grown-ups; but the true history is apt to be 
distorted, however pleasant the reading may be. Thomas 
Prince said, "A writer of facts cannot be too critical, it 
is exactness I aim at, and would not have the least mis- 
takes if possible, pass to the world." Voltaire says, ^'If 
the public cannot trust the ability or the honesty of the 
biographer, the sources of his information are not inacces- 
sible. The public with a little extra trouble can verify 
the facts, even though the author does not assist it by 
cumbering his text with that annihilation of all interests, 
the perpetual footnotes." 

A few notes will be found on page 245 referred to by 
small numerals in the text. 

I am under obligation to those who have kindly lent 
me photographs from which copies have been taken. Mr. 
C. Park Pressey for those in the Halliday collection, the 
Walton Advertising and Printing Company, the Boston 
Evening Transcript, and the Boston Public Library. 
Also to Mr. I. A. Chisholm for his carefully drawn maps. 
To Mr. A. Marshall Jones I am deeply indebted for his 
interest in making this volume attractive. 

Annie Haven Thwing. 

65 Beech Glen Street, 


April, 1920. 



Introductory . i 

I. The North End 26 

II. Government and Business Centre ... 78 

III. South End 152 

IV. The West End 197 

V. The Neck 228 

Notes 245 

Index ..... 248 



I. Summer Street, Washington and Winter Streets Frontispiece 
II, Mill Creek or Middlesex Canal, now covered by 

Blackstone street 28 

III. Salutation Street, Webster Avenue, Tileston Street . 64 

IV. Vernon Place, the Clough House 72 

—■V. Unity Street, the Frankhn House 76 

VI. Williams Court, now Pie Alley 116 

—VH. Milk Street, the Old South Church 124 

VIII. Dock Square, the Feather Store 128 

IX. Com Court, The Governor Hancock Tavern .... 130 

X. Congress Street, the Dalton House 146 

XI. Tremont Street in 1798 154 

XII. Tremont Street looking North, about 1800 158 

XIII. The Province House 160 

XIV. High and Summer Streets, the Daniel Webster House. 168 
XV. Winter Street 180 

XVI. Summer Street, the New South Church 184 

XVII. Federal Street Theatre 186 

XVin. Fort Hill and Vicinity 190 

XIX. View from Fort Hill 194 

XX. Ridgeway Lane, the West Church 210 

XXE. Pemberton Square, the Gardiner Greene House ... 214 

XXn. Beacon Street and the Common, 1804 218 

XXIII. Liberty Tree 234 

XXIV. Eccentric Cobbler 242 


Shawmut or Trimountain in 1630 Facing page 4 

The Town of Boston about 1645 12 

The North End 26 

Government and Business Centre 7^ 

Residential Part 152 

The West End 196 

The Neck 228 


'The Qrooked &^ 3\[arrd\^ Streets 

of the Td)vn of Boston 

1630 — 1822 

The Qrooked and ^A(^rroli^ 

Streets of the 

To')^n of "Boston 
1630— 1822 


THOUGH there are many claims to the discovery 
of America before the fifteenth century, no 
definite trace remains, and all had been for- 
gotten when Christopher Columbus reached its shores 
in 1492. But even to him was not accorded the honor 
of the name. This was reserved for the Italian explorer, 
Americus Vespucius, who lived at the same time, and 
who distinguished himself in making maps. These maps 
outlived the fame of the first explorer, and the new 
world was named for Americus, but not by him, for the 
name was not generally used until the end of the six- 
teenth century. 

Next came explorers and navigators from various 
countries, who were attracted either by the glory of 
finding new lands, or the desire to find gold, or merely 
by the love of adventure. There were many successive 
efforts to plant colonies, but, leaving out Mexico and 
Peru, none were successful until 1565, when St. Angus- 


tine, Florida, was founded by the Spaniards. Then 
Jamestown was founded by the English, in 1607, and 
Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia, by the French, in 1610. 
Those who were first known to have stepped on the 
shores of Massachusetts were Bartholomew Gosnold, 
John Brereton and their companies, who in 1602 found 
themselves embayed with a mighty headland. They went 
ashore, and on their return to the ship, a few hours later, 
found the ship so loaded with cod fish taken by the 
crew that they called the headland "Cape Cod." Next 
came John Smith, one of the founders of Jamestown, 
who came to the coast in 16 14. He called it "New 
England," and the next year on his return to England 
drew a map giving Indian names to various places. 
Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I, put English names 
in their places, and the map was published. Smith speaks 
of the high mountain which was the Blue Hills, and also 
of the Massachusetts fields. Chicatawbut was the sag- 
amore of this tribe of Indians, and had his headquarters 
at Mt. Wollaston, now Quincy. 

Next came the Pilgrims to Plymouth, and these were 
followed by various independent traders who founded 
trading posts. But, excepting the Pilgrims, they all came 
to worship mammon. The Pilgrims and Puritans came 
to worship God. The persecution of the Puritans in Eng- 
land forced them to seek some place where they could 
worship God as their own consciences dictated, and so, 
after the New England coast became known, a company 
was formed in 1628 by men from Lincolnshire, Dorset- 
shire, and the neighborhood of London, who obtained a 
grant of land and charter from King James I, and sent 
out John Endecott with a small company. Thus Salem was 
founded, and the following year the company was en- 
larged and a number of citizens agreed to transport them- 


selves and their families across the seas, provided they 
could take the charter with them and govern themselves. 
John Winthrop was appointed Governor and was to suc- 
ceed Endecott. The seal of the charter was an Indian 
crying, as the Macedonians did to St. Paul, "Come over 
and help us," — meaning the conversion of the Indians 
was to be their first thought. 

Winthrop, with a fleet of eleven ships, sailed in the 
spring of 1630, and arrived at Salem in June. Not 
approving of Salem as the capital, Winthrop went along 
the coast to Charlestown, and here we find him in sight 
of the promised land. Many of those who came with 
Winthrop separated and founded Roxbury, Lynn, Med- 
ford, Cambridge, and Watertown.^ 

During the summer, sickness broke out and many died. 
Their greatest need was fresh water, and the Charlestown 
records tell us how this was the cause of the removal to 
the peninsula across the bay. "In the meantime Mr. 
Blackstone, dwelling on the other side of the Charles river, 
at a place by the Indians called Shawmut, where he only 
had a cottage at or not far off the place called Blackstone 
Point, he came and acquainted the Governor of an excel- 
lent spring there, withal inviting him and soliciting him 
thither. Whereupon after the death of Mr. Johnson and 
divers others, the Governor with Mr. Wilson and the 
greatest part of the church removed thither. Whither 
the frame of the governor's house in preparation at this 
town was also (to the discontent of some) carried where 
people began to build their houses against winter: and this 
place was called Boston." 

At the first Court of the Assistants, held at Charles- 
town, September 7 (New Style September 17), it was 
ordered that "Trimountain shall be called Boston," "as we 
intended to have done the first place we resolved on," 


writes Dudley to the Countess of Lincoln. Boston was 
thus chosen for the central government, the fortified town 
or capital. 

Shawmut, as we have seen, was the Indian name of 
the peninsula which after 1630 became the town of 
Boston, and two hundred years later the city of Boston. 
William Wood, a traveler, describes it in "New England's 
Prospects," in 1634, as follows: 

"Boston is two miles from Roxbury. The situation is 
very pleasant, being a peninsula hemmed in on the south 
side with the bay of Roxbury, on the north side with 
Charles River, the marshes on the back side being not 
half a quarter of a mile over, so that a little fencing will 
secure their cattle from the wolves. Their greatest wants 
be wood and meadow ground, which never were in that 
place, being constrained to fetch their wood, building 
timber, and fire wood from lands in boates and their hay 
in Loyters. It being a neck and bare of wood: they are 
not troubled with three great annoyances, of wolves, 
rattlesnakes and Musketoes. This necke of land is not 
above four miles in compasse, in forme almost square, 
having on the south side in one corner a great broad hill 
whereon is planted a fort. On the north side is another 
hill equall in bigness whereon stands a windmill. To the 
northwest is a high mountain with three little rising 
hills on the top of it, whereof it is called Tramount. The 
inhabitants have taken farm houses in a place called 
Muddy River. In this place they keep their swine and 
other cattle in the summer while the corn is on the ground 
in Boston, and bring them to the town in winter." 

John Josselyn wrote an account of his two voyages in 
1674, and says, "In 1637 there were not many houses 
in Boston, among them two houses of entertainment called 
ordinaries"; and later, "In Boston the houses are for 






Sept. 7, 1630 It is ordered that Trimountain 
shall be called Boston." 

Colony Records 





■>///:,f//i '-'/i^ ■^///J ' }\\<ri<s 




Outline taken from Bonner's Map 1722 


the most part raised on the sea bank and wharfed out 
with great industry and care, many of them standing 
on piles close together on each side of the street and 
furnished with many fair shops. Their materials are 
brick, stone and lime, with three meeting houses and a 
town house built upon pillars where the merchants may 
confer. Their streets are many and large, paved with 
pebble stones, and the south adorned with gardens and 

In 1664 the Royal Commissioners say, ''Their houses 
are generally wooden, the streets crooked with little 
decency and no uniformity." Though there are many 
other descriptions of the town, this last one is more likely 
to be correct than those written in rosy colors. 

In 1760 Andrew Burnaby describes Boston as like an 
English town, with the sidewalks marked by posts and 

In 1632 the neck of land between Powderhorn Hill and 
Pullen Point, called Winnisimmet (now Chelsea), be- 
longed to Boston. In 1634 Long Island, Deer Island, and 
Hog Island were granted to the town, and it was also to 
have an enlargement at Mt. Wollaston. In 1636-37 
Noddles Island (East Boston) was given to the town. 

The original bounds of the peninsula were approxi- 
mately what are now the streets of Charles, Brighton, 
Leverett, Causeway, Commercial, North, Merchants Row, 
Kilby, Batterymarch, Purchase, Essex to Washington 
Street. The neck connecting it with the main land was 
not much wider than it is now, allowing for marsh on 
both sides. There were practically no changes in the 
bounds until after 1800, except that wharves were ex- 
tended and some filling-in done. In 1808 Beacon Hill 
began to be leveled, to fill the mill pond. The first bridge 
connecting the mainland was that to Charlestown in 1785, 
and the next to Cambridge in 1792. The irregular coast 


was broken by inlets, coves, and creeks, and marsh lands 
extended nearly around the whole peninsula. 

When Winthrop took possession of Shawmut as within 
the bounds described in the charter, it was unoccupied by 
the Indians, and therefore no payment could be made; 
but, that no doubt should arise in the future as to the 
title, on March 19, 1683-84 the selectmen had a deed 
drawn up, and signed by a grandson of Chickatawbut. 
Blackstone was merely a squatter, and had no legal claim 
to the land; but here too the company dealt fairly by 
paying him for his right. Joshua Scottow said, speaking 
of the first settlers, "By turf and twig they took possession 
of this large continent." 

In the case of a house, the delivery by turf and twig 
was as follows: The grantor cut a turf and twig out of 
the ground, and put the twig through the turf, and then 
delivered it to the grantee, and told him to go in and take 
possession of the house. Then the grantor shut the door 
on him, and the bargain was completed. 

On August 26, 1723, the Boston News Letter tells us: 

"At Judge Sewall's and the night following at Judge 
Dudley's was entertained one of the oldest Indians in 
New England, John Quittamog, living in the Nipmug 
country near Woodstock. The English inhabitants of 
Woodstock remember him as a very old man for near 
forty years past, and which he has all along affirmed and 
still confirms that he was at Boston when the English 
first arrived, and when there was but one cellar in the 
place and that near the common, and then brought down 
a bushel and a halfe on his back. Now it being 93 years 
since the British settled at Boston he cannot be supposed 
less than 112 years old at this time. He says that the 
Massachusetts Indians sent up word to the Nipmugs that 
if they had any corn to spare the English wanted it, which 


occasioned his father and others to come. He is now in 
good health and has his understanding and memory very- 
entire and is capable of traveling on foot ten miles a day." 

Again, March 19-26, 1730, the News Letter says: 

"John Thomas, an Indian of good credit, when he lived 
in Framingham which was a little before his death, and 
when he was above a hundred years old, retained his 
understanding well and related the following story, viz., 
'That his father told him that when he,' (viz., the said 
Thomas's father) Vas about 16 or 18 years old he lived 
with his father at the place now called Boston, and that 
there was then a very great sickness and that the Indians 
lay dead in every wigwam: and his father went about 
(as he said) and found only a few alive, and they got 
together and lived in a wigwam by themselves: at length 
an Indian came to them from Dorchester Neck, and car- 
ried them thither, where they found the Indians almost 
all dead. And that both in Dorchester and in Boston 
the dead were so many that they never were buried.' 
On March 12, 1730-31, as some workmen were digging for 
some sand at the hill called Cotton Hill, they found the 
skull and other bones of a human body which is thought 
to be one of the original natives, who was buried there." 

There has been much speculation and a great deal of 
fun made in regard to the crooked and narrow streets of 
Boston, and they have been the subject of good-natured 
banter from wits of all ages, which we have borne with 
equanimity. There are even some to-day who in all 
seriousness will say, "My grandmother always said that 
Boston was laid out by the cows"; and the old conundrum 
that the streets of Boston were crooked because Boston 
was never dead enough to be laid out, is still with us. 

Even though they were not laid out with the regularity 
of the streets of Philadelphia, certainly the dwellers have 


played a leading part in many of the public events of 
the country at large, as well as of the town itself. Each 
street has its interest, and many of the public buildings 
and even private houses have a world-wide celebrity. The 
cows may indeed have been a factor. This appeals to the 
imagination, and this with the old records will easily 
solve the problem for us. 

We know from the records where thirty-one of those 
who came with Winthrop and joined the church in 1630 
had their house lots. William Balston and William 
Coddington were on the west side of Washington Street, 
between Court Street and Dock Square, and Edward 
Gibbons on the opposite side, at the corner of the Dock. 
Samuel Cole on the west side between Court and School 
Streets, Governor Winthrop on the northeast corner of 
Milk Street, and Elder Thomas Oliver was next north 
of him, the famous spring lying between. Thomas Grubb 
and William Aspinwall were on the west side between 
School and Winter Streets ; Richard Brackett on the west 
side between West and Boylston Streets, William Colburn 
on the north corner, and Jacob Eliot on the south corner 
of Washington and Boylston Streets. Thomas Sharpe 
was near Colburn. William Talmage, Edward Belcher, 
Robert Walker, and John Cranwell on Boylston Street; 
Edward Rainsford on Essex Street; James^enn and 
Robert Rice on Milk Street; John Wilson, mlliam Hud- 
son, William Pierce, and Thomas Matson on State Street; 
Robert Harding near the corner of State Street, on Kilby 
Street; Edward Bendall at the Dock; Henry Pease and 
John Underbill on Hanover Street, west of Union Street; 
Zaccheus Bosworth at the south corner of Tremont and 
School Streets; James Brown and John Biggs on Court 
Street, and James Penniman just north of Pemberton 



About 1645 

Showing the Streets mentioned 
The Book of Possessions 





^^s BA r 


In 1629 the Court made an order concerning the allot- 
ment of land. If the platt of ground on which the town 
was to be built had been set out, then no man must build 
his house in any other place, and if his allotment for 
building his house be not appointed to him within ten 
days then shall he be free to build his house in any place 
within the said platt and to impale it to the quantity of 
one half an acre. We do not read that any surveyor 
laid out the town as Graves did Charlestown, and, as the 
governor had probably more than enough to attend to 
for the general good, it is reasonable to suppose that 
he allowed the ten days to elapse, and that the men chose 
their own location. 

We must imagine the spot as one large field, and that 
each settler chose the spot best suited to his needs. The 
town cove or dock, in which all were interested, was 
favored by nature, and near this those interested in trade 
settled. The market place must be in the center of the 
town and near the dock, and that was placed at the 
head of State Street, which then as now was the principal 
business street. The church was soon built across the 
way from the market on the south side of State Street, 
and as the minister must be near his church, he had his 
lot on the north side. Those interested in fishing and 
ships chose their lots on the water front, and so we 
have a row in North Street, and a few in Batterymarch. 
A few who liked a rural life went farther away. Gardens 
and pastures were allotted in the western part of the 
town. On September 7 (N. S. September 17), the place 
was named, and it was ordered that every third Tuesday 
the Court should be held at the governor's house, and no 
doubt the people began then to choose their lots and 
to plan building.^ On September 28 the governor's house 
was still in Charlestown, for the Court held its meeting 


there. But on October 19 the Court was held in Boston, 
so by this time some of the first rude buildings must have 
been erected. 

Now, as the people went from house to house to help 
one another in the raisings, or to attend meetings, and 
in those days every one attended church — or drove their 
cows to pasture on the Common, they made paths for 
themselves, and these footpaths soon became lanes, and 
naturally were improved as streets and highways when 
they had more time to attend to road making. The first 
record that we find as to the laying out of streets was 
January 1635-36, when it was agreed that every man 
should have a sufficient way to his allotment of ground, 
and that men should be appointed for setting them out. 
That same year a way was to be made in the field towards 
Roxbury and some laid out at the north end. There is 
no mention that Washington, Boylston, State or Court 
streets were ever laid out. In 1635 it was agreed that 
no further allotments should be granted unto newcomers 
but such as may likely be received members of the con- 
gregation, and none shall sell their house without leave. 
After October 4, 1636, no house to be built near unto any 
of the streets or lanes but with the advice of the overseers 
of the town. 

That at first the houses were thatched we know from 
the fact that the house of Thomas Sharpe, which was near 
that of William Colburn, was burned, and March 16, 
1630-3 1, it was ordered that no man should build his chim- 
ney of wood or cover his house with thatch. The early 
houses were of wood and of one story only, with occasion- 
ally a leanto added. Then the gambrel roofs came into 
fashion. In the early days, stone and brick were rare. 

Dr. Belknap, writing to Judge G. R. Minot in 1795, 


"Curiosity has led me to remark the various modes of 
building at sundry periods, especially after any great con- 
flagration. The houses and warehouses near the town 
dock which were rebuilt after the great fire of 1679 were 
either constructed of brick or plastered on the outside 
with a strong cement intermixed with gravel and glass 
and slated on top. Several of these plastered houses are 
yet remaining in Ann Street, they being two stories high 
with a garret, in a high peaked roof. Those which were 
built after the fire of 1711 were of brick, three stories high 
with a garret, a flat roof and balusrade. They are on 
both sides of Cornhill and of the State House. Those 
built after the fire of 1760 were almost wholly (except 
shops) of brick and slate. They extend from Devonshire 
Street, through Water Street and Quakers Lane, Kilby 
and the lower part of Milk Street, round the east side of 
Fort Hill. Those which have been erected since the fire 
of 1787 are of wood with three upright stories and a 
flat roof shingled. This style of building prevails much 
at present." 

The way in which bricks are laid often tell the date of 
a building. The earliest was the old English bond, courses 
of bricks laid lengthwise alternating with others laid end- 
wise. Then came a row of bricks laid endwise after every 
seventh laid lengthwise. About the time of the Revo- 
lution the Flemish bond came into fashion, in which every 
row was laid with alternate bricks lengthwise and end- 
wise, so as very nearly to break the joints and preserve 
the bond. 

On April i, 1634, the General Court ordered a survey 
of the houses and lands in every plantation, but it was 
some years before this order was fully carried out. In 
Boston it gave rise to the Book of Possessions (our 
Domesday Book), which is thought to have been com- 


piled about the year 1645, but there are transfers of a 
later date before 1650. This book gives the name of each 
inhabitant (there are two hundred and forty-six names), 
and his estate with its boundaries, so that the street in 
which each lived can be easily traced. Sudbury Street or 
End, and Spring Gate or Lane were known by these names 
from the earliest times, but no modern name was given 
to any other street until 1 708, when every street received 
a name. They were known as broad street, or highway, 
or lane, the street leading to the Meeting House, the fort 
street, or myln street, or the street leading to the house 
of some individual. In the Book of Possessions compara- 
tively few streets had been laid out. 

In February 1 715-16, for the first time the town was 
divided into wards, and they were named North- 
ward, Fleet-ward, Bridge-ward, Crook-ward, Kings-ward, 
Change-ward, Pond-Ward, and South-ward. His Maj- 
esty's justices of the peace, the overseers of the poor, 
and the selectmen agreed to visit such and so many 
families in each ward. On March 9, 1735-36, there were 
twelve wards, named numerically, i, 2, 3, etc. 

The General Court soon left the government of each 
town to its own citizens, and then the historic town meet- 
ings began. Here all men met as equals, and every one 
was entitled to express his opinion and vote. At these 
meetings public matters were freely discussed. The 
records show how freely every detail of the local history 
was discussed and voted upon, from the management of 
the cows to education in the schools. But after the 
middle of the eighteenth century the fields of discussion 
broadened, and at first it was the town of Boston and 
its government that bore the brunt of the great struggle 
against the mother country with all its power and wealth, 
and it was those meetings that a Tory called "a hotbed 


of sedition, where all the dangerous insurrections were 
engendered and where the flame of discord and rebellion 
was first lighted up and disseminated over the provinces." 

As an instance of the effect of the doings of the legis- 
lature on the town, on November 15, 1683, as the King 
was trying to force the country to submission to his will, 
the magistrates voted that an humble address be sent 
to his Majesty declaring that they would not contend with 
him in a course of law but humbly lay themselves at his 
feet in submission to his pleasure, and it was referred 
to the Court of Deputies. The deputies after a fort- 
night's debate, voted, November 30, 1683: "The Deputies 
consent not, but adhere to their former bills." They 
would not submit and this action was sustained by 
the people of Boston at a town meeting, January 21, 

Here deputies to the Court were appointed and also 
officers of the town — generally seven men called 
selectmen, selected from men of property and con- 
sequence — and tything men, one of whose duties 
was to keep the children in order at church. Besides 
these there were surveyors, clerks of the market, sealers 
of leather, packers of fish and flesh, hog-reeves, fence 
viewers, etc. ; as the population and trade increased there 
were inspectors or overseers for each trade. Street com- 
missioners, though not then so called, were appointed as 
early as 1651. Some of the early orders concerned fenc- 
ing of the planting ground, and a cowkeeper had his orders 
for pasturing the cows on the Common. No strangers 
could be entertained without leave, and no victualing 
houses allowed except those licensed. Land was allotted 
at Muddy River (Brookline) and Mt. Wollaston, for mow- 
ing and farming. Up to 1647 there were several town 
meetings each year, but after this date as a rule only 


one was held in March, and after choosing officers for the 
year ensuing and attending to any special public ques- 
tion, the duties of governing the town fell to the select- 
men. The meetings were called upon public notice, 
generally by the beat of the drum, but sometimes on 
private warning. The first town meeting of which we 
have any record was held on August 8, 1634, but on the 
7th of March previous ten men who had been chosen to 
manage the affairs of the town met and passed orders 
concerning the common landing place, thus showing that 
records of earlier meetings have been lost. The place 
of meeting until the town house was built in 1658 was in 
the Meeting House. 

The Court kept a strict watch over all trades and the 
manner in which they were carried on, from time to time 
issuing laws concerning their regulation. The wages were 
limited and when the scarcity led to higher prices the 
struggle between capital and labor began which is not 
yet settled. When, in 1641, there was a fall in the price 
of commodities, the Court ordered an abatement of wages. 
All necessary handicrafts were represented in the town 
as, carpenters, masons, bricklayers, cutlers, coopers, gun- 
smiths, goldsmiths, shoemakers, and also tailors who went 
from house to house and thus became the news carriers 
of the day. The distilling of rum was largely carried 
on, and distilleries were scattered over various parts of 
the town, but the larger number were in the neighbor- 
hood of Essex and Chardon Streets. The professions 
were represented by the ministers and the physicians or 
barber-surgeons. Thomas Lechford was the first to 
represent the law, coming to Boston in 1638 and staying 
only about three years. He found that attorneys were 
discouraged and that the town could get along without 
him. He returned home and published his book, "Plain 


Dealing," in 1642. Among other things he mentions the 
Thursday Lecture, which was a Boston institution, held 
in the First Church. At first there were four lectures, but 
they took up so much time that it was agreed to hold but 
two, one in Boston and one in a neighboring plantation. 
The people went from town to town to these lectures, and 
this served as a recreation. There were few amuse- 
ments in those days. There was too much work to be 
done at home — spinning and weaving, all clothing 
having to be made for the large families — and with 
the care of many babies the older girls found little time 
to spare. 

Domestic comforts gradually but steadily crept in. Win- 
throp tells the story of the wife of William Pierce: ''1641, 
a goodly woman of the church of Boston, dwelling some 
time in London, brought with her a parcel of very fine 
linen of great value, which she set her heart too much 
upon, and had been at charge to have it all newly washed 
and folded and pressed, and so left it in press in her parlor 
overnight. She had a negro maid who went into the room 
very late and let fall some snuff of the candle upon the 
linen, so by morning all the linen was burned to tinder and 
the boards underneath and some stools and a part of the 
wainscot burned, and never perceived by anyone in the 
house though some lodged in the chamber overhead, and 
no ceiling between. Her husband was slain not long after 
at the isle of Providence." 

Negroes were owned as slaves at an early date. In 
1 640 Winthrop records that a ship arrived with two negro 
slaves from Africa, but the Court ordered them returned. 
A few years later there was no limit set to the number of 
slaves except the lack of means. In 1 708 the free negroes 
were required to work at repairing and cleaning the high- 
ways. The early newspapers chronicle advertisements 


for runaway servants and men, women, girls, and boys 
for sale. The population grew by a natural increase of 
its own citizens, as well as by a moderate supply of 
immigrants. Early marriages were the rule, and a man 
or woman over twenty unmarried was rarely to be found. 
If a girl were not married her father was sometimes 
ordered to place her at service. Large families were prev- 
alent, though there was a great loss of life among chil- 
dren. The strong survived, the weak fell by the wayside, 
and the survival of the fittest was illustrated long before 
Darwin voiced its law. 

Next to the church the taverns played an important 
part in the life of the colony, and they soon had rivals 
in the coffee houses. These were introduced into Eng- 
land in the time of the Commonwealth, by a merchant 
from Turkey, and at once became popular and fashion- 
able as a place of resort where one could meet one's 
friends and pass a social evening, where strangers were 
welcome, and where one could hear the news of the day 
and discuss the political situation. They were frequented 
by men of letters, clergymen, professional men, and 

The first order for a watch was July 26, 1631, when 
the Court ordered that "there shall be a watch of six 
men and an officer kept every night at Boston, two 
whereof to be of Boston, two of Charlestown and two of 
Roxbury." In 1644 it was ordered that "the east end of 
the town cellar under the staircase shall be for a watch 
house for the town's use," and in 1676 one was put on the 
Neck. On January 2, 1710-11, the watchmen were for- 
bidden going about to beg money or New Year's gifts 
from the inhabitants. At various times orders were issued 
for the watchmen. May i, 1723, it was voted that there 
"shall be five watch houses, one where it now stands near 


the Old North Meeting House; one near the New North 
Meeting House; one at the Dock head where it now is; 
one at the south end at the head of Pond Street (Bedford 
Street), and there shall be five watchmen at each of the 
five houses." In 1773 one was ordered for the west part 
of Boston. 

On March 4, 1633-34, it was ordered by the Court that 
there should be a market kept at Boston every Thursday. 
A hundred years later, in 1733, the town voted three 
markets, one in the vacant space near the town dock, 
one at the open space before the Old North Meeting 
House, and one near the great tree at the south end 
("Liberty tree," so called later), and rules were laid 
down to govern these. These proved unprofitable, for 
in 1 73 7 the one at the north end was ordered taken down 
and the material used for the workhouse, and the south 
market was leased. In 1739 Nathaniel Wardell erected 
at his own expense a new engine for weighing hay at the 
entrance of the town. In 1783 a committee of the town 
advised that a place be assigned for markets for wood, 
hay, etc., as the square contiguous to Faneuil Hall was still 
appropriated as the most convenient spot for the great 
market of flesh and vegetables, etc., and suggested that 
part of Common Street between the Granary and the 
north end of the Burying Ground, and North Square for 
wood markets, and a space in Oliver's Dock for the hay 
market. A few months later, on account of a fire at 
Oliver's Dock, the engine for weighing hay was removed 
to the Common near the schoolhouse. 

The first mention of a fire engine was in 1683, when 
it was agreed that Ralph Carter and seven others, one 
man out of each company of the train band, should keep 
the engine in good order and be ready on all occasions 
should there be a cry of fire. This seems to have been 


the only engine for some years, and this was at the 
North End. In 1714 ten or twelve men living near the 
same were ordered to be appointed to attend to the 
three engines. In 1733 there were seven. A copper 
engine under the Town House, one adjoining the Old 
North watch house, one in Summer Street, one in Court 
Street at the prison, one at the Dock, one near the New 
North Meeting House, and a copper engine by the North 
Meeting House. There were many fires, and some of 
them are graphically described in letters, diaries, and 
newspapers. Among the most disastrous were, February, 
1652—53, on the north side of State Street, when the 
minister's house and many others were destroyed ; Novem- 
ber 27, 1676, the great fire at the North End destroyed 
the North Meeting House, Increase Mather's house, and 
many others in and around North Square. On August 8, 
1679, a terrible fire destroyed all the warehouses with 
many dwelling houses and ships at the Dock, beginning 
at the Three Mariners tavern on the south side. In 
1 69 1 Sewall tells us of one on Mill Creek, between the 
drawbridge on North Street and the mill bridge on Han- 
over Street, where many private dwellings were lost. The 
fire of October 2, 1711, began in Williams Court, by the 
carelessness of a woman picking oakum. All the houses 
on both sides of Cornhill to the Dock, and those in the 
upper part of King Street, including the Town House and 
the old Meeting House, were lost. But what was the 
greatest of all was that of March 20, 1760, which can 
be read in detail in the newspapers of the day. It began 
at the house of Mrs. Mary Jackson who kept the Brazen 
Head, on the east side of Washington Street, about oppo- 
site Williams Court. The flames spread to Water Street 
as far as Oliver's Dock, Devonshire Street, Congress 
Street, Milk Street, and was stopped in State Street. The 


only good result of this was that it gave the town the 
opportunity to widen and straighten some of the streets. 
On July 30, 1794, all the ropewalks on Pearl Street, with 
many dwelling houses, were destroyed.^ 

The early postal arrangements were very simple. Let- 
ters were brought by captains or passengers, shipmasters 
or crew, and distributed in a haphazard manner. On 
March 12, 1637—38, Richard Fairbanks' house was ap- 
pointed as the place for all letters which were brought 
from beyond the seas to be sent. It was not 
until 1673 that the government took action to pay those 
who traveled, and the men who distributed the mail by 
post were allowed 3d. a mile, considered as full com- 
pensation for one horse and man. But the merchants 
complained of the loss of letters, and in 1677 John Hay- 
ward, scrivener, was appointed to take in and convey 
letters according to their direction. In 1680 all masters 
of ships were ordered to send the letters that came to them 
in the bag to the postoffice, except when they delivered 
with great care by their own hands, and Hayward was to 
receive id. for every letter and 2d. for every package. 
About 1693 the project was started in Virginia of a general 
postoffice. Andrew Hamilton was deputy postmaster 
for British America, and agreed to erect a postoffice at 
Boston by the beginning of May, 1694. In 1697 Duncan 
Campbell was postmaster. He was succeeded by John 
Campbell who in 1704 began the publication of the first 
newspaper, called the Boston News Letter. Richard 
Pierce had pubHshed "Public Occurrence both Foreign and 
Domestic," on September 25, 1690; as far as is known, 
only one copy of this now exists, and is in London. It 
was denounced by the General Court and forbidden. It 
was still many years before a special building for the 
postoffice was built. John Campbell lived on the east 


side of Cornhill between State and Water Streets. In 
May, 1725, it was advertised that the postoffice was re- 
moved from Cornhill to Mrs. Proctor's in Queen Street. 
In 1764 it was in the house of James Franklin, post- 
master. In 1770 it was in Cornhill, between King Street 
and Dock Square. Tuthill Hubbard was postmaster in 
171 1, and between this date and 1786 the office was at the 
corner of Court Street and Cornhill, then removed a 
little farther on the same street (Washington Street was 
then Cornhill). 

Campbell published in his paper the movements of 
those who carried letters east, south, and west. For 
instance, on January 10, 1 714—15, the Eastern and 
Southern posts were in and set out on Monday, at eight. 
The Western posts came not until Saturday. January 
17, all three posts were in. The Western post went at 
this time to Hartford, to exchange letters with the New 
York post. On February 19, 171 6- 17, the Eastern 
post went out with snowshoes and got to Piscataqua the 
last of the month. In 1711 the posts were established 
to Maine and Plymouth once a week, and to New York 
once a fortnight. 

In the early days the postmasters were founders of 
the newspapers. The following is a list of the news- 
papers. A detailed history will be found in the "History 
of Printing," by Isaiah Thomas: 

Boston News Letter, 1 704-1 776. 

Boston Gazette, 1719-1752. 

N. E. Courant, 1 721-172 7. 

N. E. Weekly Journal, 1 736-1 741, united with the Gazette and discontinued 

in 1752. 
Weekly Rehearsal, 1731-1735. 
Boston Weekly Post Boy, 1 734-1 754. 
Boston Evening Post, 1 735-1 775. 
Independent Advertiser, 1 748-1 750. 
Boston Gazette or Weekly Advertiser, 1 753-1 755. 


Boston Gazette or Country Journal, 1755-1798. 
Boston Weekly Advertiser, 1757-1775. 
Boston Chronicle, 1 767-1 770. 
Massachusetts Spy, 1 770-1810 and later. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century lotteries 
were looked upon as the proper means for raising 
funds for colleges, churches, public buildings, etc. 
After the fire which practically destroyed the first build- 
ing of Faneuil Hall the legislature granted permission 
for a lottery for its rebuilding. 

When General Gage left the town, in October, 1775, 
General Howe withdrew his troops into the town, and 
thus began the historic siege of Boston, surrounded as 
it was by the Provincial Army. When the inhabitants 
awoke on March 17, 1776, to find that Washington had 
caused Dorchester Heights to be fortified, Howe evacu- 
ated the town, and with his troops and many of the in- 
habitants who favored the royal cause sailed for Halifax. 
After this, Boston ceased to be the center of the struggle, 
but her citizens filled all ranks in the army and were 
leaders in the coming events. She lived up to her repu- 
tation of liberty and steadfastness. 

In the early days the town had taken the lead not only 
in the number of inhabitants but in wealth and trade, 
for she was in a fortunate position for trading purposes. 
Some of her magistrates and merchants grew very rich. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop in 1845 said of John Erving, 
who lived in the eighteenth century, "a few dollars earned 
on a Commencement Day by ferrying passengers over the 
Charles River, shipped to Lisbon in the shape of fish, and 
from there to London in the shape of fruit, and from 
there brought home to be reinvested in fish, laid the foun- 
dation of the largest fortune of the day." Erving in- 
vested largely in real estate, especially in mortgages. 


When there is difficulty in tracing an estate look for a 
mortgage somewhere by Erving. It is difficult to say 
just where he lived, for he owned so many houses all 
over the town. He may have been the monopolist of 
whom Burke spoke in his great speech on American taxa- 
tion, in 1774. 

After the declaration of peace it was some years be- 
fore Boston reached her former position. The popula- 
tion had decreased many thousands, not only owing to 
those who had given their lives, but the departure of the 
Tories with General Howe deprived her of some of her 
leading citizens. For the second time in her history those 
who had been influential, and had served her well, left to 
take up duties elsewhere. Rhode Island had benefited 
by those who had been driven away by their religious 
opinions, and now Nova Scotia was to have the benefit 
of some of those who were more in sympathy with the 
government of England than in the independence of their 
own country. Their estates were confiscated, and what 
has been called the "Country Aristocracy," those who 
had been leaders in their own towns, brought their in- 
fluence to bear in the capital and replaced the deserting 
Tories. Of those who went to Halifax the larger portion 
went to England, and the descendants of those who re- 
mained are scattered over the American continent. 

But Boston soon regained her ascendency in trade; 
her merchants were successful and her population in- 
creased. Her history from the close of the war until 
she became a city in 1822 is largely political. The war 
with England in 181 2 was disapproved by the General 
Court, but the town was obliged to take an active part in 
it to defend their valuable port. Judge Edward St. 
Loe Livermore in 18 13 delivered the annual oration on 
July 4th, at the height of the war, about a month after 


the bloody battle between the Chesapeake and the 
Shannon in the harbor, and he severely criticized the 
American Government for a war which he thought un- 
necessary and which had brought misery on the whole 
country, especially on New England. In 1822 the local 
government was organized under a city charter with John 
Phillips as the first mayor, and Josiah Quincy the second, 
and it is to him that we owe the improvements in the sani- 
tary conditions of the town, the new market house with 
the new streets in the vicinity covering the old town dock, 
and also many other needed reforms. Phillips was Mayor 
one year, and Quincy six. 

In appearance the old town c::nnot be pictured to-day 
except by exercising the imagination. The quaint old 
houses, with their overhanging stories, have given place 
to rows of brick blocks. Though we have pictures of a 
few of them, the streets as a whole have vanished. A 
few of the narrow streets remain the same width as when 
laid out, but these are exceptions. Many of the old streets 
were so narrow that it was difficult for two vehicles to 
pass each other, and so crooked that after a fire the town 
invariably ordered them straightened. It was said, after 
the great fire of 1872 in the business section, when a 
second fire broke out a few days later and threatened 
more destruction, that as the people of Boston did not 
seem inclined to widen their streets, the Lord was going 
to take it into his own hands. October 19, 1775, after 
the siege, Henry Pelham writes to Copley that the meet- 
ing houses of Dr. Byles, Dr. Cooper, and Dr. Mather were 
turned into barracks, and almost all the fences and per- 
haps one hundred and fifty houses had been pulled down. 
It must also be left to the imagination to picture what 
the life actually was in the town, and what effect the 
events had on the population. The coming of the pro- 


vincial royal governors and crown officers, in their scarlet 
coats and gilded trimmings, was in strong contrast to 
the hitherto quiet dress of the Puritans, and the streets 
put on a gayer appearance. To the Puritans, religion 
was the chief interest, and all public occasions were 
centered in the church. Meetings and lectures were the 
recreations of the people. But they also had excitement 
when criminals were taken to church to be preached to be- 
fore execution, and at the scene at the gallows, or when 
they followed, as no doubt they did — especially the boys 
— the trumpeter who put to flight the king's commis- 
sioners, or the town crier, who had to be listened to 
whether he cried lost pigs or children or property. 

Many of the names of former prominent citizens have 
died out, and the families exist only in the female line. 
Cotton, Dudley, Leverett, Bellingham, Coddington, and 
Hough are some of those who came from Boston, 

Mrs. E. S. Quincy writes, in her memoirs of her visit 
to Boston in 1795: "At that time Boston compared to 
New York was a small town. There were no brick side- 
walks except in a part of the main street near the Old 
South. The streets were paved with pebbles, and except 
when driven on one side by carts and carriages every one 
walked in the middle of the street, where the pavement 
was the smoothest. On Sunday morning we went to 
Brattle Street church. The broad aisle was lined by 
gentlemen in the costume of the last century, in wigs with 
cocked hats and scarlet coats." 

The first celebration of the Fourth of July, as found 
in the diary of Brig.-Gen. Jedidiah Preble is rather inter- 
esting: "Friday, July 4, 1777. A fine day. At nine o'clock 
the Council met and transacted several affairs of a public 
nature. At half past ten the Council and House walked 


in procession to the Old Brick Meeting House where Dr. 
Gordon preached. After the service the Council and 
House walked in procession, the company of cadets at 
their head, about half way down the street by the town 
house and back to the Council chamber where there was a 
handsome collation provided. Cannon were discharged 
at Fort Hill, Castle and sundry ships. At night fire- 
works, etc." 


THE section of the town north and east of Mill 
Creek has always been known as the North 
End, and the location was considered of 
enough importance to be the first part of the town where 
in 1636 ways were ordered to be laid out. These were 
what later became Fleet, Richmond, Cross, and Union 
streets. In 1674 Josslyn called the North End "the most 
elegant and populous part of the town," but this must be 
taken with a grain of salt, though some of our most noted 
citizens have lived there. As a business section it was 
chiefly noted for its ship-building industry. A large pro- 
portion of its inhabitants were shipbuilders or mariners. 
Almost all of those who owned land on the shore were 
granted leave to wharf out before their property, and if 
, not actual builders of ships they sent ships out on trade, 
^ts ships won for the merchants those large fortunes that 
were made by many, until the wealth of the town, as well 
as its intellectual side — owing to its public schools and 
its proximity to Harvard College — won for it in truth 
as well as in name the capital of the state and of New 
England. The taverns were a necessary part of the life 
and many of these naturally were near the center of the 
shipping district to accommodate sailors and the officers 
of the ships. J) 

When Winthrop and his companions came, the mill 
creek was a marsh, and July 31, 1643, the town granted 
to Henry Symonds, George Burden, John Button, John 




Merry's Point 




Hill, and their partners, all of whom had house lots in the 
neighborhood, "all that cove on the northwest side of 
the causey leading towards Charlestown with all the 
salt marsh bordering thereon round about, not granted 
to any other, on condition that they will within three 
years erect one or more corn mills, and they are to make 
and maintain a gate of ten feet in breadth to open with 
the flood for the passage of boats into said cove. If 
they carry their mill into the marsh on the northeast end 
of goodman Lowe's house they have sixty feet in breadth 
granted to them. The town will not allow any other mill 
to be erected." This was the origin of the mill creek. 
The property changed hands many times, and finally, 
May 5, 1769, the committee appointed to look into mill 
affairs found that the grantees, soon after the grant was 
made, erected mills by the mill bridge between Gallop's 
Point and Bendall's Cove, maintaining the same for many 
years. The grant was to be void on their failing to main- 
tain the mills. As the mills for many years past had been 
useless and wholly unimproved, and for several years 
past had been and now remained entirely demolished, 
the committee considered the estate to be forfeited. The 
proprietors were a few of them poor and needy. The 
committee took possession of the grist mills on behalf of 
the town, and March 13, 1770, the town voted that all 
the grain belonging to the town is to be ground at the 
new mills near the mill bridge now occupied by George 
Leonard. There were other mills on the other side of 
the mill pond, not far from Prince Street. December 
25, 1782, a fire broke out near Charles River in the North 
Mills, which consumed the same, and a quantity of grain, 
cocoa and chocolate was destroyed. 

Thomas Pemberton, writing of the town in 1794, says, 
"Contigious to the mill bridge in Middle Street is a grist 


mill at the mouth of the pond. At the bottom of it at the 
entrance of the causeway three mills more are con- 
structed, a grist mill, a saw mill, and a chocolate mill. 
The original proprietors of the mills, sixty-four in 
number, are now reduced to eight. The ancient marsh, 
or the present mill pond, contains 42 J acres. The name 
of the first miller was John Farnum. The manufacture 
of cards was begun before the Revolution. The principal 
factory is at Windmill Walk, contiguous to the grist mill 
at the mill bridge. The cards are cut by the operation 
of the windmill." 

The bridge over the creek at Hanover Street was called 
"mill bridge," that at North Street, the "draw bridge." 
I The northeast part of the town, separated from the other 
by a narrow stream, was cut through a neck of land by 
industry. In 1788 Thomas Makepeace and others were 
allowed to fill part of the mill creek, and in 1793 the 
Middlesex canal was extended into the pond. In 1824 
Blackstone Street was laid out practically over the bounds 
of the creek. The mill pond extended from North Mar- 
gin Street to South Margin Street with Causeway Street 
at one end and Haymarket Square at the other. The 
Mill Pond Corporation was formed in 1807, and soon 
after began to fill in the pond with the earth taken from 
Beacon Hill and Copp's Hill.) 

j Causeway Street was a short way, in 1747, leading 
from Leverett Street to the flood gates, and called "Waldo 
Street" in 1798. In 1807 it was continued into the mill 
pond and called "Causeway Street."| 

At the extreme northeast corner of the North End is 

ftCopp's Hill, an elevation mentioned by William Wood, 

I now reduced from its original proportions, as part of it 

jwas used to fill up the mill pond, and the abrupt descent 

on the north side considerably diminished. It was known 


as "Windmill Field" and "Mylne Field," as in August, 
1632, the windmill was brought down from Cambridge 
because it would not grind there but with a westerly wind. 
At times it has been called "Snow Hill" and "Broughton 
Hill," but it is to William Copp, a shoemaker, who had 
his house and half acre in the mill field, bounding on 
Charles River, in what is now Prince Street, that we owe 
its present name.l William Copp, a cordwainer as they 
were called in those days, was here as early as 1641 when 
he was fined for concealing money. He was probably an 
investor in the common stock, as he left one hundred 
acres beyond Braintree. 

Thomas Broughton was a merchant who came from 
London in 1635 to Watertown. He was in Boston about 
1650, and invested in land in various parts of the town, 
one estate at the end of Prince Street called "Centre 
Haven," where he was granted leave to wharf in 1654. 
He also bought land on the north side of the hill of William 
Phillips. In 1659 he sold off much of his land for the 
benefit of his creditors. He died in 1700, aged eighty- 
seven, and Sewall writes that he was once a very noted 
merchant. Much of his land came into possession of 
Joshua Gee, the famous ship builder.. One of the execu- 
tions of the pirates took place on Broughton Hill, when, 
as Sewall says, the river was covered with boats filled 
with spectators. 

\_The chief interest in Copp's Hill to-day lies in the 
Burying Ground, where many noted people who lived at 
the North End are buried, and where many quaint in- 
scriptions are to be found. > February 20, 1659—60, John 
Baker and Daniel Turell, blacksmiths, conveyed a piece 
of land to the town for a burying place. The entrance 
was on Charter Street. Turell was a large investor in real 
estate. In 1708 Judge Samuel Sewall and his wife 


Hannah, who had inherited a pasture here from her father, 
John Hull the mint master, sold to Joshua Gee ''one 
rod square in which Mrs. Mary Thatcher now lyeth 

buried." Judah Thatcher married Mary , who died 

in 1708 and was buried as above. Their daughter Eliza- 
beth married Joshua Gee, and for her second husband 
Rev. Peter Thatcher of Milton. In 1711 the Burying 
Ground was still further enlarged by a strip on Hull Street, 
bought of Sewall, "except the one square rod sold to 
Gee." This is still private property in the middle of the 
Burying Ground and owned by the heirs of Moses Grant. 

A battery was erected on the hill by the British, from 
which Charlestown was shelled and set on fire at the time 
of the battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. Copp's Hill was to 
those at the North End what the Common was to those 
at the South, the playground and place of recreation. 

In 1656-57 Snowhill Street was a highway newly 
laid out. Other designations that it bore were: "a narrow 
lane by goodman Copp's leading up the hill to Charles- 
town ferry"; "lane near Brough ton's hill"; in 1702—3, 
"a highway of 24 ft between the house of Daniel 
Travers and William Copp, touching on the north corner 
of Elder Copp's house"; in 1708 named "Snow Hill." 

Hull Street was a strip of land which Sewall and wife 
conveyed to the town for a street in 1701, and it received 
its name at that time, one of the few which has survived 
the many changes. The south side was originally owned 
by John Shaw, who sold to William Phillips in 1650 and 
he to John Evered, alias Webb, in 1657. John Evered 
always added the "alias Webb" to his name, for as yet an 
undiscovered reason, except that Webb was a common 
name in Wiltshire, whence he came, and it was no doubt 
a family name. Jacob Sheaffe married Margaret, the 
only child of Henry Webb, and as administrator of his 


estate, she with her second husband, Rev. Thomas 
Thatcher, minister of the Old South Church, bought the 
land of Evered alias Webb. She left two daughters, 
Mehitible, the wife of Samson Sheaffe, and Elizabeth, 
the wife of Jonathan Corwin. Sheaffe sold out to Robert 
Gibbs, in whose pasture two streets were laid out, 
Sheaffe Street in 1714 and Margaret Street in 
1 718 and both received their names in 1722. The 
whole estate embraced the land between Snow Hill, 
Salem, Hull and Prince Streets, except a few lots which 
had been sold on Prince Street. 

On the south side of Hull Street, corner of Snow Hill 
and extending to Sheaffe Street, was the property of 
the Bounds; on Hull Street, the house of Ephraim Bound, 
the first minister of the Second Baptist Church, and on 
Sheaffe Street that of James Bound, where the church 
was organized and held its first services. On the south 
side of Hull Street was the house of Benjamin Galloupe, 
the grandson of John Gallop of North Street, who bought 
the house of Benjamin Lee in 1772. In 1775 it was occu- 
pied by British soldiers and was the headquarters of 
Gage at the battle of Bunker Hill. On the south side of 
Sheaffe Street, at the corner of Snow Hill, Edward Edes, 
a baker, bought land in 1798, and in 1791 he sold a 
twine factory to William Lambert and others. 

At the point on the northeast side of Copp's Hill was 
established the first ferry to Charlestown. In 1631 
Thomas Williams was allowed to set up a ferry on the 
Charlestown side. May 6, 1635, the Court ordered that 
"a ferry be set up on the Boston side by the windmill hill 
to transport men to Charlestown and Winnissimmet," and 
in January 1635—36 Thomas Marshall, cordwainer, was 
chosen by the town "for the keeping of a ferry from mylne 
point unto Charlton and Wynnyseemitt and to take for 


a single person 6d: for two 6d and for every one above 
2d each." 

Marshall lived just west of Mill Creek, and taking the 
shortest way to his daily work he skirted the mill pond, 
making a path which was later called ''Old Way/' 
and followed the river bank to the point. In 1649 this 
path was ordered to be laid out a rod broad. Old Way is 
now discontinued, but along the river in 1708 it was 
called "Ferryway/' and is now part of Commercial 

In 1648 Francis Hudson, an innkeeper, was also the 
ferryman, and complained to the Court that the passen- 
gers pressed into the boats and evaded their fare. He 
gave up his lease in 1691. He had his house and garden 
at the point which was later called for him, "Hudson 
Point," and in 1652 he was granted liberty to wharf be- 
fore his own ground on condition of leaving "a hieway of 
a rod and a halfe broad between the house and wharf." 
In 1684 he testified in regard to Blackstone's lot, then be- 
ing about sixty-eight years old. Sewall records his death 
November 3, 1700, as one of the first to set foot on 
this peninsula. In 1734, William Parkman, Thomas 
Stoddard, John Greenough and others asked liberty to lay 
down and maintain good and sufficient ways for the land- 
ing of passengers from Winnissimmet at the Town Slip 
at the lower end of North Street (Hanover Street), which 
was granted, making two ferries to care for the increase of 
population and trade. 

At the east corner of the North End, January 8, 
1643-44, it was agreed that a fortification somewhere 
about Walter Merry's Point should be raised, but this was 
not done until March, 1646, when the inhabitants asked 
leave to erect a fortification themselves under the con- 
dition that they were not to be assessed for other fortifi- 


cations until they had been reimbursed. This was called 
the "North Battery," now Battery Wharf. In 1706 the 
inhabitants proceeded to fortify the town for their better 
security and voted to carry out the battery one hundred 
and twenty feet. The Battery was repaired from time 
to time, and in 1 781 it was voted to sell it. Walter Merry 
was one of the early inhabitants, admitted to the church 
in 1633-34, and had his house and about one acre of 
ground at the point called for him. He was one of the 
first shipwrights and plied his trade until he was drowned 
in the harbor in 1657, and his family then removed to 

There were three principal thoroughfares running 
northeast and southwest through this section. North, 
Hanover and Salem Streets, with Prince, Charter, and 
shorter streets running at right angles, and Commercial 
Street at the extreme end bordering on the bay. 7 

j North Street was the first to be settled and the lots 
extended as a rule from the shore to Hanover Street, 
then only a field. According to the Book of Possessions 
the estates bordered on the bay or cove, but soon a way 
was laid out which divided the property 3 In 1636 
William Wilkes and others were ordered to "range their 
payles straight and to preserve a path a rod in breadth." 
In 1637 it was the highway next the beach. In 1643 
"ordered that the highway of two rods shall be preserved 
on the beach from Edward Bendall's cove towards Gal- 
lop's Point." In 1650 "ordered that the highway for- 
merly granted of a rod in breadth by the waterside from 
Gallop's Point to the battery (being interrupted by Mrs. 
Hawkins house) it shall turn up from the waterside 
through her garden and so by Mr. Winthrop's house be- 
tween Major Bourne's and his garden, before Mr. Hollicks 
to the battery." In 1708 North Street had three names. 


From the Conduit in Union Street to the lower end of 
Cross Street was called Ann Street; hitherto it had been 
''the street over the bridge over Mill Creek," "Conduit 
Street," or "Drawbridge Street." From Cross Street to 
the Sign of the Swan by Scarletts Wharf, Fish Street, 
which previously had gone by the name of "common way 
by the water side"; "street from the Sign of the Red Lyon 
to Halsey's Wharf"; "the fore street from the great draw- 
bridge towards the North Church"; "street leading 
toward the North Coffee House"; "highway to Ship 
Tavern," etc., and called Ship Street from Scarletts 
Wharf to the Battery, which had various names similar 
to the above, — "highway to the battery"; "highway 
from the new Meeting House to the waterside unto the 
seaward," etc. All were called North Street in 1854. 

For many years it was a great commercial center, 
famous for its wharves and taverns. At one time or 
another there were nine taverns of which we have some 
authentic record, besides several coffee houses. 

Ship building was brisk; shallops, sloops, hoys, lighters, 
pinnaces, barks, and ketches were some of the names given 
to the vessels built for fishing and trading voyages along 
the coast and with foreign countries. In 1698 Lord Bello- 
mont writes: "Last year I examined the registers of all the 
vessels in the three provinces of my government and 
found belonging to the town of Boston in all 194 vessels. 
I believe I may venture to say that there are more good 
vessels belonging to the town than in all Scotland and 
Ireland, unless one should reckon the small craft such as 
herring boats." The Blessing of the Bay was the first 
vessel to be built in the colony, and this was built by 
Governor Winthrop and launched in Medford, July 4, 
1 63 1. The first ship built in Boston was the Trial, built 
at the wharf of Major Nehemiah Bourne, and sailed on 


her first trial trip in August, 1642, with Thomas Coyte- 
more of Charlestown as master. 

Richard Bellingham had a grant of land in 1648-49, 
near the North Battery, which extended on both sides of 
North Street. Part of this was bought by Alexander 
Adams in 1662, and inherited by William Parkman and 
his wife Elizabeth, a daughter of Adams. Adams was 
a shipwright and in 1645-46 had leave to wharf before 
his property, which is the first we hear of him in the town. 
He died in 1677, having been master of a vessel as well as 
a builder. 

Elias Parkman was the progenitor of the Parkman 
family in America. He was first of Dorchester 
and then removed to Windsor, Connecticut, and 
finally in 1657 he bought land in Boston in Battery 

Street. He married Bridget , by whom he had 

eight children, three of whom were born in Boston. 
He was a mariner by trade and was lost on one of his 
voyages, as in July 1662, his wife presented an inventory 
of his estate of thirty-seven pounds and fifteen shillings, 
saying he was supposed to be dead. His son William was 
a shipwright, and by his wife, Elizabeth Adams, had 
twelve children. Besides his land in North and Battery 
Streets, in 1716 he bought land of Lawrence Waters, on 
the north side of Hanover Street, between Commercial 
and Charter Streets, where in 1723 he had a house for 
sale and advertised to apply to him at the Sign of the 
Case of Drawers in North Street (Hanover Street). This 
estate remained in the family until 1778. 

The Salutation Tavern was on the northeast corner of 
Salutation Street. James Smith acquired the land at an 
early date, and conveyed it to Christopher Lawson who 
sold it to William Winbourne in 1644. Winbourne sold it 
to John Brookings in 1662, and here he opened his tavern. 


Elizabeth, the widow of Brookings, married for a second 
husband Edward Grove, and for a third WiUiam Green, 
and in 1692 WilKam Green and wife conveyed to Sir 
WilHam Phipps, presumably for investment. Spencer 
Phipps inherited, and after passing through several hands, 
in 1 784 Jacob Rhodes bought the house formerly known as 
The Two Palaverers, the sign being of two gentlemen in 
cocked hats and smallclothes. It was a famous hostelry, 
and mentioned by Sewall in 1705-6. Just when it 
changed its name is not known, but it was called the 
Palaverers in 1757. Some of the innkeepers besides 
Brookings and Grove were, Samuel Tyley in 1711; Elisha 
Odling in 171 2; John Langdon, Jr., 17 14, who in 1715 
lets it to Odling again; Arthur Young in 1722; Samuel 
Green in 1731; Edward Drinker in 1736; William Camp- 
bell in 1764; Francis Wright in 1767; Thomas Bradford 
in 1782, and it was he who sold out to Rhodes in 1784. 

William Beamsley had the next lot to Bellingham 
according to the Book of Possessions. He called himself a 
yeoman, and was admitted to the church in 1635. Part of 
his land came into possession of Sir Thomas Temple about 
1664, when he mortgaged house and land. He first came 
to New England in 1657, when appointed by Oliver 
Cromwell governor of Acadia. He apparently came to 
Boston only as a matter of business, for we do not find 
him taking part in town affairs. In 1667 he bought 
Noddles Island, which he sold in 1671 to Henry Shrimp- 
ton. He sold his house on North Street in 1672, and 
died in London. His will, proved in Boston in 1674, 
left legacies to many friends and relatives. 

A greater part of the estates of Anne Tuttle and 
Nehemiah Bourne, next in order according to the 
Book of Possessions, came into the Greenwood family. 
Bourne had his house and garden on the east side of North 


Street, and it was here that the ship Trial was built. 
Bourne sold to George Davis, a blacksmith, in 1646, from 
whose heirs it was bought by Nathaniel Greenwood in 
1673, and it was described as being "part of that yard 
where the sd Greenwood formerly hath and now doth 
build vessels." The location is near, or what is actually 
Union Wharf to-day. Nathaniel Greenwood was the first 
of his family in Boston. He died in 1684, aged fifty- 
three, and his children followed his profession of boat 

Next came Edward Bendall, whom we shall find own- 
ing land at the Dock and elsewhere. He had a large 
estate on both sides of the street, which he sold to 
Captain Thomas Hawkins in 1645-46. Hawkins was a 
mariner, and one of those who helped La Tour with means 
to proceed against his rival, D'Aulnay. 

Two rival French governors of Acadia under Rasilli, 
as commander in chief, were La Tour, the professed 
Huguenot, who had under his command the part east 
of the St. Croix River, and D'Aulnay, of the "Romish 
church," who had that part west of the St. Croix. Their 
quarrels involved not only the inhabitants of Boston, but 
were a source of contention and expense to the General 
Court. The traders and merchants were anxious to ex- 
tend their trade and favored one or the other as was best 
for their individual interest. The trouble began in 1633 
by the French interfering with the trading posts of the 
English in Maine. La Tour came to Boston to get aid 
against his rival, and stayed a month, at the end of 
which time he was helped financially by merchants, 
especially by Edward Gibbons and Thomas Hawkins, and 
by ships and volunteers, to proceed against D'Aulnay. 
D'Aulnay, accusing the government for aiding La Tour, 
sent his agents, who during a short stay took up much time 


of the Court. Winthrop says, "Their diet was provided at 
the ordinary where the Magistrates used to diet in Court 
times and the Governor accompanied them always at 
meals. Their manner was to repair to the Governor's 
house every morning about eight o'clock who accompanied 
them to the place of meeting; at night either himself or 
some of the commissioners accompanied them to their 
lodging." D'Aulnay died about 1650, and in 1652 his 
widow married La Tour, thus settling all difficulties. 

Hawkins was lost at sea in 1645, ^^^ his widow soon 
married John Fenn, and for a third husband, Henry 
Shrimpton. Their house was on the southwest corner 
of Clarke Street. In 1657 William Phillips conveyed to 
Mary Fenn the house called "Noah's Ark," which her 
son-in-law had mortgaged and which had come into the 
possession of Phillips. Mary Fenn deeded it to George 
Mountjoy the same year, and in 1663 he sold to John Vial, 
under whom it became famous. In 1695 Vial sold to 
Thomas Hutchinson. In 17 13 it was known as the "Ship 
Tavern," heretofore "Noah's Ark," and was both above 
and below North Street. Vial kept a brew house near 
by, and his reputation extended across the seas. It was 
at this inn that Sir Robert Carr, one of the king's com- 
missioners, in 1664 assaulted the constable, Arthur Mason, 
who went to the tavern expecting to find the commis- 
sioners, which would have been a breach of the 
law. Before he came, however, they had adjourned to a 
neighboring house. The Government demanded the ap- 
pearance of Carr in court, but he refused to acknowledge 
their jurisdiction. 

Next to the Bendall land was the house and garden 
of Thomas Savage. He came to Boston in the Planter ^ 
in 1635, ^g^ twenty-seven, a tailor by trade. He married, 
first. Faith Hutchinson, daughter of William and Anne, 


and in 1638 went with them to Rhode Island, but soon re- 
turned. He married for a second wife Mary, daughter 
of Rev. Zachariah Symmes, of Charlestown. He had 
seven children by his first wife and eleven by his second. 
He was almost always in public office as deputy, speaker, 
and assistant and prominent in military affairs. He com- 
manded the forces in King Philip's war and died in 1682. 
His widow married Anthony Stoddard as his fourth wife. 

The Castle, or King's Head Tavern, was on the north- 
east corner of North and Fleet Streets and from Savage 
passed through several hands until in 1 7 1 7 it came to John 
Wentworth, who conveyed to Thomas Lee the house 
known as the Castle Tavern. In 1785 Joseph Lee deeded 
to Joseph Austin the King's Head Tavern, and in 1798 
it was occupied by him. On the east side of the street, 
part of the land of Savage came to Samuel Scarlett, 
mariner, in 1669, and here was the well-known Scarlett's 
Wharf, where some of the troops disembarked, and where 
Dudley landed on his return from England as governor. 
In 1724 the Sign of the Turk's Head was near Scarlett's 

Edmund Grosse and Samuel Cole had lots on both sides 
of the street just west of Fleet Street. In 1645 Cole sold 
to George Halsey, who was always in financial difficulties. 
On the west side he bought land which was originally 
owned by Thomas Clarke, and which his trustees deeded to 
Evan Thomas in 1656 as the King's Arm Tavern. On the 
east side of the street, on the Cole-Halsey land, was the 
Mitre Tavern. When it began or ceased to be a tavern is 
not known. After various transfers it came to Thomas 
Clarke, pewterer, who dealt largely in real estate in 
various parts of the town, and in 1730 it was sold to 
John Jeffries. In 1782 his heirs owned the house ^'for- 
merly the Mitre Tavern." 


Thomas Clarke, whose possessions were on both sides 
of the street, was a wealthy merchant, a member of the 
Artillery Company and a deputy. He died in 1683 leaving 
a wife and two daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, mar- 
ried first John Freake, and second Elisha Hutchin- 
son, grandson of William and Anne. His wharf, 
which corresponds with the north side of Lewis Wharf, 
became famous when owned by Thomas Hancock and 
his nephew, John Hancock. It was here that in 
the fall of 1768 there was a great uproar on account 
of the unloading of a cargo of wine from Madeira, 
from the sloop Liberty, belonging to John Han- 
cock, without paying customs, as related by John Adams, 
who was retained by Hancock as his counsel when he 
was prosecuted by the Government. The house, which was 
inherited by Elisha Hutchinson and his wife Elizabeth 
(Clarke), and in which they lived, was also the home 
of his son, Elisha Hutchinson, a merchant, born in 1641, 
who married Hannah Hawkins, daughter of Thomas. He 
was colonel of the Boston Regiment, a deputy, and com- 
mander of the forces against the French and Indians in 
Maine, one of the Council under the new charter, and 
chief justice of Common Pleas. He died in 171 7. The 
house was in the family until 1758, when it was bought 
by Thomas Savage, and Robert Wier became the owner 
in 1786. Wier was a distiller and well known to fame. 
His house was at one time known as the Philadelphia 
Coffee House. In 1782 Captain David Porter was 
licensed here and allowed to keep a tavern, and advertised 
"where gentlemen shall be entertained in a genteel 
manner." He was a commander in the war, and when 
peace was declared hired this house. In 1795 John May 
bought the North End Coffee House, by which name it 
was then known, and turned it into a private residence. 


Between Sun Court and Richmond Street, Thomas Joy, 
a carpenter of Hingham, had a houselot, a part of which 
was bought by John Leach in 1761, and here he kept his 
school for navigation. It was in his family in 1798. 
John Ballard bought part of the lot in 1781, and was an 
innkeeper at the Sign of the Ship in 1789. This was on 
the east side of the street. 

Nicholas Upshall, an innkeeper and a noted character, 
owned a large tract from Hanover Street to the water, 
on the northeast side of Richmond Street, and in 1644 
had leave to wharf before his property. He was licensed 
as an innkeeper in Dorchester in 1636, and admitted to 
the church in Boston in 1644. He early became a friend 
of the Quakers and suffered on their account. In 1656 
he was fined and banished for expressing his disapproba- 
tion of their imprisonment. He kept the Red Lyon Inn 
on the upper side of North Street, east corner of Rich- 
mond, and here he had soldiers billeted on him in 1654. 
The Dolphin Tavern was on the lower side, and this he 
gave to his son-in-law, William Greenough, whose heirs 
sold the Dolphin Tavern in 1726-27 to Noah Champney. 
It is mentioned by Sewall in 1718. Joseph Cock and 
his wife Susannah, daughter of Upshall, inherited half of 
the Red Lyon Inn in 1666, and Edward Proctor and his 
wife Elizabeth (Cock) in 1693-94, and it remained in 
the family until 1790. It is mentioned in the Town 
Records as an inn in 1763. The old Red Lyon shared 
the fate of its neighbors in the great fire of 1676, but 
was soon rebuilt. One of the oldest signs now existing 
is that of Timothy Wadsworth, carpenter and gunsmith, 
who married Susannah Cock, granddaughter of Upshall. 
In 1693, on the division of the Upshall property. Wads- 
worth and wife had the upper end of Red Lyon Wharf 
with shops, which he deeded in 1713 to John Mountfort. 


Wadsworth had the sign made, "Wadsworth" above, 
"T.S." (Timothy and Susannah) in the middle, and 
"1694" below. His son Recompence was the first master 
of the North Grammar School, but only lived a few 
months to fulfil its duties. In his will Nicholas Upshall 
devised a chamber and certain household goods to the 
Quakers, with books and papers. As they could not 
take possession, when they built a church in Brattle 
Square, these possessions were sold and the money was 
used in building the new church. 

John Gallop was a Boston pilot, who in 1636 found a 
bark belonging to his friend John Oldham in the harbor, 
full of Indians. Oldham was one of the early private 
adventurers, and had now been murdered. Gallop fought 
the Indians and recovered possession of the boat, making 
this the first naval engagement on the New England 
coast. Gallop owned a large tract in this neighborhood, 
which included the point named for him, and some islands 
in the harbor. In the division of his estate in 1679, a 
highway five feet broad was reserved on the south side 
next to the land of John Clarke. In 1708 this was called 
"Gallop's Alley," and in 1798 Board Alley. 

John Clarke was granted land in Newbury in 1637-38, 
and this he sold to Matthew Chaffie, and bought land of 
Chaffie in Boston in 1649. He was a surgeon by pro- 
fession. He married Martha Saltonstall, whose identity 
has not yet been established, though as the coat of arms of 
the Saltonstall family was in the Clarke house in Garden 
Court, and is now in possession of Mrs. Frederick 
L. Gay, of Brookline, it must be assumed that Martha 
belonged to the family of Sir Richard. They had two 
children, John Clarke, who was likewise a physician, and 
Jemina, who married Robert Drew. October 19, 1652, 
the Court records say in regard to Mr. Clarke's invention 


and monopoly, to save fuel, "It is ordered that 
no person shall for the space of three years make use of 
Mr. Clarke's invention for saving of fire wood and warm- 
ing of rooms with little cost and charges, by which means 
great benefit is like to be to the country." In 1656 the 
order was confirmed for life. Dr. Clarke's son John mar- 
ried, first, Sarah Shrimpton; second, in 17 18, EHzabeth 
Hutchinson, and, third, Sarah Crisp-Harris-Leverett, 
daughter of Richard Crisp and widow of William Harris 
and President John Leverett. She married for her fourth 
husband, in 1731, Rev. Benjamin Colman. The property 
extended from Hanover Street to the cove. 

Next to Dr. Clarke we find that Daniel Turell bought 
a lot which he sold in 1698 to Edward Proctor. This was 
the site of the Turkic Cock or Peacock Inn. It is men- 
tioned as early as 1705, and in 1709 Thomas Lee asked to 
keep a victualing house at a hired house which was 
formerly the Sign of the Turkic Cock. In 1718 Thomas 
Coppin was licensed at the Three Crowns, which was on 
the east side of North Street, between Board Alley and 
Cross Street on the Middlecott property. The Three 
Crowns is mentioned in the Town Records in 1735. In 
1 761 The Schooner in Distress, or Sign of the Schooner, 
was also mentioned in the records as on Fish Street. 

In 1647, Valentine Hill, who owned land in several parts 
of the town and finally removed to Dover, N. H., granted 
a highway of six feet at the head of several lots which 
he had sold. This was called Elbow Alley in 1708, and 
extended from North Street to the west side of Cross 
Street. It is now built over. 

In 1740 John Osborn, innholder, was the owner of 
the Red Cross Tavern on the northwest corner of Cross 
Street. He bought the land of Tolman Farr, to whom 
it had descended from Barnabas Fawer, who had it from 


Valentine Hill. Later the spot was owned by John Coffin 
Jones, a prominent citizen who owned much real estate 
in this part of the town. Hill sold the next lot to James 
Mattocks in 1646. This was on both sides of the street. 
In 1 712 Samuel Mattocks advertised a brig for sale at 
his wharf near the Sign of the Sloop in Ann Street, 
and in 1728-29 Samuel Mattocks, chairmaker, was at the 
Sign of the Cross, at the house that he had inherited. 
Other signs in this neighborhood were, in 1716 John 
Brewster at the Sign of the Boot near Cross Street, and 
here also in 1724-25 a negro woman was to be sold. In 
1732 chocolate was to be sold by Brewster at the Black 
Boy, at the North End, and a few months later a negro 
at the Sign of the Boot. 

Valentine Hill also sold a lot to Thomas Lake, which 
his daughter Ann — who married Rev. John Cotton, 
grandson of the first minister, and after his death. Increase 
Mather — sold in 1712 to Edward Wentworth. Thomas 
Lake was one of those who early invested in land in 
Maine, and was there killed by the Indians in 1676. 

Andrew Tyler bought the house on the east corner of 
North Centre Street in 1729. He married Miriam 
Pepperrell, of Kittery, and the estate was in the family 
until 1773. Their daughter Katherine married Captain 
David Ochterlony, a Scotchman, and they lived here. 
Their son David went to the Latin School, where Sir 
Isaac Coffin, Dr. James Freeman, and Judge Thomas 
Dawes were among his classmates. He entered the 
British Army and served many years in India, where he 
rose to the rank of major-general and was knighted. 

In 1675 Elizabeth, widow of Edmund Jackson, mort- 
gaged her house, by the name of the Flower de Luce, in 
tenure of Christopher Crow, innkeeper, on the west side 
of North Street between Cross and Union Streets. 


Ralph Carter, who kept the first engine, lived on the 
east side, a little east of the drawbridge. 

According to the Book of Possessions, Richard Belling- 
ham owned a marsh just beyond the southwest side of 
Mill Creek, the northerly part of which he sold to Joshua 
Scottow. In 1640 Belingham had a sawpit here. Scottow's 
or Scott Alley passed under the house which Scottow built, 
into Creek Lane. Habijah Savage bought the house in 
1707 and it remained in the family until 1789. Scottow 
took great interest in town affairs and was also a writer. 
He wrote "A Narrative of Planting of Massachusetts 
Colony," printed and published by Benjamin Harris over 
against the Blue Anchor in Cornhill in 1691. But he grew 
despondent over the change in manners and customs, and 
wrote ''Old Men's Tears for their own Declensions." 
His daughter Mary married Samuel Checkley, who held 
many positions of trust in the town and county; but 
of eleven children only two survived. One of them was 
the Rev. Samuel Checkley, minister of the New South 
Church. Checkley bought a house of his father-in-law 
near him in 1686. 

Some of the signs in Ann Street were those of Charles 
Coffin, shopkeeper, at the sign of the Seven Golden Stars, 
where in 1727 negro boys and girls were to be sold. 
He asked leave to put up a sign but this was not granted, 
as the street was too narrow. In 171 5— 16, John Pym, 
gunsmith, who formerly lived in Fish Street, near the 
North Meeting House, at the Sign of the Cross-Guns, 
*'is now removed to Ann Street at the same sign." And 
at the same time the large house and shop whence he 
lately removed was advertised to let by Joshua Gee at the 
foot of Richmond Street. Thomas Phillips was at the 
Sign of the Sun in Drawbridge Street in 1707, where a 
negro girl was to be sold. In 1 714, Daniel Stevens, of the 


Great Britain Coffee House, Queen Street, "has removed 
to a house in Ann Street, lately Samuel Lillys, the same 
sign." This was between the creek and Union Street. In 
1727-28 Thomas Hancock advertised at the Bible and 
Three Crowns. Thomas Pemberton lived on the south- 
east side of Ann Street, between the creek and Cross 
Street. He was a well-known antiquary, and is best re- 
membered for his "Description of Boston in 1794," printed 
in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
where his papers are deposited. 

There are nine cross streets between North and Han- 
over Streets. The first nearest Commercial Street is 
Battery Street. Part of Richard Bellingham's lot came 
into the hands of John Vial, who in 1658 conveyed part 
to John Scarlett, reserving a four-foot passage; and part 
was bought by Alexander Adams and was inherited by 
William Parkman and his wife Elizabeth (Adams). The 
passage was at one time called "Shute's Lane," and "the 
lane that leadeth before the house of Elias Parkman." In 
1708 it received the name of Battery Alley. In 171 7 
it was widened, and in 1734 two feet were taken from 
the Parkman land. 

Salutation Street was the land of Anne Tuttle, 
according to the Book of Possessions, named for the 
famous inn. At one time it was called Brookings Lane. 
In 1657 it was a way of five and a half feet which was 
to be left between the house of William Beamsley and 
land sold to Henry Kemble by him. Nathaniel Green- 
Wood bought land on the south side, and in 1725 the 
children of Samuel Greenwood laid out a lane six feet wide 
for their own benefit. In 1798 called Methodist 
Alley, and in 1829 Hanover Avenue. In 1790 Rev. 
Jesse Lee visited Boston and preached on the Common, 
and, many adopting his views, a church was formed at 


the house of Samuel Burrill in Sheaffe Street, July 13, 
1792, and they obtained the use of the North school- 
house. They met in various places until 1795, when they 
bought land on the northeast side of Hanover Avenue and 
built a church which was dedicated May 15, 1796, Rev. 
George Pickering officiating. 

Harris Street was laid out through the Bendall- 
Hawkins estate, and in 1658-59 was a way of six feet, 
and later "the lane that runneth up by the land of John 
Richards"; "lane that leads from the great fore street to 
the middle back street called Richards Lane, in 1708 
"Whitebread Alley" and in 1868 Harris Street. John 
Richards, who lived here, was noted in his day. He was the 
son of Thomas, of Dorchester, and was admitted to the 
church in Boston in 1664. He held the offices of captain 
in the militia and served in King Philip's war, treas- 
urer of Harvard College 1672-85; judge of the Superior 
Court, assistant, counsellor and major. In 1682 he was 
sent to England as agent with Joseph Dudley. In 1654 he 
married Elizabeth Hawkins-Long-Winthrop, daughter of 
Captain Thomas Hawkins and widow of Nathaniel Long 
and Adam Winthrop. She died in 1691, and he married 
Ann Winthrop, daughter of Gov. John Winthrop of Con- 
necticut. April 2, 1694, Sewall notes that "Richards died 
very suddenly. Very well on Monday, and after falling 
into an angry passion with his servant, fell into a fit of 

Clarke Street was also laid out through the Bendall- 
Hawkins land. In 1712 it was a new street twenty 
feet wide, between John Richards and Thomas Hutchin- 
son, and for some years it was called either Hawkins or 
Foster Street; in 1785, Clarke Street. The Rev. Oliver 
Everett, minister of the New South Church 1782-92, 
lived on the south side, removing to Dorchester in 1792, 
where his son, Edward Everett, was born. 


Fleet Street was one of those ordered to be laid out 
in 1636, and for a time had the usual varied names: 
"Highway that comes up from the waterside by Isaac 
Cullimore's"; "highway from the waterside to the house 
of Richard Bennet"; "lane leading down over fore Street 
to Scarletts wharf." In 1708 it became Fleet Street. 

John Freake was one of the early dwellers here. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Clarke, and she 
married, second, Elisha Hutchinson. In 1675 Freake, 
with Captain Scarlett, was killed by the blowing up of 
the deck of a ship. Freake was also an investor in land 
in other parts of the town. 

John Frizell was an inhabitant in the town in 1695. 
He was a successful merchant and married, in 1698, 
Dorothy Fowles-Parnell, widow of Francis Parnell, and 
she married for a third venture Nathaniel Saltonstall. 
Frizell died in 1723, aged sixty, and Sewall says he had 
a very great funeral. About 1710 the City of Glasgow, 
without his seeking it, sent over and presented him with 
the title of Burgess and Guild brother, as the Boston News 
Letter relates. In 1702 he bought the pasture of Elisha 
Hutchinson on the southwest side, and also land on the 
north side. 

Daniel Malcolm was also a prominent merchant here, 
and bought land of the heirs of Elisha Hutchinson, on 
the north side, in 1753. In 1768 he was among those 
who resolved not to import English goods, and he led the 
mob which resisted the seizure of John Hancock's sloop 
Liberty, at Hancock Wharf. He was a true son of 
liberty and an enemy of oppression, as shown on his 
gravestone at Copp's Hill, which was riddled with bullets 
by the British, done in revenge. He died in 1769. 

Joab Hunt was a ship joiner and lived in 1792 on the 
site of the inn "Ship in Distress," on the north side. His 


daughter Harriet was one of the first of her sex to prac- 
tise medicine, and wrote "Glances and GHmpses," giving 
a picture of her time. 

In 1729 James Batter in Fleet Street was near the 
Union Flag. For a few years Commodore Samuel Tucker 
lived in a large house with a cupola, on the north side. 
He was born in Marblehead in 1747, and began his life 
at sea at the age of seventeen. January 20, 1776, he 
received from George Washington one of the earliest com- 
missions in the young navy. In 1778 he was ordered 
to convey Hon. John Adams as envoy to France. His 
log book on this voyage begins with the words, "Pray 
God, conduct me safe to France and send me a prosperous 
cruise." In a eulogy on John Adams in 1862, Judge 
Sprague said, "The public ship on board which he em- 
barked was commanded by the gallant Commodore 
Tucker, who took more guns away from the enemy during 
the Revolution than any other naval commander, and 
has been far less known and rewarded than his merits 
deserve." He came to Boston in 1780, but was so genial 
and popular, and over-generous, keeping open doors, that 
he was soon obliged to close them, and returned to Marble- 
head in 1786, and it was not until 1832 that he received 
a pension from the Government. 

North Square was first developed in 1649, when the 
Second Church was organized ; and the first building was 
finished and the first sermon preached June 5, 1650. At 
that time it was ordered that the ways about the meeting 
house be laid out. No doubt these were Sun Court, Moon 
Street, Garden Court, and Bell Alley (Prince Street), 
and they received their names in 1708. Until 1798 
the square itself was called "Clarke Square," "Frizell 
Square," and "Market Square," for the market there. 
November 27, 1676, the first building of the church was 


burned in the great fire, and the parish met at Deacon 
Phillips's on Cross Street, to take measures to build an- 
other. This was enlarged in 1693, and January 16, 1776, 
pulled down by order of General Howe, for fuel. In 
1786 the land was sold to Dr. John Lathrop, who built 
a fine house for his own occupation. In 1779 the New 
Brick Society united with this, and the name of Second 
Church was continued. The ministers were John Mayo, 
1655-73; Increase Mather, 1664— 1723; Cotton Mather, 
1685— 1728; Joshua Gee, 1723—48; Samuel Mather, 
1732-41; Samuel Checkley, Jr., 1768— 18 16. John Mayo 
came from England to Barnstable, where he married and 
where his children were born. In 1656 he lived in the 
house belonging to Bartholomew Barnard, on the south 
side of Fleet Street, and then he bought a house on the 
west side of Hanover Street, between Parmenter and 
Prince Streets. Increase Mather, his associate, said of 
him, "He was a blessing to his people and they lived 
together in love and peace. The church paid his salary 
to the time of his death, and his funeral expenses, which 
were 6s for the grave, 6s for the coffin, wine £3.17.10 and 
gloves £5.15.00." In 1662 his salary was 65 pounds and 
that of Mather his colleague was 50 pounds. 

The church has been called the church of the Mathers, 
and probably no family in New England has been known 
as well, father, sons, and grandsons, all in the ministry, 
and all with such individual characteristics that no two 
critics agree on their character, except that they were a 
remarkable family and exerted a more or less important 
influence in their time, beginning with Richard Mather, 
who came to Dorchester in 1635, and was the minister 
there until his death in 1689. He married, in England, 
Elizabeth Holt, of Bury, Lancashire, and for his second 
wife Sarah, widow of Rev. John Cotton. Increase was 


his youngest son by his first wife, and was born in Dor- 
chester in 1639. He was graduated at Har\''ard College 
in 1656, and then went to England to complete his 
studies, returning in 1661. He was ordained May 27, 
1664. In 1662 he married Maria, daughter of Rev. John 
Cotton, and, second, Ann (Lake), widow of John Cotton. 
In 1684 he was elected to the presidency of Harvard Col- 
lege and served until 1701, when he was obliged to resign, 
as the Court passed an order that the president must 
live in Cambridge, and neither he nor his parishoners 
would consent to this. He was the first to receive the 
diploma of doctor of divinity in 1692. His grandson, 
Samuel Mather, had the honor in 1773. As the 
ministers were intimately connected with the Court, 
Mather could not but take an active part in the troubles 
that arose when Charles II. became king, and his influence 
with the majority of the people was great, though he had 
many strong oponents. He was determined in his opposi- 
tion against Andros, whose friends therefore became his 

In 1688, as there seemed to be no hope of redress from 
Andros, the people decided to send an agent to England, 
to lay their grievances before the king, and as Mather 
held the respect and confidence of the people it was he 
whom they now chose as their agent. Upon hearing this, 
the Government determined to prevent his going. He 
managed to elude the officers who were sent to guard his 
house, and in disguise went to Charlestown and sailed 
April I, 1686. He was faithful and unwearied in the 
discharge of his trust, and when he found that he could 
not save the old charter he turned his attention to getting 
the best terms he could for the new. For his diplomacy 
in the trying position he won the approbation of his own 
and succeeding generations. 


Pierce, in his "History of Harvard College," says of 
Increase Mather: "His learning was extensive, his 
affection lively and strong and he excelled as a 
preacher; he was diligent, active and resolute in the 
discharge of the various and important duties which 
Providence from time to time assigned. He was 
benevolent and at least one tenth of his income was 
applied to charity. His manners were those of a gentle- 
man and there was a remarkable gravity in his deport- 
ment, which commanded the reverence of those who 
approached him. His name and character were held in 
veneration not only by his own but by succeeding genera- 

Until the great fire Mather lived in a house belonging to 
the parish, on the west side of the square, which after 
passing through various hands was bought by Paul Revere 
in 1770. In 1 68 1 Mather bought the house on the west 
side of Hanover Street, between Tileston and North 
Bennet Streets. 

His son. Cotton Mather, was graduated from the college 
in 1678 and ordained as associate with his father in 1685. 
He married Abigail Phillips, daughter of Col. John Phil- 
lips, of Charlestown. In 1688 he bought a house on the 
west side of Hanover Street, a little west of Prince Street. 
He died in 1727-28. As an author he was prolific and 
wrote on almost every subject in literature. His writings 
are of value to students, though scarcely palatable to 
the general public, and by his "Magnalia" he has at least 
given us much information as to his times. 

His son, Samuel Mather, was by his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Dr. John Clarke, and was born in 1 706, 
and was of Harvard College in the class of 1723. He 
married Hannah, daughter of Thomas Hutchinson and 
sister of the governor. They lived in Moon Street, in a 


house which he bought in 1736. Their daughter Hannah 
married Joseph Crocker, and by her "Recollections" has 
been of service to antiquarians. Samuel Mather was a 
colleague with Joshua Gee for nine years, and then, dis- 
satisfaction having arisen, he was dismissed at his own 
request, and formed a church of his own, and a number 
of the congregation left with him. A church was built 
on the west corner of Hanover and North Bennet Streets 
and while building they worshiped in the North Writing 
School. The society became extinct on the death of 
Mather in 1785. 

As we have seen, the parish house on the west side of 
the square came into the hands of Paul Revere in 1770. 
He was the son of Apollos Rivoire, who came to Boston 
in 1723, estabhshed himself as a goldsmith and changed 
his name to Paul Revere. He married, in 1729, Deborah 
Hitchbone, and Paul, Jr., was born in 1 734. In the News 
Letter of May 21, 1730, Paul Revere advertised as hav- 
ing removed to the North End, over against Colonel 
Hutchinson's, which would make his residence on the 
west side of Hanover Street, between North Bennet and 
Prince Streets, and it was here that the young Paul was 
probably born. In 1757 Paul, Jr., married Sarah Orne, 
and in 1 762 he hired a house of Dr. John Clarke. But it is 
in North Square that his fame as a Revolutionary patriot 
began. He wrote to the Secretary of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, January i, 1798, "In the fall of 1774 
and winter of 1775 I was one of upwards of thirty, chiefly 
mechanics, who formed themselves into a company for 
the purpose of watching the movements of the British 
soldiers and gaining every intelligence of the movements 
of the Tories. We held our meetings at the Green Dragon 
Tavern." He then relates the circumstances of his 
famous ride. "I went to the north end of the town where 


I kept a boat, and two friends rowed me across Charles 
river, etc," He sold his house in the square and in 1800 
bought a house on the south side of Charter Street, where 
he died in 18 18. His foundry was at the corner of Com- 
mercial and t'oster Streets. 

Next to Revere was the house of Nathaniel Hitchbone, 
boat builder, and next to him that of Francis Shaw, 
which he bought in 1754. This was on the corner of 
Baker's Alley, which extended to the rear of the New 
Brick Church on Hanover Street. During the siege troops 
were scattered over the North End, and many houses 
were occupied by them, and among them that of Shaw. 
Major Pitcairn was quartered there. The son, Samuel 
Shaw, entered the army and served through the war and 
rose to the rank of major. In 1784 he was appointed 
consul to China, and sailed on the first United States ship 
to go to Canton. He held the office until his death in 
1794. The lot at the corner of the square and North 
Street belonged to Christopher Stanley, which he and his 
wife left to Richard and George Bennet, and was bought 
in 1670-71 by Edmund Mountfort, who married a grand- 
daughter of Nicholas Upshall. His son Jonathan was a 
physician and apothecary, and the spot was long known 
as "Mountfort's corner." It was sold by the heirs in 1 797. 

Sun Court was no doubt one of the ways ordered laid 
out in 1650, and for a time it was known as the "highway 
from the waterside to the new Meeting House," and re- 
ceived its name in 1708. John Foster, a wealthy mer- 
chant, who took an active part in the revolution of 1689 
and was also influential and held responsible positions in 
the town, bought land in Sun Court and Moon Street 
in 1684. He married Lydia, daughter of Daniel Turell, 
and had two daughters. Sarah married Thomas Hutchin- 
son; and Lydia, Edward Hutchinson. Foster married, for 


a second wife, Abigail Hawkins-Moore-Kellond, daughter 
of Capt. Thomas Hawkins and widow of Samuel Moore 
and Thomas Kellond. In 171 7—18 his executors, his two 
sons-in-law, erected the North Writing School in Tileston 

One of the ways near the Meeting House, Garden 
Court, named in 1 708, has become historic on account of 
the two famous houses of Thomas Hutchinson and William 
Clarke, both of which have been often described. That 
of Hutchinson was at the corner of Fleet Street and that 
of Clarke at the corner of Prince Street, then called 
Bell Alley. Both gardens extended to Hanover Street. 
Thomas Hutchinson, who married Sarah Foster, built the 
house. He was deputy and counsellor, and in 1713 gave 
the North Grammar School to the town. Here his son 
Thomas, the governor, was born, and this was the house 
attacked by the mob, August 26,1 765. It was confiscated 
and bought by Enoch Brown in 1789, the same whose 
dealing in real estate we shall find in other sections of the 
town. It was taken down in 1832. 

Thomas Hutchinson, the governor, was descended from 
Wiliam and Anne, and always lived in Boston, where 
he was born in 1711. After graduating from Harvard 
College in 1727, he tried business for a time and then 
gave himself over entirely to public affairs, holding many 
high positions both in the town and in the legislature. He 
was lieutenant governor, 1758-71; acting governor, 1760 
and 1769—71, when he received his commission as gover- 
nor. He was ambitious and avaricious. He had great 
ability, and had his undoubted talents as a writer and 
speaker been turned for the benefit of his country instead 
of for the home government, his name would have come 
down to posterity honored and respected. When the 
Boston Port Bill went into effect, June i, 1774, closing 


the port to all trade as a punishment for her misdeeds, 
Hutchinson sailed for England, where he lived in retire- 
ment and died in Brompton in 1780. In Boston he 
lived in his father's house in Garden Court, and also had 
an estate in Milton. In his leisure moments he sought 
relaxation from the cares of office in studying the early 
years of the colony, and his ' 'History of the Colony of 
Massachusetts" and his "Diary" are still of great value, 
giving a faithful picture of the times. The mob which 
destroyed his house and property in 1765 destroyed many 
valuable papers, but, undismayed, after he left America 
and was living in England, he finished the work, bringing 
it down to his own times. 

William Clarke, a wealthy merchant and ship owner, 
was the son of Dr. John Clarke, the second of the name, 
and bought his estate in 1711, and built the house. 
In 1756 his son-in-law, Thomas Greenough, con- 
veyed the estate to Sir Charles Henry Frankland. Frank- 
land was a lineal descendant of Oliver Cromwell, and was 
born in 1 7 1 6 in India, where his father was governor. He 
inherited a large fortune and in 1741 was appointed col- 
lector of the port of Boston. He also bought a large 
estate in Hopkinton. His romance with Agnes Surriage is 
well known, and in 1755 she became his wife. He died in 
London in 1768. 

Moon Street, on the opposite side of the square, has 
no especial history. It was named in 1708, and has 
also been called "a continuation of Sun Court." Samuel 
Mather lived on the southeast side. 

Richmond Street was one of those ordered laid out in 
1683, a lane to go up from the waterside by John Gallop's, 
a pole in breadth. It was called, at various times, "Red 
Lyon Lane," "Proctor's Lane," and, in 1708, "Wood 
Lane"; in 1824, "Richmond Street." Nicholas Upshall 


owned all the land on the north side, John Gallop 
on the south side, and part of Gallop's came 
to Timothy Prout, ship carpenter, in 1644. The 
Prouts were a prominent family. Joseph Prout, son 
of Timothy, held town office for many years as select- 
man, clerk, and treasurer. His house was in Richmond 
Street, and he had a wharf on North Street. Edward 
Proctor, a tailor, married Elizabeth Cock, granddaughter 
of Upshall, and they inherited one half of the Red Lyon 
Inn, and his son Edward kept the Schooner Tavern in 
Fish Street. His grandson, Edward Proctor, was colonel 
of the Boston Regiment, and a strong patriot in Revolu- 
tionary times. 

The next cross street was Board Alley, of which we 
have spoken as part of John Gallop's land, and then comes 
Cross Street, which was another of those laid out in 
1636, "to go from the waterside up the balke or meare 
that goes up from the end of John Mylam's house next 
William Aspinwall's ground and so along to the Mylne 
cove a rod and a halfe broad." It is often called "John 
Coney's lane," and in 1708, "Cross Street." John Coney, 
a cooper by trade, was indentured to John Mylam and 
in 1649 Mylam assigned him to Capt. Elias Pilgrim for 
the term of six months. He bought land in 1656-57. 
John Mylam owned almost all on the northeast side, and 
in 1648 sold part to John Phillips, biscuit baker, who 
also bought other land in the vicinity. He built a stone 
house which stood until 1864, when it was sold by the 
city, to whom it had been bequeathed in 185 1. After 
the death of Phillips in 1682, the estate was divided and 
subdivided by his descendants, the Mountjoys, Morti- 
mores, Pullings and others. Gilbert Bant, mariner and 
merchant, was another large owner on the south side and 
in Hanover Street and also in other parts of the town. 


In 1685 North Centre Street was a passage eleven 
feet wide, leading from Mill Bridge down to the water, 
in 1708 called "Paddy's Alley"; also known as "Blake's 
Alley," "Ball's Alley," and, in 1788, "Centre Street"; in 
1834, "North Centre Street." It was laid out through the 
original land of John Jepson. After a fire in 1767 the 
passage was made wider. 

Wilham Paddy, a skinner and merchant, came to Plym- 
outh in 1635, 2,nd was in Boston about 1650. He 
bought land of Thomas Lake in 1655-56, on the northeast 
side. In 1665 he was of a company to buy land in State 
Street, of John Leverett. He died in 1658, age fifty- 
eight, leaving a wife who was his second venture, and ten 

As North Street was noted for its taverns, Hanover 
Street may be said to be noted for its churches, five 
being in or near it. For some years it was laid out 
only part way. From Mill Bridge to Commer- 
cial Street it was part of the field of Christopher Stanley 
and of others, and part of the land had not been granted 
to any one. In 1644 "there is 20s allowed to be paid 
to brother Rawlings in consideration of the highway taken 
out of his cornfields behind his dwelling house, and Walter 
Merry to be paid 5s for fencing up at the end of his 
garden by reason of the highway there." Some of the 
names given at various times were, "the cross way that 
leads from the water mills to the waterside between Good- 
man Douglas and Walter Merry's gardens"; "highway 
from the common to Mr. Ruck's"; "the great street that 
runs down to the river"; "Mill Bridge Street"; "the 
Middle Back Street." In 1708 it was called Hanover 
Street, from Sudbury Street to Mill Bridge, Middle 
Street from the bridge to North Bennet Street, 
and North Street from North Bennet Street to the 


water. This last has occasioned great confusion with the 
present North Street. In 1824 all was called Hanover 

Christopher Stanley owned a large pasture between 
Hanover, Prince and Salem Streets, and a little east of 
Charter Street. In 1656 part of that on Hanover Street 
was bought by Henry Shrimp ton and called "Shrimp ton's 
Pasture," and part was bought or inherited by Richard 
Bennet. Stanley came from England in 1635, aged thirty- 
two, with wife Susannah. He was a tailor by trade, and 
died in 1646. He left a large estate, and was the first to 
bequeath a piece of land to the town for the use of the 
free school. His widow married William Phillips, and 
on her death in 1655 left him the greater part of the 
estate left to her by Stanley. Besides many private be- 
quests she left two houses and land to her servants, 
Richard and George Bennet. 

The New North Church was on the east corner of 
Clarke Street. In the winter of 171 2, seventeen sub- 
stantial mechanics associated for the purpose of establish- 
ing another church. Their first meeting was held at 
the house of Matthew Butler, in Tileston Street, April 
ID, 1712. In 1713 they were allowed to erect a timber 
meeting house, sixty-five by forty-eight by thirty feet, 
flat roof and battlements, on the west part of the ground 
commonly known as Major Richards' pasture, west on 
Hanover Street and south on Clarke Street. It was bought 
of Thomas Hutchinson in 1712, he having had it from 
the heirs of John Richards, and it was part of the Bendall- 
Hawkins estate. In 171 7-18 Hutchinson sold them 
more land. The ministers were John Webb, 1714—50; 
Peter Thatcher, 1720-21 and 1738-39; Andrew Eliot 
1742-78; John Eliot, 1 779-1813. The society became 
extinct in 1863. 


The New Brick Church originated in a difficulty- 
respecting the settlement of a colleague with Rev. Mr. 
Webb of the New North, and November 14, 17 19, the dis- 
contented members met at the house of Alexander Sears, 
a shipwright, living on the southeast side of North Street 
between Sun Court and Fleet Street, and formed a church. 
The same month they bought land of William and 
Joseph Robie, on Hanover Street, just east of Richmond 
Street, and erected a building which was dedicated May 
19, 1 72 1. A cock made by Shem Drown was put on 
the steeple, in derision of Peter Thatcher who had 
won the place in the New North. It is now on the 
church of the Good Shepherd in Cambridge. June 27, 
1779, the society united with the Old North, taking 
the name of the Second Church. The ministers were, 
William Waldron, 1722-27; William Welsteed, 1728- 
53; Ellis Gray, 1738-53; Ebenezer Pemberton, Jr., 

Robert Sandeman, a Scotchman, arrived in Boston 

October 18, 1764. On the next Sunday he conducted 
religious services in Mason's Hall, in the Green Dragon 
Inn in Union Street, and here the congregation continued 
to hold services until they built a small wooden church 
at the foot of a lane leading to the mill pond between the 
two Baptist churches, on Salem Street. April 4, 1773, 
a fire destroyed their building and they were given the 
use of the North Latin schoolhouse for a time. A new 
house was built on the west side of Hanover Street up a 
passage between Cross and Parmenter Streets, but the 
society soon died out. The house was let and the meet- 
ings dissolved in 1823. October 5, 1785, the schoolhouse 
lately improved by Mr. Dupe, by the name of the Sande- 
mans Meeting House, was hired by the Town for Master 
Cheney and called the Middle Street Writing School. 


In 1787 Master Cheney was allowed to employ his son 
as assistant. April 21, 1790, the key was given up to 
the proprietors, another school having been provided for 
Mr. Cheney. 

The church of Samuel Mather was on the west corner 
of North Bennet Street. When the society became ex- 
tinct, on the death of Mather in 1785, the building was 
sold to the Society of the First Universalists. John 
Murray came from New York and Philadelphia and 
preached in the Manufactory Building, on Tremont Street, 
October 30, 1773. A society was gradually formed, and 
bought the Mather Meeting House. It became extinct 
in 1864. 

The east corner of North Bennet Street was part of the 
estate of Richard Bennet, and his heirs sold this lot to 
Increase Mather in 1681. After passing through various 
hands after his death, it was purchased by Rev. Andrew 
EHot in 1756 and next occupied by his son. Rev. John 
Eliot. Cotton Mather bought the house a little west of 
Prince Street and sold it in 1718. John Mayo lived 
on the west side of Hanover Street between Parmenter 
and Prince Street. 

In December, 1719, George Lynham, who bought a 
house in 1730 on the northeast side of Parmenter Street, 
was at the Chest of Drawers in Middle Street. In Febru- 
ary, 1727—28, Richard Mortimer, a barber, was at the 
Sign of the Green Wigg near the Mill Bridge. May i, 
1735, an advertisement says, ''to be sold by Mehitable 
King adjoining the Mill Bridge at the Sign of the King's 
Arms, best Bohea tea," etc. 

Thomas Breedon lived on the southeast corner of Cross 
and Hanover Streets in a house which he bought in 1660. 
He was a spy and a traitor to the colony, and Hutchinson 
says he went to England and complained of the govern- 


ment for harboring regicides, and gave information of the 
presence of Whalley and Goffe in Boston. When he 
returned from England, he behaved with so much inso- 
lence that the General Court committed him to prison 
and fined him. Afterwards the fine was remitted. It 
was on this corner that the trumpeter put to rout the 
King's commissioners in 1664. 

In 1664 the King sent a commission to enforce his com- 
mands — Col. Richard Nicholls, Sir Robert Carr, Col. 
George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick. Richard 
Bellingham was governor, a lawyer skillful and com- 
petent but not very popular with the general public. The 
records of the meetings between the commissioners and 
the Court are to be found in detail in the colony records. 
They could reach no agreement, and finally, on May 22, 
1665, the commissioners wrote to the General Court, 
"We shall to-morrow at nine of the clock in the morning 
at the house of Capt. Thomas Breedon sit to determine 
the cause of Mr. Thomas Deane and others against the 
Governor and Company and Joshua Scottow." The 
Court drew up a declaration and caused it to be openly 
published in Boston saying, after a long preamble, "We 
cannot consent with or give our approbation of the pro- 
ceedings of the above said gentlemen." At eight o'clock 
on the specified morning a messenger of the General 
Court took his stand before the house door of Capt. 
Breedon, who lived at the southeast corner of Hanover 
and Cross Streets, and proclaimed with sound of trumpet 
that by taking on themselves the office of magistrates the 
commission had infringed the charter and thus violated 
the King's orders and the Court refused their consent to 
these proceedings. The commissioners met to hold their 
court, but as the defendant did not appear nothing could 
be done and they soon left town. They had been sent 


to settle the affairs of New England, but were interrupted 
at Boston with sound of trumpet. 

Salem Street was laid out in 1666, in part through the 
land of William Phillips. He had his school fee remitted 
in consideration of "a hieway laid out from John Farni- 
seeds to the cross highway leading to the Burying 
Ground" (Charter Sreet). Farniseed owned the land 
from Hanover Street to the mill pond near Cross Street 
and part of Salem Street divided his land. Other names 
of the street were, "street leading from the brick kilns 
towards Winnissimet Ferry"; the lane leading towards 
Mrs. Carwithys house"; called "Green Lane" from Prince 
Street east to Charter Street. In 1708 called Salem 
Street from Charter to Prince Street, and Back Street 
from Prince Street to the bridge. All called Salem Street 
in 1824. 

In 1687 Sir William Phipps bought the house at the 
northeast corner of Charter Street, of Daniel Turell. 
Born in Maine in 165 1 he came to Boston when about 
eighteen years of age and worked at his trade of ship 
carpenter. He soon became master of a vessel and fol- 
lowed the sea for some years, and on one of his voyages 
heard of a Spanish treasure ship that had been sunk. 
Obtaining knowledge of the spot, with some assistance 
from England he succeeded in raising the ship and 
received twenty thousand pounds as his share of the booty, 
besides being made a knight. He returned to Boston, 
where he was made high sheriff by Andros, though he 
knew nothing of law and could scarcely write. He mar- 
ried Mary Spencer-Hull, daughter of Roger Spencer, of 
Saco, and widow of John Hull, a Boston merchant. She 
married for her third husband Peter Sargent. 

Phipps was in England when appointed the first gov- 
ernor of the province. The new charter was signed by 


King William, October 7, 1691, and the following March, 
Phipps, with Increase Mather and others, sailed for 
Boston. The most remarkable event in the short time 
that Phipps was governor was the witchcraft delusion, 
an epidemic of superstition and panic, which had begun 
just before the arrival of Phipps and lasted only a few 
months. Hutchinson wrote that it was "a scheme of 
fraud and imposture begun by young girls and continued 
by adults who were afraid of being accused themselves." 
Soon the General Court intervened, and later Judge 
Sewall, one of the justices who had sent many to the 
gallows, publicly acknowledged his fault at a service in 
the Old South Meeting House. Stoughton, on the other 
hand, said "he had no reason to repent of what he had 
done." Phipps was an honest friend to the colony, but 
his hot temper more than once got him into trouble, 
especially with the collector of the port, and he became 
very unpopular. He was recalled in 1694. 

Spencer (Bennett) Phipps inherited the estate. He 
was the nephew of the wife of Sir William, who adopted 
him and gave him his name. He was Lieutenant Gover- 
nor, 1753-57, and acting Governor, 1749-53 and 1756-57- 
No important event occurred during his administration. 
He died in office in 1757. 

In 1745—46 the estate was bought by Thomas James 
Grouchy, mariner, a noted character, and here he enter- 
tained lavishly. He was a merchant and ship owner, and 
owned wharves on Commercial Street, and at the foot of 
Copp's Hill. He married Mary Dumaresque in 1741, 
daughter of Edward Dumaresque, a distiller. In 1758 he 
conveyed all his property to his father-in-law and left 
the town. At the north corner of Sheaffe Street was the 
house of Dr. Samuel Stillman, of the Baptist Church, 
which he bought in 1773. At the south corner was that 







of Thomas Newman which he bought of Jonathan Dwight 
in 1 74 1. His son John Newman was the organist of Christ 
Church, and his son Robert, the sexton, was in close 
sympathy with the mechanics of the North End in the 
Revolution, and was the one who hung out the lanterns 
to notify Paul Revere on the night of April 18, 1775. 

The printing office of Zachariah Fowle was in Salem 
Street. Here the Massachusetts Spy was first printed. 
Fowle was the master of Isaiah Thomas, who was at first 
his partner, but soon dissolved partnership to engage in 
a larger field himself. 

Christ Church on the east side, between Charter and 
Tileston Streets was organized in 1723, members of King's 
Chapel and others subscribing to build a Church of Eng- 
land in the north part of the town. The land was bought 
of Anthony Blount, who had bought it from Nathaniel 
Henchman, and the church was opened for public worship 
December 29, 1723. In 1744 a chime of bells, the first 
in America, was given to them. It was in the steeple of 
this church that Robert Newman hung the lanterns that 
warned Revere, waiting on the Charlestown side, that the 
regulars had started for Concord by water. The steeple 
was blown down in 1804 and replaced by the present one, 
by Charles Bulfinch, in 1807. The church was closed 
during the siege. The ministers were Timothy Cutler, 
1723-65; James Greaton, 1759-67; Mather Byles, Jr., 
1768-75; Stephen C. Lewis, 1778-84; WiUiam Montague, 
1786-92; William Walter, 1792-1800. In the church 
there are many curious treasures, a so-called "Vinegar 
Bible," where is the misprint of vinegar for vineyard in 
the parable; a communion set presented by George II. 
through the influence of Governor Belcher, etc. The 
story is told that one of the pictures of John Johnston, 
the portrait painter, was the Sign of the Good Samaritan 


painted for Thomas Bartlett, apothecary, with a priest 
passing by on the other side. This was soon erased, as the 
portrait and costume of the Rev. WilHam Walter, with his 
full wig, was lifelike and easily recognized. 

Between Prince and Parmenter Streets, on the east side, 
was the house of Adam Winthrop, the third of the name. 
Adam, the first, married Elizabeth Hawkins-Long, daugh- 
ter of Capt. Thomas Hawkins and widow of Nathaniel 
Long. He lived on North Street (Ship Street), and his 
widow married, third, in 1654, John Richards. The 
second Adam Winthrop, who died in 1692, bought this 
property in 1683-84. His son Adam sold it in 1724—25, 
as he had bought the estate on the north corner of 
Tremont and Winter Streets in 1722. John Wells bought 
the Salem Street estate in 1791. 

Rev. John Webb married, in 1715, Frances Bromfield, 
and married for a second wife Elizabeth Jackson, daughter 
of Jonathan Jackson. Soon after this marriage they went 
to live in the house she inherited at the northeast corner 
of Salem and North Bennet Streets. On the south corner 
was the house of the Rev. Peter Thatcher, of the New 
North Church, who bought it in 1734 of the widow of 
Robert Orange. Previously he lived in Fish Street, be- 
tween Sun Court and Fleet Street. The executors of 
Thatcher sold it in 1 740 to John Proctor, the schoolmaster, 
but in 1742-43 he sold it to John Avis, whose family were 
the owners in 1 798. 

The Baptists assembled as early as 1665, when a church 
was organized in Charlestown in May of that year in 
spite of persecution, but it was not until after 1672 that 
they were allowed to assemble openly. The church 
records say, "At a church meeting on February 9, 1679—80 
it was unanimously agreed upon by the church to make 
improvement of the new house built for the ownership 


of God and to enter into it on the 15th day of this instant 
being next First Day." March 8, 1680, the civil authori- 
ties caused the door to be nailed up. The second meeting 
house was built in 1771, but during the siege it was taken 
by British troops first for barracks and later for a hospital. 
In 1 791 it was enlarged. It was situated in Stillman 
Street, on the mill pond, which in 1692 was an alley 
from the street to the Baptist church, and sometimes 
called "Baptist Alley." The ministers were, Thomas 
Gould, 1665-75; John Russell, 1675-80; John Miles, 
1683-84; John Emms, 1684-99; Ellis Callendar, 1708- 
18; Elisha Callendar, 1718—38; Jeremiah Condy, 1739- 
64; Samuel Stillman, 1 765-1807. 

The first meetings of the Second Baptist Church were 
held in the house of James Bound in Sheaffe Street from 
October 3, 1742, to June 3, 1745, and then were held in 
the North Writing School in Tileston Street, where John 
Proctor, Jr., one of the congregation, was usher. July 
15, 1745, they bought land of Proctor's father in Baldwin 
Place, on the mill pond, and built the church. It was 
a wooden building forty-five by thirty feet. It was en- 
larged in 1789 and 1797 and taken down in 18 10. The 
ministers were Ephraim Bound, 1743-65; John Davis, 
1770-72; Isaac Skillman, 1773-87; Thomas Gair, 1788- 
90; Thomas Baldwin, 1791-1825. July 24, 1807, the 
First and Second societies came to an agreement with the 
town as abuttors on the pond. 

Capt. Robert Gray, mariner, bought a house on the 
west side, near the creek, and his land extended to the 
pond. He was the first to carry the United States flag 
around the world, and on his return in 1790 he was re- 
ceived with distinguished honors by General Lincoln, col- 
lector of the port, and by Governor Hancock. He married 
Martha, daughter of Silas Atkins. 


There were four cross streets between Hanover and 
Salem streets. David Robertson, mariner, bought land of 
Samuel Shrimpton in 1699, a part of the original Stanley- 
pasture, and in 171 7 Webster Avenue is called his new 
alley; later, "Roberts Lane" and "Hills Alley," and in 1855 
"Webster Avenue." The story goes that when the illumi- 
nation took place in celebration of peace after the war 
of 1812, the inhabitants put candles in their windows, 
and then went out to see what others were doing. The 
candles burned low and set fire to the houses and all were 
consumed. John Manley, who held the first naval com- 
mission issued by Washington in 1775, and commanded 
the Lee, making many important captures, lived in 
Webster Avenue and his land extended to Tileston Street. 
He died in 1793. 

Richard Bennet, who called himself a yeoman, and was 
accepted as a townsman in 1640—41, owned all the land 
in this neighborhood, which was inherited from Stanley 
and his wife. Both Tileston Street and North Bennet 
Street were laid out through his pasture. 

In 1704 Tileston Street was a lane twenty feet wide, 
laid out through the land of Susannah Love, the only 
daughter of Richard Bennet and wife of John Love, 
mariner. In 1 708 it was named Love Street, but was not 
cut through to Salem Street until 1733-34, when Jonathan 
Loring and Jonathan Jackson deeded to the town a strip 
of land from Salem to Love Street for a highway in con- 
tinuation of Love Street. It was also called "Writing 
School Street" and "North Writing School Street" and in 
182 1, "Tileston Street." In 171 7-18 Thomas and Ed- 
ward Hutchinson, executors of John Foster, erected a free 
writing school, and the town voted that a part of the 
land bought of Susannah Love should be applied for that 
purpose. The schoolmasters were, Jeremiah Condy, 


1 7 19-31; John Proctor, 1731—42— 3; Zachariah Hicks, 
usher, 1732—3—42 and master, 1742— 3-61; Abicih Hol- 
brook, usher, in 1742; John Procter, Jr., usher, 1743—54; 
John Tileston, usher, 1754—61, master 1761-1826; James 
Carter, assistant, 1761—68; WilHam Doll, usher, 1768— 
77; Joseph Carroll, assistant, 1778; Nathan Webb, assis- 
tant, 1783. October 1789, it was voted that the school- 
house in Love Street be continued for the North Writing 
School, and the North Latin School nearly contiguous be 
annexed to it in order to accommodate writing scholars. 
May II, 1 79 1, it was voted to erect a new schoolhouse at 
the North End. 

North Bennet Street was laid out by order of the 
will of Richard Bennet through his pasture in 1696, to be 
laid out for a highway of twenty-four feet (between the 
house of Increase Mather and the house formerly of 
Richard Bennet). In 1708 it was called Bennet Street, 
at times School Street. In 1 713, Bennet Avenue, "lately 
laid out by William Brown," was six feet wide; in 1800, 
called "School Alley"; in 1901, taken into the playground. 

The North Latin or Grammar School was presented 
to the town by Capt. Thomas Hutchinson, father of the 
Governor. March 10, 1711-12, the town voted thanks 
to him "for as much as he has offered at his own charge 
to build a schoolhouse for the north end of the town," and 
in May the committee selected a site between Bennet and 
Love Streets, fifty-one feet in breadth and one hundred 
feet in length from Bennet to Love Street, which they 
bought of Susannah Love. The schoolmasters were 
Recompence Wadsworth, who lived only a few months, 
1 7 13; John Barnard, 1 713-18; Peleg Wiswel, 1719-67; 
Jonathan Helver, usher, 1738-41— 2; Samuel White, 
usher, 1 741— 2-45; (discharged, as the school was small 
and none needed); Ephraim Langdon, usher, 1758—65; 


Josiah Langdon, usher, 1765-67; Samuel Hunt, Jr., 
master, 1767—75. The school was closed during the siege 
and reopened in 1779, with WilHam Bently, master, 1779— 
80; Aaron Smith, master, 1780-81; Nathan Davis, 
master, 1781—89, when the school was discontinued and 
annexed to the North Writing School. 

Thomas Lee lived on the southwest side, between 
Salem Street and Bennet Avenue and here it is said that 
the discontented members of the New North Church met 
when considering the appointment of Peter Thatcher. 
Isaac Harris bought the house in 181 5, and lived here 
until his death in 1869. He was the son of Samuel Harris, 
the mast maker, who in 1869 carried the mastmakers' flag 
in the procession in honor of Washington. The younger 
Harris was one of the boys who were ranged along the 
mall through which Washington was to pass on horse- 
back. Each boy had a quill pen in his left hand, and was 
to take off his hat with the other. The story goes that 
Harris agreed with the boy next to him that as soon as 
they made their bow they would stroke their pens on the 
President's boot. They did it successfully, and kept their 
pens. This may have been some other boy, and it would 
be interesting to know if the pens are still in existence, 
that the truth might be vouched for. The same stories 
are often told of various people, so that it is difficult to 
know what should come under the head of strictly his- 
torical facts. It is always a temptation to insert a good 
story. Harris was one of the six boys to receive the first 
Franklin medal in 1792. Benjamin Franklin left one 
hundred pounds to the Boston free schools for the pur- 
chase of medals to stimulate and reward application. 
Those who have obtained them are justly proud of their 
possession. In 18 10 Isaac Harris saved the Old South 
Meeting House, when there was a fire in the neighbor- 


hood, by climbing on to the roof and using buckets which 
were passed to him. He was public-spirited, held town 
office and was a representative in the legislature. He 
kept up his business of mast and spar maker in his yard 
off Commercial Street. 

Next to Harris on the west side was the house of Cap- 
tain John Charnock, which was sold in 1759 to John 
Leach, a famous teacher of mathematics, who lived here 
till his death in 1799. He married Sarah Coffin, sister of 
John Tileston's wife, and had seventeen children. He 
opened a private school on North Street, where he taught 
navigation and civil engineering. A story is told of him, 
that one day he appeared in a new hat, his old one having 
served him many years, and his pupils chalked on the 
fence, "Master Leach has got a new hat." The good- 
natured master wrote under it, "and it is paid for." He 
was a strong patriot, and it became known that he corre- 
sponded with friends of John Wilkes, the famous English 
agitator. June 29, 1775, he was arrested, his papers taken, 
and he was in gaol ninety-seven days. Among his fellow- 
prisoners were James Lovell, the son of the master of the 
Latin School, and Peter Edes. His journal tells of the 
happenings at that time. Edes also kept a journal, and 
entered the important events of the day. 

The house next east of Harris's was that of Simeon 
SkiHings, who bought it in 1794. He with his brother 
Samuel, were the ablest wood carvers of their time. Capt. 
John Howe lived after 1800 on the same side nearer 
Hanover Street. He was a noted commander and had a 
powerful voice which served him well at sea. The story 
goes that once, returning from a voyage, he arrived at 
Hancock Wharf, where he was met by friends, and asked 
them how they knew he was coming. A friend replied, 
"We only heard you whisper outside the light." 


Prince Street in 1 643 was a highway reserved through 
the mill field, "two rods wide from the west corner of 
Mathew Chaffee's to the windmill as directly as the land 
will bear," and in 1650 it was "ordered that a highway of 
two rods in breadth shall be preserved by William Phillips 
in the field that was Mr Stanley's, and so to the ferry 
point at Charlestown, leading into the crossway that leads 
from the water mills unto the waterside between Goodman 
Douglass and Walter Merry's gardens (Hanover Street), 
and until buildings be erected there, gates and stiles may 
suffice." It was also called "highway passing from Boston 
to the house of William Copp," and "highway from Gentry 
Haven to the new Meeting House." In 1684 Black Horse 
Lane was first mentioned. This is said to have been named 
for an inn, but no inn of that name has thus far been 
found in the records. In 1 708, named Prince Street, and 
that part between Hanover and North Streets called Bell 
Alley. Prince Street was extended through Bell Alley in 
1833. After the building of the bridge to Gharlestown in 
1785, Prince Street became a thoroughfare, taking part of 
the traffic which heretofore came through Roxbury and 
over the neck. Gentre Haven was the land by the mill 
pond next the water mills at the foot of Prince Street. 
In 1708 it was "now used for a landing over Gharles 

Joshua Gee was the son of Peter Gee, a fisherman who 
lived on Fish Street (North Street). He married Eliza- 
beth Harris, by whom he had ten children, and, secondly, 
Elizabeth Thatcher, as we have seen when he bought a 
burial lot for his mother-in-law, of Samuel Sewall. Gee 
was a shipwright and a large owner of land, having bought 
all the land between Charter, Snow Hill, and Prince Streets 
and the water, of the heirs of Thomas Broughton. This 
was inherited by his son, the Rev. Joshua Gee. In 1760 



the estate at the corner of Lafayette Avenue was the 
dower of Sarah, widow of Joshua Gee. Thomas Adams 
owned it later, and in 181 5 it was bought by WilHam Gray, 
the large ship owner. 

Lafayette Avenue was a passage in 1758, and named 
in 1828. Thatcher Street in 1697 was a highway from 
the lower end of Black Horse Lane to the north water 
mills, and was at times called Snow Hill Street. In 1723 
Mrs. Patience Copp, widow of David Copp, Jr., innholder, 
advertised a double house on Prince Street, "enquire at the 
sign of the Plume and Feathers.'' 

John Tileston, the schoolmaster, was a tenant in the 
house at the west corner of Margaret Street and lived 
here until his death. He was the son of John and Re- 
becca (Fowle) Tileston, and was born February 27, 1734— 
35. He was usher at the North Writing School under 
Zachariah Hicks, 1754-61, when he became master, and 
there he remained until his death in 1826. In 1760 he mar- 
ried Lydia Coffin, but left no descendants. He never gave 
up the cocked hat and powdered wig, and was a noted char- 
acter in the town. Edward Everett, speaking of him at 
the dedication of the Eliot schoolhouse, December 22, 
1859, said: "For myself, I shall ever feel grateful to the 
memory of Master Tileston for having deprived me in 
my early life to all claim to distinction which rests upon 
writing a hand which nobody can read. He taught the 
old-fashioned hand-writing without flourishes. The 
schoolhouse was a wooden building of two stories, the 
reading school in one story and the writing school in the 
other. Pupils of both sexes attending from April to 
October, and boys only in winter." 

In 1727 Richard Sherwin sold the house at the north 
corner of Bennet Avenue to John Adams, and David 
Orrak bought it in 1737. His heirs sold to John Thoreau 


in 1705. The next house was that of William Copp, and in 
1728 the residence of John Thoreau, great grandfather of 
Henry Thoreau, the writer of Concord. He bought of the 
Orrak family, and lived here until he removed to Concord. 
In 1732 Alexander Forsyth, grocer, advertised at the Sign 
of the Two Jarrs and Four Sugar Loaves on Prince Street 
between Salem Street and Bennet Avenue. July 19, 
1733, books were to be sold by Mr. Francis Skinner at 
Mr. Pope's Head at the corner of Prince Street, leading 
to Charlestown ferry. 

Parmenter Street was a highway in 1661—62, some- 
times called "the street that leads towards the lime kilns," 
and "Hughes Lane," after Dr. William Hughes, who 
lived here. In 1800 it was named Richmond Street and in 
1870 Parmenter Street. 

Charter Street in 1654—55 was the highway to 
Thomas Ruck's house, also called "street from the new 
Meeting House to Charles River," or "to the ferry way," 
and "way to the north burying place," and "highway to 
the mansion house of the late William Phipps." In 1708 
Charter Street, presumably in memory of Sir William 
Phipps, who brought over the new charter. In 1686 
John Baker had a large pasture in Charter, Salem, and 
Unity Streets. Nathaniel Woodward, caulker, bought 
land of Newman Greenough in 1648 at the northwest 
corner of Greenough Alley, which remained in the family 
until after 1800. Fortesque Vernon, mariner and mer- 
chant, bought the house between Greenough Alley and 
Vernon Place in 1 758, and it is about the only old gambrel- 
roof house with overhanging eaves left in the town. One 
with overhanging eaves is in Sun Court Street, corner of 
North Street, and there is the Paul Revere house in North 
Square. William Snelling, a physician, bought land of 
Thomas Baker in 166 1—2 on the west side, between Han- 


over and Unity Streets. In 1660 the town paid him 54s. 
for physic administered to Robert Higgins. 

There were five ways between Charter and Commer- 
cial Streets. In 1673—74 Jackson Avenue was a passage 
of five feet wide from Commercial Street to the house of 
Sampson Shoare. In 1708 it was called Sliding Alley. 
In 1 719 ^^Sliding Alley which hath lain open for upwards 
of thirty years, Benjamin Williams hath lately shut up, 
and the neighbors protest." In 1837 it was called Jack- 
son Avenue. Lime Alley was named in 1708, now in- 
corporated in the playground. It was a highway in 1666. 
Foster Street was Guttridges or Goodrich Alley in 1 72 5 ; 
in 1 741, Foster Lane. Henchman Street in 1674-75 
was a cartway of ten feet laid out by Daniel Henchman. 
In 1699 it was called Declination Alley, and in 1708 
Henchman Street. Daniel Henchman was a schoolmaster 
for a few years, 1666—71, and then became a merchant. 
He was one of the captains in King Philip's war. In 1671 
he was granted leave to wharf before his land in Commer- 
cial Street, near the ferry. Greenough Lane in 1698 was 
the lane going down to the yard of the late William 
Greenough. In 1708 John Greenough represented to the 
town that an alley lately named Greenough Alley ''is his 
own property and for his private use." Unity Street was 
part of Bennet's pasture. In 1 710— 11 a new street was 
laid out by Ebenezer Clough, Solomon Townsend, and 
Mathew Butler, in Bennet's pasture. In 171 7— 18 called 
Clough Street and 1733 Unity Street. Benjamin Frank- 
lin owned the house which came to him from Richard 
Dowse, the second husband of his sister Elizabeth, who 
had it from her first husband, Joseph Berry, who died in 
1 719. Franklin allowed his two sisters to live here. 
There was thirty-five years difference in their ages, and 
they did not live happily together, which gave occasion 


for a letter from Franklin to the younger sister urging 
the duty of forbearance. 

Commercial Street. In the Book of Possessions the 
estates were on the river and bay. In 1642 Walter 
Merry was ordered to leave open "the highway upon the 
seabank over which he hath built a roof." In 1650, 
"ordered that there shall be a way of a rod broad by the 
water side from the Battery to Charlestown ferry place." 
In 1 708, called "Lyn Street" from the Battery to the ferry, 
and "Ferry way" from there to the mill stream (Prince 
Street). In 1834, all called Commercial Street. After 
the Revolution there was great desolation in Lyn Street, 
and it was widened. It was noted for its shipyards, and 
many famous ships and men of war have been built along 
its water front. Pemberton says, in 1794: "Shipbuilding 
was formerly carried on at upwards of twenty-seven dock- 
yards in the town at one and the same time. In one of 
the yards twelve ships have been launched in twelve 
months. Many of the ships built here were sent directly 
to London with naval shores, whale oil, etc., and to the 
West Indies with fish and lumber. About 1750, when 
paper money was suppressed in the colony, the sale of 
ships lying in England on account of the owners here 
occasioned a great loss. Few ships were built here, and 
ship building gradually declined. Vessels were built in 
country towns not far from where the lumber grows." 
The shipyard of Joshua Gee was at the foot of Copp's 
Hill, which was owned by Silas Atkins in 1764. The 
first war ship was built at the yard of Benjamin Goodwin 
at Hudson's Point, which wharf he bought in 1768. It 
later became Tilly's Wharf. Goodwin also kept a bake- 
house and blacksmith shop, and lived opposite his wharf 
on the corner of Charter Street. The famous ship Con- 
stitution was built by Edmund Hartt at his wharf, now 



called "Constitution Wharf/' which he bought in 
1786. He lived opposite his yard, between the Battery 
and Hanover Street. He bought the yard and house 
of Abiel Ruddock, and it was originally Thornton's ship- 
yard. Thornton was a son-in-law of Walter Merry. The 
Constitution was launched in 1797. Isaac Harris was ap- 
prenticed at this yard and the Skilling brothers carved the 
figure-head and ornaments of "Old Ironsides." The ship- 
yard of William Gray, familiarly called "Billy Gray," one 
of the largest ship owners in the world, was between Prince 
Street and the Point. 

The Globe Tavern was on the northeast corner of Han- 
over Street, the original possession of William Douglas, 
but not mentioned as a tavern until 1741, when it appears 
in the town records. The property was then owned by 
the Greenough family. In 1651 Thomas Ruck, inn- 
keeper, mortgaged his house called "The Swan," near the 
ferry. The Sign of the Logwood Tree was on the south 
side, between North and Hanover Streets. Joseph Par- 
menter bought house and land in 1671-72, and in 1734- 
35 his sister Hannah Emms, widow, sold to John Read the 
house known as the Sign of the Logwood Tree. It had 
been improved as a tavern many years. In 1732 Joseph 
Pearce petitions to remove his license "from the house 
where he lives, the Sign of the Logwood Tree in Lynn 
Street, to the house near Scarletts wharf at the Sign of 
the Queen's Head." 

In 1792 Paul Revere had his foundry on the south 
corner of Foster Street. 


THIS section extends from the mill bridge west 
to Sudbury Street, the estates on Hanover 
Street reaching the mill pond, then along the 
east side of Court and Tremont Streets to School Street, 
down School and Milk Streets to the Cove. It was the 
principal part of the town, the business section, and the 
seat of the government. Therein were the Dock, the 
First Church, the Market Place, — where later the mer- 
chants met "on change," the Prison, the Burying Place, 
and the School. The people in the early days lived over 
their shops, and here warehouses were numerous. 

There was a marked division between the North End 
and the South End, which at the time of which we are 
writing was intensified by the boys, who formed them- 
selves into two parties, the same as in the legislature. 
These were known as the North-enders and the South- 
enders. Pope's day was, according to an old English 
custom, celebrated on the 5th of November, the anni- 
versary of the gunpowder plot. The rivals took occasion 
to celebrate it here something after the manner of the 
carnival in Rome, with extravagances and burlesque, 
and attended with the accustomed noise and hilarity. 
James Otis was at one time employed by the inhabitants, 
when their patience was exhausted by broken windows, 
and general damage to the property, and the boys were 
brought into court. Otis described it as an annual frolic, 
undertaken without malice. Begun in all seriousness the 





custom degenerated ino a turbulent frolic and a trial of 
strength between the two parties. Each party had a 
pope, and each had a pageant representing the pope and 
the devil, and political characters who were unpopular 
were generally caricatured. Each paraded in the part of 
the town not its own, and in the evening met in Union 
Street, where a struggle with fists, sticks, and stones en- 
sued, the object being to capture the pope of the other 
side. If the south won, the pope was carried to the Com- 
mon and burned, and if the north won, it was carried to 
Copp's Hill. Taking advantage of the Stamp Act troubles, 
some of the principal men of the town suggested a union 
of the rivals, and this was carried out with great cere- 
mony, November 5, 1765. Mr. Mackintosh, of the south, 
and Mr. Smith, of the north, appeared in military habits, 
with small canes resting on their left arms, and music 
in front and flank. They met at the Liberty Tree 
and paraded the streets together, and finally burned 
both popes. But it was not a lasting friendship, 
and there was not a final peace until in 1774 
when the patriots saw danger in this rivalry among them- 
selves, and Hancock gave the leaders a handsome dinner 
at the Green Dragon Tavern, and asked them for their 
country's sake to lay aside their animosity. His efforts 
met with success, the company shook hands, and there- 
after the custom was broken, and the celebration be- 
came a thing of the past. 

Hanover Street between Court Street and Mill 
Bridge had the usual variety of names before it received 
the name of Hanover Street in 1708. It was called 
"Houchins Lane," "the way leading out of the town of 
Boston to the water mill," "the broad street," "the town 
street," "lane by the name of the back street leading 
from the Mill Bridge to the/upper part of Prison Lane," 


"the long street called Mill Street leading from the ferry- 
as high up in the town as to the house formerly Jeremiah 

Thomas Marshall, shoemaker, had a house and half 
acre for a garden on the southwest corner of Hanover and 
Marshall Streets. He is first mentioned February 1635— 
36, when he was chosen to keep the ferry to Charlestown. 
In 1636 Hanover and Union Streets were to be laid out 
by his house. He was selectman in 1636, and in that year 
was considered one of the richer inhabitants, and gave 
6s. 8d. towards the school fund. In 1692 part of his 
estate was bought by Thomas Child, painter. He placed 
the coat of arms of the ancient guild of painters, granted 
in i486, on his house, and above the shield, "T.K." 
(Thomas and Katherine his wife) "1701. amor et obedi- 
entia." These arms are still to be seen on a new build- 
ing, built on the site. The stone which was the grinder 
of the paint mill stands on a fragment of the trough, 
just behind the house on Marshall Street. A local anti- 
quarian said that the owner of an ale shop near by in 
1737 had the present inscription, "Boston Stone," en- 
graved upon it in imitation of the London stone. Sewall 
records, November 10, 1706: 

This morning 

Thomas Child the painter died, 
Tom ChUd hath often painted death 
But never to the life before, 
Doing it now he is out of breath, 
He paints it once and paints no more. 

The Blue Ball, on the west corner of Union Street, was 
first owned by James Everell, shoemaker, and in 1673 
bought by Willian Stoughton; this was inherited by his 
niece, Mehitable Cooper. In 1711 it was sold to Josiah 
Franklin, and is noted as the boyhood home of Benjamin 


Franklin. The widening of the street obliterates the 
exact spot. 

William Stoughton was the son of Colonel Israel Stough- 
ton, commander of the American forces in the Pequot War. 
He was born in Dorchester in 1631, and always lived 
there, though he was largely interested in real estate in 
Boston. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1650, 
and was educated for the ministry, but declined all offers 
to be a settled minister and entered public life, where he 
held many responsible offices and was the first chief 
justice under the new charter. He was appointed lieuten- 
ant governor in 1692, and served until his death in 1701, 
being active governor from 1694. He was a stern Puri- 
tan and indifferent to popular favor. His time was chiefly 
occupied with the wars with the French and their allies, 
the Indians. 

Benjamin Hallowell, the third of the name, lived be- 
tween Union and Elm Streets on the southeast side. He 
bought the house in 1759 and it was confiscated in 1779, 
and sold to John Coffin Jones, who also bought other 
estates in the neighborhood. Hallowell married Mary 
Boylston, the daughter of Thomas. He was the royal 
comptroller of customs, and his house was ransacked by 
the mob August 26, 1765. He removed to Jamaica Plain, 
and went to Halifax with the army in 1776 with a family 
of seven. William Tailer lived at the southwest corner 
of Elm Street, a house which he bought in 1666—67. He 
married Rebecca Stoughton, daughter of Israel Stoughton, 
of Dorchester. He was a suicide in 1682, mourned by 
all, for he was a universal favorite, and held in high esteem 
for the fidelity and honor with which he discharged his 
public trusts. Andros lived with his widow Rebecca, and 
August 28, 1699, Lord Bellomont wrote to the Lords of 
Trade, and said he "pays one hundred pounds a year for 


a house besides the charge for a stable. There is a very 
good house plot where Sir Edmund Andros lived in the 
best part of the town, etc." Edward Lyde bought Tailer's 
house in 170 1—2. 

Andros came of a good family, had high connections, 
and was born in London in 1637. As a friend of the 
Duke of York, it was natural that when York ascended 
the throne as James II he should receive the appointment 
in the colonies. He arrived in Boston Harbor, Sunday, 
December 19, 1686, and the next day landed at Long 
Wharf, where he was met by the merchants and the 
militia and was escorted to the town house where his 
commission was read. Sewall says he was in a scarlet 
coat, laced, and his suite also came in scarlet. He was 
unpopular from the first, and followed his master the 
king, in trying to oppress the people. He made many 
laws which struck at their rights, and suppressed fasts and 
thanksgivings, and every remonstrance against grievances 
was considered as treason. The most serious of his acts 
was his attack on the land titles, his method of raising 
taxes, and the establishment of the Church of England. 

The people resisted these oppressions, and it needed 
but a spark to kindle the flame and arouse the people. 
This came when John Winslow brought the news on his 
arrival from the island of Nevis that the Prince of Orange 
had landed in England. April 18, 1689, the people took 
the matter into their own hands. It was on Thursday, the 
day of the weekly lecture at the First Church, when 
people of the neighboring towns were wont to be among 
the hearers. Soon there was a rumor that men were collect- 
ing at the north as well as the south end of the town. 
About nine o'clock the drums beat and an ensign 
was set up on the beacon on Beacon Hill to warn 
the country. Capain George, of the Rose frigate. 


then in the harbor, was arrested and secured in 
Mr. Colman's house, and Captain Hill marched 
his company up State Street, escorting the magistrates 
of the old court, who conferred in the Council 
chamber, and at noon a declaration of rights was 
read from the balcony on the eastern side of the town 
house. Meantime, Randolph, Bullivant, and others of 
the governor's party, had been arrested and Andros had 
taken refuge in Fort Hill. Here he was summoned to 
surrender by a company under John Nelson, and was taken 
under guard to the town house, and from there to the 
house of his treasurer, John Usher, on the northwest 
corner of State and Devonshire Streets. He was finally 
sent to England. 

John Nelson lived just beyond between Elm and Court 
Streets in a house he bought in 1681—82. He married 
Elizabeth Tailer, daughter of William and Rebecca. He 
took a prominent part in the overthrow of Andros, and 
was one of the Council of Safety in 1689, but, not having 
a prominent part in the new government, he went to 
Nova Scotia. He was taken prisoner by the French, 
suffered many vicissitudes in prison in France for two 
years, and was released at the Peace of Ryswick. He 
finally, after ten or twelve years' absence, returned to his 
family and died in 1734, aged eighty-one, only a few 
weeks after the death of his wife. He was a nephew of 
Sir Thomas Temple. 

On the northwest side of Hanover Street, on the south- 
west corner of Mill Creek, was the property of Bar- 
tholomew Cheever, which he acquired as early as 1653, 
and which is still in the possession of the family. By the 
will of William Downs Cheever, in 1788, it went to his 
daughter Elizabeth, and she gave it to Dr. George C. 
Shattuck in 1827. 


On the west corner of Portland Street Edward Cricke 
bought a house in 1685, which his widow, Deborah Cricke, 
sold in 1705 to Thomas Gwin, innholder, as the house 
commonly known as the "Half Moon." Then came the 
house of Samuel Ravenscroft, which he bought in 1687 
and sold in 1691—92 to Gregory Sugar. Ravenscroft was 
one of the founders of King's Chapel, and one of those 
imprisoned for sympathy with Andros. He went to Eng- 
land soon after. 

The Rev. Benjamin Colman lived in the house on the 
site of the present American House, on the north side of 
Hanover Street, west of Portland Street, which he bought 
in 1747. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1692. 
He then went to England, where he met with many ad- 
ventures, being captured by a French pirate and cast 
into prison in France; but was soon set at liberty and 
went to England, where he preached in various places. 
When the Brattle Square Church was formed, his friends 
wrote to him urging him to accept the pastorate, and he 
arrived in Boston in November, 1699. The church was 
opened for the first time December 24, 1699. It met 
with much opposition from other churches on account of 
its manifesto, or confession of faith, especially from the 
Mathers and Rev. James Allen of the First Church. 
Colman received the degree of D.D. from Glasgow, and 
for fifty years was an overseer of Harvard College. He 
was asked to become its president, but, as he met 
with opposition in the House, where he was not popular, 
he declined the honor. He was influential in the Council 
chamber, where, as his biographer (Turell) says, "He was 
a good master of address and carried all the politeness 
of a court about him, and he respected the majority." 
Some thought he interfered too much in secular matters. 
He was employed by the Court in preparing addresses for 


important occasions. His son-in-law, Ebenezer Turell, 
who married his daughter Jane, wrote of him, "His form 
was spare and slender, but of a stature tall, erect and 
above the common height; his complexion fair and deli- 
cate; his aspect and mien benign and graceful, and his 
whole appearance amiable and venerable." Dr. Barnard, 
in a "Sketch of New England Ministers," writes, "A most 
gentlemanly man of polite aspect and conversation, very- 
extensive erudition, great devotion of spirit and behavior, 
a charming and admired preacher, extensively serviceable 
to the college and country, whose works breathe his ex- 
alted and devoted spirit." 

Peter Chardon bought the house in 1752, and here Dr. 
Joseph Warren was a tenant in 1775. 

At the north corner of Court Street was the Orange 
Tree Inn. The land was first granted to Edmund Jack- 
son. Bozoon Allen bought it in 1678, and in 1700 he con- 
veyed to Francis Cook the "Orange Tree Inn." It re- 
mained with his heirs until after 1798. In that year it 
was unoccupied. In 1712 Jonathan Wardell, who married 
Frances Cook, was licensed, and his wife from 1724 to 
1746. In 1 716 and later it was the starting place for the 
stage coach for Newport. 

On the south corner was Concert Hall. According 
to the Book of Possessions, Jeremiah Houchin had his 
house and garden here, and tan yard. After passing 
through several hands, Gilbert and Louis Deblois bought 
it in 1749. In 1798 it was owned by John Amory, and 
James Vila was the occupier. He had been a tenant, and 
was licensed as an innkeeper for some years. In the begin- 
ning of the century there came to be a demand for public 
concerts, other than sacred music, and in 1731 there 
appeared an advertisement of the first publicly announced 
concert in America, "to be performed on sundry instru- 


ments at Mr. Pelham's great room, being the house of the 
late Dr. Noyes near the Sun Tavern, Dock Square." 
Four such concerts were announced the following year, 
and in 1744 more were held in Faneuil Hall. In 1733 and 
1736 Mr. Deblois advertised concerts in Wings Lane. In 
1754 Gilbert Deblois, organist at King's Chapel, with his 
brother Louis, built Concert Hall. Their shop, the Crown 
and Comb, was on the ground floor, and the concert room 
above. For nearly a century it was a musical rendezvous, 
and it was not demolished until 1869, when Hanover Street 
was widened. Concerts began at six o'clock, and the tickets 
were two shillings. The hall was also used for meetings 
of the Grand Masons and other societies. Governor Han- 
cock gave a grand ball here in honor of Count D'Estaing 
and the officers of his fleet, in 1778. 

There is a group of narrow streets between Union and 
Blackstone Streets, east of Hanover Street, which are his- 
torically famous as well as among the most curious in the 
city at the present time. In 1652 Thomas Marshall 
gave "a hieway through his grounds, relinquished 
later, but finally laid out," and this was the origin of 
Marshall Street. On this narrow street lived Ebenezer 
Hancock, a younger brother of the governor, and deputy 
paymaster of the Continental army. August, 1778, Count 
D'Estaing arrived with his fleet, bringing French silver 
crowns with which to pay the wages of our army, long in 
arrears. Ebenezer Hancock bought the house of his 
brother John in 1785. This house is also on Creek 
Square, and on this lane there still remains a row of brick 
houses built by John Hancock, who bought almost all the 
land on the northeast side of the Square in 1 764. In 1665 
Creek Square was "part of the mill creek that runs between 
Scottows land and that of Samuel Bennet," in 1677 "the 
lane that Thomas Marshal laid out leading down to the 


dock." Joshua Scottow's dock was later Ballantine's Dock. 
In 1 708 it was called Creek Square. In 1678 Marsh Lane 
was "the lane that leads from the street [Union Street] to 
the warehouse of WiUiam Browne and George Curwin," 
in 1708, Marsh Lane. Salt Lane in 1699 was "a high- 
way from the street [Union Street] to James Russel's 
land"; in 1798, Salt Lane. At the end of Marshall 
Street on Union Street, is the old so-called "Capen 
House." Thomas Stoddard bought it in 1742 and 
his daughter Patience, with her husband, Hopestill 
Capen, inherited it. Here in the autumn of 1769 Ben- 
jamin Thompson of Woburn was apprenticed to Llope- 
still Capen. He was at one time on the side of the colony, 
but he turned loyalist, and was sent to England, but re- 
turned to America. After the war he was knighted, and 
entered the service of the Elector of Bavaria, who made 
him a count, and he took the title of Rumford, from the 
town in New Hampshire where he lived for a time, and 
which later became Concord. He left a large bequest to 
Harvard College. This corner is also interesting in con- 
nection with the Massachusetts Spy, which from 1771 to 
1775 was printed by Isaiah Thomas at the south corner of 
Marshall Lane, whose motto on the paper was: ''Open to 
all parties but influenced by none." In spite of this, 
Thomas was a strong patriot, and soon took his press to 
Cambridge until better times came to Boston. 

Union Street was ordered laid out in 1636, and was 
called by various names, "street that goes to the pond," 
"street to the dock," "Goodman Matson's lane," "Fore 
street leading to Starr Tavern"; in 1708, "Union Street." 
The part north of Hanover Street was often known as 
Green Dragon Lane. The conduit, a large reservoir 
twelve feet square and covered with planks, was erected 
in 1649 at the corner of Union and North Streets, and 


William Tyng gave the company leave to find a spring 
or well in his pasture and to lay pipes. It was built to 
supply fresh water to the families in the neighborhood and 
to be used in case of fire. Springs and pumps were in all 
parts of the town, but this was the first attempt at water 

The most noted building on Union Street was the 
Green Dragon Tavern, on the west side, north of Hanover 
Street. According to the Book of Possessions, James 
Johnson owned three fourths of an acre on the mill 
pond, and the estate which separated him from Hanover 
Street was owned by John Davis. In 1646 Johnson 
deeded his lands to Thomas Marshall, and Marshall to 
Thomas Hawkins, baker. In 1645 Davis had sold his 
land to John Trotman, whose wife Katharine the same 
day conveyed to Thomas Hawkins. Hawkins mortagaged 
the property to Rev. Thomas Thatcher, whom we have 
seen married the widow Sheaffe, and her daughter 
Mehitable married her cousin, Samson Sheaffe. The 
mortgage was assigned to him, and he took possession 
January, 1671—72. The next year he sold part to John 
Howlett (see Star Tavern), and the western part, known 
as the "Baker's Arms," to William Stoughton. Stoughton 
died in 1701, and this estate fell to his niece, Mehitable, 
wife of Captain Thomas Cooper. She later married Peter 
Sargent, and took for a third husband Simeon Stoddard. 
In 1743 her son, the Rev. William Cooper, conveyed 
the brick dwelling called the Green Dragon Tavern to Dr. 
William Douglass. On the division of the estate of Doug- 
lass, this came to his sister, Catharine Kerr, who in 1765 
conveyed to the St. Andrew's Lodge of Free Masons. In 
1798 it was described as "a brick dwelling, three stories, 
thirty-nine windows, with stable, value $3000." Exactly 
when the name was changed from Baker's Arms to Green 


Dragon we do not know. Hawkins died about 1680, and 
his widow married John Stebbins and continued the busi- 
ness. In 1 714 WiUiam Patten, late of Charlestown, 
''petitions to sell strong drink as an innholder at the 
Green Dragon in the room of Richard Pullen who hath 
quitted his license there." In 1723 Lately Gee adver- 
tised good ship bread at the Baker's Arms. He bought 
this house in 1720, just west of Portland Street, and sold 
it in 1726. He was licensed here in 1723. 

The Star Tavern was on the northwest corner of Union 
and Hanover Streets, next to the Green Dragon. Sheaffe 
sold land to John Howlett as above. In 1676 Susannah, 
wife of Howlett, conveyed to Andrew Neale in the absence 
of her husband, from whom she had a power of attorney. 
In 1 709-10 the heirs of Neale deeded to John Borland "the 
house by the name of the Star, now occupied by Stephen 
North and Charles Salter." John Borland, Jr., inherited 
in 1727, and in 1787 Jonathan Simpson and wife Jane 
(Borland) deeded to William Frobisher, and he and 
Thomas Dillaway occupied it in 1798, when it was "a 
wooden house, two stories, twenty-eight windows, valued 
at $3000." In 1699 the Star Inn is mentioned, and in 1700 
it was known as the "Star Ale House." March 1719- 
20, Richard Pullen was at the Sign of the Star, where a 
woman's time was for sale. In 1722 John Thing was 
licensed, and here he died two years later. In 1737 it 
was called the house "formerly the Star Tavern." 

Link Alley was a back lane leading from the Star 
Tavern to the mill. It was known at the time of the Book 
of Possessions, and called Link Alley in 1708. It is now 
covered with buildings. 

On the west side of Union Street, south of Hanover 
Street, in 1663 John Button deeded to Edmund Jacklin 
the house known as the Blue Bell, and part of his land 


near the corner of North Street was bought by William 
Harrison in 1679, of whom Sewall writes, "Aug. 5, 1686, 
William Harrison is buried, which is the first I know of 
buried with the Common Prayer Book in Boston. He 
was formerly Mr. Randolph's landlord." 

Edward Randolph was a messenger sent in 1676 to re- 
port on the conditions he found in the colonies, and he 
proved a veritable thorn in the flesh to the colony for 
many years, until he was arrested on the fall of Andros 
and sent to England in 1689. He does not seem to have 
any settled abode in the town. Sewall notes that he 
arrived December 17, 1688, with his new wife and family, 
and that "he dwells in Hezekiah Usher's house, where 
ministers used to meet." This was on the north side of 
State Street. 

May, 1 71 7, William Downes, upholder, advertised 
at the Sign of the Crown, on the west side, 
which he had bought in 1715. October, 1726, 
Nathaniel Brick, shopkeeper, was at the Sign of 
the Cornfields; having removed from the west side was 
now on the east side, at the same sign. March, 1731— 32 ; 
corks were to be sold by Thomas Russell, brazier, next 
door to the Buck's Head in Union Street. William Courser, 
cobbler and innkeeper, who was the first town crier, 
lived at the east side at the south corner of Marshall 
Street, and kept an inn here. According to the Book of 
Possessions he had his lot on Devonshire Street, and also 
owned land on Washington Street, between State Street 
and Dock Square. 

Of the streets leading from Hanover Street on the 
west side, to the pond there were, beside Union Street, 
Friend and Portland Streets. Friend Street is repre- 
sented on Bonner's map of 1722, but without a name. In 
1732 it was called Friend Street. On the east side it was 


a passageway between the land of William Stoughton and 
Josiah Cobham in 1699; in 1708, called "Minot's 
Court"; in 1798 "Scott's Court"; in 1854 Friend Street 
was extended to the Dock over part of Minot's Court. 

Portland Street was laid out through the land of 
Henry Pease, who in 1639 promised to "lay out a highway 
through his ground where he dwelleth, from the cove 
near his dwelling unto the crossway by Everells." Pease 
was one of those who joined the church in 1630, and 
it would be interesting to know why he selected this 
out-of-the-way spot for his first venture. The street 
was at one time called Sendall's Lane from Samuel 
Sendall, cooper and brickburner, who owned all the land 
on the northeast side, and died in 1684. In 1708 it 
was named Cold Lane. In 1867 it was extended across 
what was the pond and named Portland Street. 

On the southeast side of Hanover Street there was Elm 
Street, which according to the Book of Possessions was 
merely a lane. Other names at various times were, "the 
lane leading north from the Sign of the Castle"; "Hud- 
son's lane"; in 1707, "George Street, now called Wings 
Lane." John Saffin, merchant, who held important town 
offices and was deputy and speaker in 1684, lived on 
Elm Street. October 1731, James Vincent "has removed 
from Cambridge Street near the Bowling Green to the 
Blue Dog at the upper end of Wings lane." In 1733 Mr. 
Deblois advertised that "there will be a Concert of vocal 
and instrumental music in Wings lane at his house, tickets 
to be had at Mr. Frederick Hamilton's, grocer, near the 
Sign of the Cornfields in Union Street, at 5s. each." 

Court Street. In the Book of Possessions Sudbury 
Street extended to School Street, and that part of Court 
Street between Washington and Tremont Streets was 
called "Centrehill Street," "the lane," etc., and 


at other times, "street leading to the Market Place," 
"prison lane," "broad street that leads from the mar- 
ket place towards the house builded by Mr. Cotton"; 
in 1708, "Queen Street." That part between Tre- 
mont and Hanover Streets was divided by the 
Scollay's Buildings, which in 1657 was "the land betwixt 
the highways." The way on the hill was "the upper way" 
and "street leading to the brow of the hill near the 
house of Simon Lynde." In 1784 Gilbert and Louis 
Deblois petitioned for the widening of Queen Street at 
Concert Hall. "It is still so narrow that two carts can- 
not pass with safety, and as there are several shops 
opposite belonging to the town, much out of repair," the 
town is asked to widen at this point, "which will make the 
shops more convenient and fetch equal rent." It was 
not until 1807 that Court Street was extended through 
what had hitherto been Cambridge Street from the corner 
of Sudbury Street to Bowdoin Square. In 1652—53 the 
town conveyed part of the land on which the Scollay's 
Buildings later stood, to Isaac Cullimore and Macklin 
Knight, and this was apparently owned by Joseph Belknap 
in 1657. Ill 1696 the town let it to him for ninety-nine 
years. In 1774 the town conveyed part of this to William 
Vassal, and he to Patrick Jeffrey in 1791. Buildings 
were then on the land. 

November 24, 1684, the town agreed with John Cole to 
keep a free school to teach the children of the town to 
read and write, and in 1697 the selectmen "ask leave to 
build a Writing School on a vacant piece of land between 
Capt. Legg's and Mr. Belknap's 28X16X7." December 
20, 1698, Samuel Sewall, who had inherited through his 
wife the Cotton estate, asked leave to have the bounds de- 
fined. "The south corner of the schoolhouse is fifty- 
five feet from the house of Capt. Legg (on the corner 


of Tremont and Court Streets), from the north 
corner of the schoolhouse to the south post of 
Capt. Sewall's gate, being the breadth across the 
highway is fifty-three feet four inches. From the 
east corner of the schoolhouse cross the highway to the 
northwest gate post of the house late of Mr. Perkis is 
thirty-six feet. From the east corner of the schoolhouse 
to the land formerly belonging to John Mears eleven pole 
and one foot." A house was also built for the master. 
October, 1790, a committee was appointed to sell the 
house and land occupied by Mr. Carter, and it was sold 
to William Scollay. A schoolhouse of two stories was 
to be erected in School Street, to accommodate the chil- 
dren of the center of the town with a reading and writing 
school. This was erected on the town land on the north 
side of School Street, and called the "Centre Writing 
School." Schoolmasters of the Free Writing School in 
Court Street, John Cole, 1684— 17 14; Jacob Sheaffe, 1714- 
32, transferred to the school in the Common; Edward 
Mills, 1722—32—33; Samuel Holyoke, 1733—54; John 
Proctor, Jr., 1754-73; James Carter, usher, 1768-73, 
master, 1773—; Abiel Holbrook, usher, 1773—75; John 
Fox, usher, 1784. 

The present Cornhill was laid out in 18 16. The 
Cornhill corporation bought a number of estates, and it 
is described as beginning at the southeast corner of a 
building the property of the heirs of William Scollay, etc. 
On the completion of the street, the eastern part of Scol- 
lay's Buildings, long known as "Carter's School," was 
taken down, to make a free passage from Tremont Street 
to Cornhill. The street was first to be called Cheapside, 
but soon became Market Street, and, in 1829, Cornhill. 

The estate on the east corner of Brattle Street was the 
original possession of Joshua Scottow, but acquired by 


Nathaniel Williams, who in 1661 conveyed to his daughter 
Mary (WilKams) and her husband Joseph Belknap. 
Nathaniel Williams, Jr., possessed it a little later, and 
he deeded it in 1743 to his daughter Mary, the wife of 
John Smibert, the painter. They had lived here 
previously, for he advertised paints for sale here in 1734. 
Smibert was a Scotchman who came in 1728 and married 
Mary Williams in 1730. His studio was later occupied by 
John Trumbull, the historical painter, and other artists. 

The Prison was on the south side of Court Street, on 
the present site of the new wing of the City Hall, and for 
some years the House of Correction was here also. In 
1689 Joseph Dudley and other members of the Andros 
government were imprisoned here, and in 1687 the keeper, 
Caleb Ray, was allowed a sum for keeping the French and 
Indian prisoners. In 1699 Captain Kidd was also brought 
here. By 1 705 a stone building had been erected, and the 
old wooden one was to be repaired and made fit for 
keeping prisoners. In 1720—21 there were proposals to 
separate the male and female prisoners. Both men and 
women were sent to jail for the least infringement of the 
laws — for non-attendance at church, for debt, servants 
for disobeying their masters, etc., as well as for more 
serious offenses. Some of the keepers were Richard 
Brackett, 1637; William Wilson, 1644; George Munnings, 
1646—54, who was allowed five pounds for loss of an 
eye in the voyage to Block Island in the service of his 
country. William Salter, 1654—64; Thomas Matson, 
1673-74; Robert Earl, 1679; Samuel Massey, 1688; 
Caleb Ray in 1687, but he was removed in 1699 for 
allowing prisoners to escape. John Arnold and Daniel 
Willard followed in 1700; Seth Smith, 1 711— 21; David 
Melvil in 1722. In 1752 the Probate office was in 
Devonshire Street, and in 1754 a memorial was presented 


asking the Court for a brick building. This was accorded, 
and it was finished in 1754. As early as July 30, 1765, 
the Court of Sessions had appointed a committee to con- 
sider the expediency of building a new courthouse and 
a new jail. The jail was begun August 12, 1766, and 
finished March 21, 1767. On completion of the jail a 
new courthouse was ordered. May 4, 1768, "ordered 
that the brick building erected a few years since on the 
land belonging to the county near the gaol for an edifice 
for the Court of Probate be taken down; that a new 
Court House be erected on the land belonging to the 
county in Queen Street (on part thereof the old stone 
jail lately stood) and on the lower floor a part be set 
off for the Registry of Deeds, etc. This Court House was 
finished and the first session of the Court of General 
Sessions was held in it April 18,1769." (Taken from the 
Minute Book of the Court.) 

In 1794 Thomas Pemberton writes: "The new stone 
jail is a large commodious building and stands on the 
ground where formerly stood a wooden building called 
the debtor's jail, a little back from Court Street. It is 
three stories in height and divided into three parts. The 
upper is appropriated to debtors. The new Court House 
is built on the front of said street, partly on the ground 
where the old stone jail stood, which made an uncouth 
appearance and was taken down. It is a large handsome 
building of brick three stories high, and has an octagonal 
cupola." A new court house of stone was erected in 18 10 
on land between Court and School Streets. When the 
courts removed, in 1836, to a new building (the one 
taken down in 191 1) the Probate office remained in the 
former building. 

There were various forms of punishments besides being 
put into prison. In 1639 notices of lost pigs were to be 


set upon the "whipping post." May 24, 1677, "And for 
the better putting a restraint and securing offenders that 
shall transgress the laws, being laid hold of by any of 
the inhabitants, they shall be carried forth and put into 
a cage in Boston, which is appointed to be forthwith 
by the selectmen set up in the market place, there to 
remain till authority shall examine the person offending 
and give orders for his punishment." September 22, 
1 68 1, Increase Mather writes in his diary that a negro 
woman who burned two houses in Roxbury wherein a 
child was burned to death, was herself burned to death, 
"the first that hath suffered such a death in New Eng- 
land." July 10, 1685, Dr. Gates was whipped and set in 
the pillory before the Exchange for perjury, as Sewall 
tells us, and he also says that in 1688 a whipping post 
was set up by the middle watch house (State Street). In 
1707 a cage was set up to join the watch house at the 
north end, and in 1 7 1 2 a cage was to be placed at the upper 
end of Queen Street, and the whipping post and stocks 
to be placed there also. November 17,1784, Mr. Boyn- 
ton, one of the grand jury, gave notice that the town 
was without stocks for the punishment of drunkards. 
October 21, 1799, "several male and female rogues were 
publicly whipped and pilloried on Friday last"; said the 
Boston Gazette, "We are glad that the scene of their 
punishments has been removed from State Street to the 

The house at the north corner of Tremont and Court 
Streets was the original possession of William Dinely, the 
barber surgeon. Johnson, in his "Wonder Working," 
says: "This barber was more than ordinarily laborious 
to draw men from those sinful errors that were formerly 
so frequent, now overthrown by the blessing of the Lord. 
He having a fit opportunity by reason of his trade: so 


soon as they were set down in his chair he would commonly 
be cutting off their hair and the truth together." Win- 
throp tells us that, in 1639, a man in Roxbury suffering 
from a toothache sent for Dinely by a maid, and they were 
lost in a storm and both found frozen on the Neck. A 
child born soon after was called Fathergone Dinely. His 
widow married Richard Croychley who owned the next 
lot. Jacob Wendell bought the house in 1733, and his 
nephew John Wendell in 1738. In 1759 George Cradock 
had his custom house office here, and it was a boarding 
house kept by Joseph Ingersoll in 1789, and Washington 
lodged here. Later, Harrison Gray Otis and Daniel Web- 
ster had their law offices here. 

The next lot came into possession of Daniel Henchman, 
the bookseller. He was the son of Daniel Henchman of 
the North End and was born in 1688-89. Thomas 
Hancock served his time with him and married his daugh- 
ter Lydia. At her death she left the estate to the Brattle 
Square Church for a parsonage. In 1728 Daniel Hench- 
man advertised, "all persons who will be at the pains to 
save linen rags and bring them to his shop over against the 
old Brick Meeting House will be paid." This shop was at 
the south corner of State and Washington Streets and 
then owned by Andrew Faneuil. 

On the north side of Court Street John Biggs had his 
house lot. He married Mary Dassett, who married, 
second, Capt. John Minot. She bequeathed the property to 
her brother, John Dassett, cordwainer, and his executors 
deeded part to Samuel Kneeland, printer in 1755. When 
the wife of John Dassett died, in 1723, she was noticed 
as "Martha the wife of John Dassett, a dutiful wife, a 
chaste widow and a desirable mother in law." In 1700 
Dassett granted land for a free passage to run from Prison 
Lane to the land belonging to the heirs of Richard Bel- 


lingham. This was Franklin Avenue, at one time 
called Dassett or Dossett Lane. The lot conveyed to 
Kneeland was on the west corner of the avenue, and his 
executors deeded to John Gill in 1770, and Moses Gill 
bought it of his administrator in 1786. Here was the print- 
ing office of the Boston Gazette, and here the patriots held 
their meetings and formed the "Long Room Club" in the 
room over the printing office. All the leading patriots were 
members: Otis, Hancock, Adams, Warren, Revere, Rev. 
Samuel Cooper, William Cooper, the town clerk, etc. 
While in the hands of Kneeland, James Franklin had his 
stand here and printed the New England C our ant. He 
was helped by his brother Benjamin, but we will not 
go into their troubles here. 

A few doors east of Franklin Avenue was the house 
bought by John Adams in 1772, which he occupied for 
a few years. The house next east to that in which he 
lived he sold to John Quincy Adams in 1793. May 2, 
1 715, William Randle, japanner, advertised at the Sign 
of the Cabbinett, in Queen Street, near the Town House. 
May 3, 1 714, "This is to give notice that the Bowling 
Green formerly belonging to Mr. James Ivers in Cam- 
bridge Street doth now belong to Daniel Stevens at the 
British Coffee House in Queen Street." He soon removed 
to Ann Street. 

Brattle Street was laid out through the possessions 
of Richard Bellingham on the south side and William 
Tyng on the north side. Tyng bought from 
William Coddington in 1639, and Thomas Brattle and 
his wife Elizabeth (Tyng) inherited. On the north corner 
of Court Street was the possession of Benjamin Thwing, 
and the south corner Joseph Belknap acquired at an early 
date. In 1673 the western part of the street was a pass- 
age or alley leading from the street to the garden of 


Joseph Belknap. In 1697 this had developed into "a new 
street," and also called Hilliers Lane. The eastern part 
included Tyngs Alley and Coopers Alley, both of which 
were finally included in the extension of Washington 
Street, now a part of Adams Square. 

Thomas Brattle was a wealthy merchant who died in 
1683. His son Thomas, treasurer of Harvard College, 
who died unmarried, sold off much of the property. In 
1694 Brattle Square was a piece of pasture "which is to 
lie in common as a passage way for the owners of the 

Brattle Square Church was organized as a liberal church, 
as opposed to the Calvinism preached in the other 
churches, which still maintained the early customs and 
prejudices. In January, 1697—98, Thomas Brattle con- 
veyed land called "Brattle's Close" on the north side of 
Brattle Street, and a meeting house was built. As we 
have seen, Benjamin Colman was chosen pastor, and the 
founders issued a manifesto or declaration setting forth 
their liberal policy, and hence it was known as the 
"Manifesto Church." May 23, 1716, WilHam Cooper 
was ordained as colleague to Colman. He married Judith 
Sewall and died in 1743. His son, Samuel Cooper, suc- 
ceeded him in the office, and was known as "Silver tongue 
Sam," He was prominent in the eventful days just be- 
fore the Revolution and exerted a great influence at the 
time. An instance of the intelligence sent to the leading 
patriots is that on the arrival of. two vessels off Marble- 
head, April 8, 1775, being Sunday, Dr. Cooper, who was 
considered a notorious rebel, was officiating at his church, 
and a notice being given him he feigned illness, sent an- 
other clergyman to officiate in the evening, and left the 
town. He died in 1783. He was succeeded by Peter 
Thatcher, then settled in Maiden, who was the son of 


Oxenbridge Thatcher, and was ordained in Maiden in 
1770, the year after leaving college. It was unusual at 
that time to call a minister from another church, and it 
gave rise to much discussion in the papers. It was said 
of him that no young man ever preached to such crowded 
assemblies, and Whitefield called him the "Young Elijah." 
He died in 1802, and his successors were Joseph Buck- 
minster, Edward Everett, and others. In 1876 the build- 
ing was sold, and the society is now extinct. 

In October 1727 there was a shock of earthquake, which 
aroused great fear. Governor Dummer proclaimed a day 
of fasting and prayer, and all the ministers preached on 
the subject. The excitement soon died out, but Dr. Col- 
man kept the subject of the fear of the Lord before the 
people, and it was greatly owing to him that George 
Whitefield, of the Church of England, came to America 
in 1740. He preached for the most part in Congrega- 
tional churches, neglecting the Chapel. He preached first 
in Dr. Colman's church, and later on the Common, and 
always to large audiences. Rev. Charles Chauncey, of 
the First Church, warned the people against religious 
excitement. Like all revivals, it soon died out. In his 
journal, Whitefield says that he was met on his first visit 
to Boston by several gentlemen who conducted him to 
the house of John Staniford, a brother-in-law of Dr. Col- 
man. Staniford lived on the north side of Cambridge 
Street, near Bowdoin Square. 

William Bollan was an agent of the colony in England, 
1745—62, and when in Boston he lived in Brattle Square, 
in one of the houses belonging to Jeremiah Allen. He 
was there in 1749. He married Frances, daughter of 
Governor Shirley, and for some years was a prominent 
character. John Adams writes in his Diary, "April 1760 
moved into town to the White House, as it was called, in 


Brattle Square. Mr. Bollan lived here formerly for many 

John Adams first became prominent in public affairs 
December i8, 1765, when at the suggestion of his cousin, 
Samuel Adams, the town voted him a member of a com- 
mittee with Jeremiah Gridley and James Otis as counsel 
to appear before the governor and council in support of 
a memorial praying that the courts be opened. He was 
attorney for Preston after the Boston Massacre, and he 
afterwards said that though it procured him anxiety and 
obliquity it was one of the most generous, manly, and 
disinterested actions of his whole life, and one of the best 
services he ever rendered to his country, for judgment of 
death against the soldiers would have been a fatal stain 
upon his country. He was chosen representative, and 
put upon many of the most important committees. When 
he was living in Brattle Square he wrote that when the 
troops were landed, in October, 1768, during the fall and 
winter a regiment was exercised in front of his house, 
which was most annoying. April, 1769, he removed to a 
house on the southwest side of Portland Street, belonging 
to Mr. Fairweather. The home of Adams was in Braintree 
(Quincy), and his life belongs more to the nation than 
especially to Boston. 

William Cooper, the town clerk for many years (1761— 
1809), was the son of the Rev. WilHam Cooper and Judith 
(Sewall), and was born in 172 1. He married Katherine 
Wendell, and had seventeen children. He took an active 
part in all town affairs, and was a member of many im- 
portant committees. He was a fervent patriot, and left 
the town during the siege. In 1 768 he was a tenant in one 
of the Allen houses in Brattle Square, and in 1798 we 
find him a tenant of Increase Sumner on the south side of 
Hanover Street, not far from Court Street. 


On the west side of Brattle Square was the first Quaker 
Meeting House. The land was bought in 1709 and sold 
in 1729. Opposite Franklin Avenue was the sugar house 
of James Smith and James Murray, which was used for 
barracks by the British during the siege. Dr. Zabdiel 
Boylston lived on the east corner of Franklin Avenue, 
in the house which he bought in 1 712— 13. He was the 
first to introduce inoculation for the smallpox. Samuel 
Gore — one of the younger active patriots, one of the 
Tea Party, and one of those who helped remove the guns 
from the gun house in the Common — bought a house on 
the northeast side in 1793. 

Tremont Street, named for the three peaks on Tri- 
mountain, was one of the streets of which no mention is 
made that it was ordered to be laid out. All that part 
south qf School Street was part of the Common and it 
was called "at the entering of the training field"; "lane 
issuing out of the Common"; "highway from Mr. Cotton 
to Mr. Penn"; "the back street leading from prison 
lane by the old burying ground to the common"; in 
1708, "the way from the house of the late Symon 
Ljmde, by Capt. Southacs to Col. Townsend, called 
Tra Mount." The east side only will be considered in 
this section. 

The first mention of a burying place was by Winthrop, 
who says, February 18, 1630-31, Capt. Welden, a hope- 
ful young gentleman, died at Charlestown and was buried 
at Boston with a military funeral." November 9, 1660, 
it was ordered "that the old burying place be wholly 
deserted for some convenient season, and the new places 
only made use of." 

King's Chapel was the first church of the Church of 
England in Boston and it was organized June 15, 
1686. Governor Andros not being able to buy land 


for this purpose, took possession of a corner of the 
Burying Ground, and a building was at once begun, but 
was unfinished when Andros left. Gleaner called this 
"a bare faced squat." The first service was held in June, 
1689, with Robert Radcliffe as the first clergyman, and 
Robert Clarke assistant. In 1710 a subscription for en- 
larging the Chapel was largely paid for by the British 
officers encamped on Noddles Island, previous to the 
expedition against Canada, under the command of Colonel 
Nicholson. In 1748 the ministers and wardens petition 
the town for land to enlarge the church, and this was 
granted by removing the schoolhouse to the opposite side 
of the street. In the interior on the walls were hung the 
escutcheons of the king and governors, which was the 
first innovation in a Boston church as to decoration. The 
hourglass was in the pulpit, as in all churches at that 

Thomas Brattle bequeathed an organ to the church, 
the same as he did to Brattle Square. Radcliffe left with 
Andros, and he was succeeded by Samuel Myles, 1679— 
1728, who had as assistants George Hatten, 1693-96; 
Christopher Bridge, 1699— 1706, and Henry Harris, 1709— 
29. Roger Price was minister, 1729—46, with assistants 
Charles Harwood, 1731—36, Addington Davenport, 1737— 
40, and Stephen Roe, 1741—44. Henry Caner was minis- 
ter, 1747-76, and his assistants were Charles Brooknell, 
1747-55; John Troutbeck, 1755-75. The church was 
closed during the Revolution, and in 1782 James Free- 
man became reader, and then minister, which position he 
held until 1835, and it was under his pastorate that the 
church became Unitarian. Freeman was ordained in 
1787. The greater part of the Hturgy was kept, but the 
trinity was excluded. 

Rev. Samuel Myles, the father, was settled as a Baptist 


minister in Swanzea. His son was of Harvard College, 
1684, and then taught school in Charlestown, and under 
the influence of Radcliffe became Episcopalian. He mar> 
ried Anne Dansy, widow of the Rev. Joseph, who was sent 
from England as his assistant but died on the voyage. He 
lived on the west side of Tremont Street, in the house 
which his widow sold to George Cradock in 1728. Chris- 
topher Bridge arrived in 1699, but as he and Myles did not 
agree Bridge was transferred to New York. 

Roger Price married Elizabeth Bull, who lived in the 
old Bull Tavern at the foot of Summer Street. He bought 
a large estate in Hopkinton. He went to England a 
few years after his resignation, and died there in 1762. 
His son and daughter Elizabeth returned to New England 
and lived in Hopkinton. They tried to regain possession 
of the Bull estate, which had been confiscated as property 
of ahens, but met with but little success. 

On the east side of the street, between the Chapel and 
Court Street, on the original possessions of Henry Mes- 
senger who was a carpenter, and in the town as early 
as 1640, lived William Brattle, who bought the house 
in 1765 and sold it in 1781 to William Scollay. Scollay 
was of Scotch origin, and dealt largely in real estate in 
Boston at the West End, in Franklin Street with Bulfinch 
and Vaughan, and also bought the buildings of the town 
which later were named for him, ^'Scollay's Buildings." He 
sold this house in which he had lived to Ezekiel Price, 
in 1793. Price was secretary to three of the provincial 
governors, Shirley, Pownell, and Bernard, and had various 
official positions under the crown, but became a patriot. 
He was also an insurance broker, with an office in King 
Street. Before buying this estate he lived, in 1789, in 
Williams Court. He died in 1802, aged seventy- four. 

The next house was bought by Henry Caner in 1756, 


who sold it in 1782. This was next to the Burying 
Ground. In 18 10 it was occupied by the Boston 

School Street was ordered to be laid out in March, 
1640, ''the street from Mr. Atherton Hough's to the 
Gentry Hill, and so kept open forever," and was called, 
at various times, "street leading from the house of James 
Pen to the house of Mr. Norton"; "lane to the common"; 
"school house street"; "South Latin School Street"; in 
1708, "School Street." 

The first mention of any endeavor to teach the young 
was in April, 1635, when it was agreed "that our brother 
Philemon Pormont shall be entreated to become school 
master for the teaching and nurturing the children among 
us." He lived in Gourt Avenue, behind the Meeting 
House, but soon removed to Exeter. In 1636, at a gen- 
eral meeting of the richer inhabitants, a subscription was 
raised for the maintenance of a free school master for 
the young, Mr. Daniel Maud being now chosen thereto. 
Maud lived on the west side of Tremont Street. There- 
after Deer Island and various tracts about the town were 
granted to individuals on condition that they paid a cer- 
tain sum for the maintenance of the school. In 1645 the 
town bought the lot originally allotted to Thomas Scottow, 
on the north side of School Street, and the first schoolhouse 
was built here with a house for the schoolmaster. In 1 748 
the wardens of King's Ghapel having asked leave to 
enlarge their building, to accommodate them, the school- 
house was moved across the street, the church presenting 
the town with a piece of land, and was ready to build 
the schoolhouse. It was to be of brick thirty- four feet 
front on the street, thirty-six feet deep on the passage, 
and twelve feet stud. All the schools were closed during 
the siege, and reopened June 5, 1776. May 11, 1790, the 


schoolhouse was to be sold and pulled down, and it was 
voted "to pull down the dwelling house now occupied by 
Mr. Hunt and erect on the same spot a school house of 
two stories sufficient to accommodate the children of the 
centre of the town with a Reading and Writing school, 
and Faneuil Hall to be used meantime." The school- 
masters were Philemon Pormont, 1635; Daniel Maud, 
1636-; Robert Woodmancy, 1650-67; Daniel Henchman, 
assistant, 1666—71; Benjamin Thompson, 1667— 70; Eze- 
kiel Cheever, 1670-1708; Ezekiel Lewis, assistant, 1703— 
05; Nathaniel Williams, assistant, 1703—05, master, 

1705—34; Wigglesworth, usher, 1715; Benjamin 

Gibson, usher, 1720—21; Joseph Green, usher, 1722—24; 
Samuel Dunbar, usher, 1724—27; Jeremiah Gridley, usher, 
1727—34; Nathaniel Oliver, usher 1734; Samuel Gibson, 
usher, 1734—50; John Lovell, master, 1734—75; Robert 
Treat Paine, usher, 1750—51; Nathaniel Gardner, usher, 
1751—60; James Lovell, usher, 1760—75; Samuel Hunt, 
master, 1776— 1805, under whom were the following 
ushers: William Bently, 1777—79; Aaron Smith, 1780; 
William Croswell, 1780—82; Samuel Payson, 1782—86; 
Amasa Dingly, of Duxbury, 1 786-. 

March 1709—10, it was voted at town meeting that "it 
would be of great service and advantage for the promot- 
ing of diligence and good literature that a certain num- 
ber of gentlemen of liberal education together with the 
Rev. ministers to be Inspectors of the Latin School and 
to visit the school from time to time." Before many 
years this was extended to all the schools. The first 
inspectors were Isaac Addington, Thomas Brattle, Elisha 
Cooke, Samuel Sewall, and Wait Winthrop, all prominent 
in town affairs. The first school committee, so called, of 
twelve members, was appointed February 10, 1790, 
three of whom were ministers, two physicians, and all 


prominent men. Ezekiel Cheever was among the most 
prominent of the teachers. Sewall says of him: "He had 
taught for seventy years when he died, a rare instance 
of Piety, Health and Strength, and Serviceableness. The 
welfare of the Province was much upon his spirit. He 
abominated periwigs." 

John Lovell, another famous master, lived in the town's 
house at the easterly end of the lot on the north side 
of the street. The following story is told by a de- 
scendant of Lovell. His daughter Mary was the 
young lady with whom Colonel Cleveland, ord- 
nance officer of Gage, was philandering when he ought to 
have been looking after the cannon balls for the attack 
on Bunker Hill. Result: the balls sent were too large for 
the guns. The legend goes that he employed young John 
Lovell as his subordinate, and that John sent the wrong 
ones on purpose. There is another family legend that 
the schoolboys used to tie a rope to a monkey and swing 
him so as to land him on the window sill of the master's 

In 1725 the town conveyed to Elisha Cooke the house' 
next to the church. This was bought in iJJStS ^Y John 
Lowell, Jr., and about 1740 it was removed to his estate 
in Roxbury. Richard Hutchinson owned all the land on 
the north side from the town lot to the corner. 

In 1755 James Otis, Jr., bought the lot next to the 
town land, and this came to Martha, wife of James Free- 
man, of the Chapel, and widow of Samuel Clarke. 
Otis the patriot was born in 1724—25 and married Ruth, 
daughter of Nathaniel Cunningham. John Adams said: 
"I have never known a man whose love of his country was 
more ardent or sincere, never one who suffered so much, 
never one whose services for ten years of his life were 
so essential to the cause of his country as those of Mr. 


Otis from 1760 to 1770. After the blow which destroyed 
his reason he lingered till 1 783 when a stroke of lightning 
put an end to his sufferings." Tudor, his biographer, 
sums up his character: "He was a man of powerful genius 
and ardent temper, with wit and humor that never failed. 
As an orator he was bold, argumentative, impetuous, and 
commanding, with an eloquence that made his own ex- 
citement irresistible, contagious. As a lawyer, his knowl- 
edge and ability placed him at the head of his profession, 
as a scholar he was rich in acquisition and governed by a 
classic taste, as a patriot he resisted all allurements that 
might weaken the cause of that country to which he 
devoted his life and for which he sacrificed it." 

Otis is most popularly known for his arguments against 
the Writs of Assistance at the hearing in the council- 
chamber of the Town House before Chief Justice Hutch- 
inson and his four associates, "in volumnious wigs, broad 
bands and robes of scarlet." Jeremiah Gridley, then at 
the head of the bar, appeared for the king, and Otis, 
resigning his office of advocate general, took up the cause 
of the people, and became counsel for the merchants. 
John Adams, who was present, writes in his Diary, ''Otis 
was a flame of fire, and American Independence was then 
and there born." He became the leader of the popular 
party, and continued so until he received the fatal blow. 

The next estate was acquired by Jean Paul Mascarene, 
a French Huguenot from Languedoc. He came to Boston 
in 1709, but the following year he was given a captaincy 
in a regiment about to serve in Nova Scotia. He re- 
mained there many years, serving long and faithfully, 
rising to the rank of lieutenant-governor of the province. 
He returned to Boston at intervals, and in 1750 sold his 
commission and came back to end his days here. He died 
in 1760. Joseph Green, a noted wit, bought the house 


in 1760, and also that of Stephen Boutineau, adjoining, 
but removed to England at the time of the Revolution, 
and the house was occupied by John Andrews. 

The next house was bought by Joseph Maylem, in 
1694-95 who is recorded as a bricklayer and innholder. 
Here he was paid for entertaining the Indians in 1713. 
Elizabeth, widow of Mark Maylem, inherited the estate 
and married Anthony Bracket in 1735—36. In 1764 she 
was licensed at her house in School Street, and Joshua 
Bracket was liceosed in 1768. In 1796 his widow, Abi- 
gail, conveyed part of it to John Warren, who was the 
owner in 1798, with Henry Vose as a tenant. Abigail 
Bracket sold part to Arnold Welles, Jr., in 1794. The inn 
was known as "Cromwell's Head," or the "Sign of Oliver 

On the south side, at the corner of Tremont Street, 
Zaccheus Bosworth had his house and garden, according 
to the Book of Possessions. William Clarke bought it 
in 1704, and here his son Richard was born in 1711, and 
here he was living at the time of the Tea Party. He was 
a merchant, and one of the consignees of the tea. His 
daughter Susannah married Copley, the portrait painter. 

Then came the house of John Mico. Jacob Wendell, 
born in Albany in 1691, was placed in the care of Mico, 
and in 1736—37 he bought the house. In 1764 he sold 
it to Nicholas Boylston. John Adams writes, "January 
16, 1766, dined at Mr. Nick Boylston's^ went over the 
house to view the furniture which alone cost a thousand 
pounds sterling. The Turkey carpets, the painted hang- 
ings, the marble tables, the rich beds with crimson 
damask curtains and counterpanes, the beautiful chimney 
clock, the spacious garden, are the most magnificent of 
anything I have ever seen." 

The schoolhouse was on the west corner of Chapman 


Place, which was a passageway in 1726 and later Cook's 
Court and School Street Court. It was extended to Bos- 
worth Street in 1822, and called Chapman Place in 1841. 
Elisha Cook was the first owner of all the land here- 
abouts. He was a physician by profession, but more re- 
markable for his political career. He held many posi- 
tions of trust, and was steady in his principles. He was 
selectman, deputy, speaker, assistant and one of the 
Council of Safety in 1689; agent to England in 1690—91 
and Counsellor, 1694— 1702. He was the son of Richard 
Cooke, the owner of a house lot and garden here according 
to the Book of Possessions; but himself added 
to this estate by purchase of surrounding lots. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Gov. John Leverett, 
and died in 1715. His son Ehsha was born in 1678 
and married Jane Middlecott. He was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1697, ^^^7 like his father, 
was active in political life. He devoted his whole 
life in the affairs of this country and was famous as 
an orator. He was elected to the council year after year, 
but was always excluded by Dudley, who never forgave 
him for the part he took at the time of the Andros revo- 
lution. He was popular with the people and a great 
favorite. He was a man of great wealth, much of it 
gained by inheritance, as Leverett and Middlecot were 
both men of wealth. He owned all the south side of 
State Street, from Kilby Street to the water, and all land 
on both sides of Cook's Court, besides in other sections of 
the town. He died in 1737. 

Province Street was laid out in 1 715, through the land 
of John Blowers, which he bought in 1658 of the succes- 
sors of Arthur Perry, the first drummer in New England. 
In 1720 it was "a lane behind the governor's house"; in 
1732, "Governors Alley" and in 1833, "Province Street." 


A little east of Province Street was the church of the 
Huguenots. The Huguenots in France were what the Puri- 
tans were in England, Protestants or of the Reformed 
religion, and they were persecuted even more severly than 
were the Puritans in England. In 1598 the Edict of 
Nantes was passed by Henry IV., giving religious freedom 
to all. This was revoked by Louis XIV. in 1685, and 
thousands fled to Holland, England, and America. July 
12, 1686, there was an application to the Court, of the 
French Protestants lately arrived, to reside and dwell in 
his Majesty's dominions. January, 1704-05, the elders 
of the French congregation bought of James Meeres an 
irregular-shaped lot on the south side of School Street, 
forty-three and a half feet on the lane. Heretofore they 
had held their meetings in the schoolhouse. Now, owing 
to the opposition of the selectmen, the society was not 
allowed to build on its land, and this was deferred for 
many years. May 7, 1748, as the number of communi- 
cants and subscribers were only seven, the building was 
sold by Elder Stephen Boutineau and the minister, 
Andrew Le Mercier, to members of the new Congrega- 
tional church. Peter Daille was the first minister, 1687- 
1715, and Andrew Le Mercier the second and last. Some 
of the French families who became prominent in the 
colony were, Boutineau, Bowdoin, Brimmer, Chardon, 
Dumaresque, Dupee, Faneuil, Johonnot, Mascarene, Re- 
vere, and Sigourney. 

Washington Street. There is no record that it was 
ever laid out except at the extreme north, and at the 
south end in Elder Colburn's field. The paths made by 
the first settlers became the streets. The part we are 
considering is that between the Dock and School and 
Milk Streets. It went by various names, ''Cove Street"; 
"High Street"; "street that goes to the dock"; "street 


to the market place"; ^'street that goes to the old meeting 
house," etc.; in 1708 it was named Cornhill. In 1649 it 
was ordered that "all the land at the head of the cove 
round about John Glover's, Hugh Gunninson's and others 
is a highway." In 1711, after the great fire, the lines 
were altered somewhat. "Mrs. Gibbs corner, where Chris- 
topher Kilby lately dwelt to be set back, and the line to 
run straight to the house of William Man." William 
Hudson was at the corner of Elm Street, and then came 
John Glover, tanner, and George Burden, shoemaker, 
who had a wharf opposite his house in 1641. Next to 
him was Hugh Gunnison, vintner. In 1635—36 he was 
admitted to the church as servant to Richard Belling- 
ham. He married the same year, and in the Book of 
Possessions he was credited with a house and garden. 
This was on the west side, between Brattle Street and 
Elm Street. His house was called the "King's Arms," 
and here he entertained the deputies and was paid accord- 
ingly. He was one of those disarmed as a follower of 
Anne Hutchinson. He sold the estate in 1651 to Henry 
Shrimpton, and removed to Kittery. In the deed of sale 
there is an interesting inventory of the household goods. 
The chambers are named The Exchange, London, Court 
chamber, and Starr chamber. There is also a stable with 
horse, cow and fifteen swine, and a brew house with brew- 
ing vessels, etc. In his will Shrimpton gave the house 
formerly called the "States Arms" to his daughter Sarah 
who married Eliakim Hutchinson. It was inherited in 1 72 1 
by his grandson, Eliakim Hutchinson, who bought more 
land in the neighborhood and enlarged the estate, but it 
was confiscated at the property of a loyalist, and sold in 

The house and garden and close of Capt. William 
Tying came next to Gunnison, originally the lot of Wil- 


liam Coddington, who was admitted to the church in 
1630, and became prominent in town affairs as a select- 
man, assistant, treasurer, judge, and held other respon- 
sible offices. As a follower of Anne Hutchinson, in 1637- 
38 "he had leave to depart this jurisdiction," and the town 
lost a valuable citizen. He sold his house in 1639 to 
William Tyng, whose daughter Elizabeth, wife of Thomas 
Brattle, inherited a greater part of the property. The 
south corner of Brattle Street was the lot of Richard 
Bellingham, with the usual house and one-fourth of an 
acre, but he had a garden plot on Tremont Street, and a 
marsh and land on North Street, as we have seen. He 
soon sold out, and the place was bought by Joseph 
Hiller, a tin-plate worker. Bellingham removed to 
Chelsea. He was four times elected deputy governor, 
and three times governor, the last time serving seven 
years, 1665-72. He married Penelope Pelham, who came 
to New England to join her brother in 1635. Winthrop 
says: "1641 Bellingham married to one who was con- 
tracted to a friend in his house. He won the lady for 
himself and did not have the contract published where 
he dwelt (Chelsea) and married himself." He died in 
1672, leaving his widow and one son. There was litiga- 
tion over his will for many years. 

William Baulston had a grant of land in 1636-37, 
and in June, 1637, ^^ was licensed to keep a house of 
entertainment. In 1638 he sold this to Thomas Corne- 
wall who was licensed to keep an inn in room of William 
Baulston. Baulston had leave to depart, and followed 
Anne Hutchinson into Rhode Island. In 1677 Edward 
Shippen, a Quaker, bought a house and land on part of 
this estate and sold it in 1693. He owned land in other 
parts of the town, and where he actually lived it is diffi- 
cult to say. He came to Boston about 1671, and was a 


successful business man here. He was persecuted for 
his religion, and was publicly whipped. He went to Phila- 
delphia about 1700, where he became the first mayor of 
the city. Tradition says that he was noted for three 
things, the biggest man, the biggest house, and the biggest 

Thomas Buttolph, glover, was admitted to the church 
in 1639 and was granted the lot next to Baulston. He 
invested in land in the New Field and elsewhere, and 
we shall hear of him again. His heirs sold part of this 
estate to John Phillips in 1736—37, whose heirs owned 
it until well into the nineteenth century. It was here that 
the father of the first mayor of Boston, John Phillips, 
was born and lived before he built the house on Beacon 
Street, on the west corner of Walnut Street, where the 
mayor was born. 

Next came the lot of Valentine Hill, who sold out, and 
various owners had possession, and one of them kept a 
tavern, for in 1782 Gillun Taylor deeded his house to 
John Hinckley, "bounded on the south by the land of 
Benjamin Edes late the Sun Tavern." 

In 1722 John Checkley had a house which he no doubt 
hired, opposite the Town House, for a fire occurred here. 
He was a warden of King's Chapel and very high church, 
with extreme opinions. He was a great controversialist 
and had great spirit. By his writings he gave offense to 
the government as well as causing dissension within the 
church, where he was the leading spirit in all contro- 
versies. He left Boston in 1740. 

Henry Dunster was on the north corner of Court Street, 
but he sold out in 1 640, and became president of Harvard 
College, and removed to Cambridge. 

The lot on the south corner of Court Street was credited 
to John Leverett in the Book of Possessions. He was 


the son of Elder Thomas Leverett, and was born in 1616. 
He came to New England with his parents in 1633 and 
soon married Hannah Hudson, daughter of Ralph and 
Mary (Thwing) Hudson, by whom he had three children, 
two of whom died in infancy. His second wife was 
Sarah Sedgwick, by whom he had twelve children, two 
sons and ten daughters. Of these, six daughters lived 
to maturity, were married, and inherited their father's 
large estate. Leverett returned to England, and served 
in the civil war under Cromwell. Coming back to New 
England after a few years, in 1656 he was sent abroad 
again as the agent of the colony, and remained in England 
until 1662. When in Boston he was selectman, a mem- 
ber of the Boston train band, and joined the Artillery 
in 1639, in time rising to its supreme command. In 1663 
he succeeded Daniel Dennison as major-general of the 
colony, and was reelected each year until he was elected 
governor in 1673, having been deputy governor the two 
years previously. He was a deputy to the General Court, 
its speaker, and assistant, and Counsellor, and at all times 
was on many responsible committees. He was elected to 
the office of governor every year until his death in 1678— 
79, and his elections were uncontested, showing the high 
estimation in which he was held by his fellow-citizens. 
After the death of his father he removed to State Street. 

John Leverett, the son of Hudson Leverett, the only 
surviving son of the governor, was born in 1662, and was 
of the class of 1680 in Harvard College. He entered 
public life, and held many responsible offices, as deputy, 
speaker, counsellor, justice of the Superior Court and 
judge of probate. He was elected president of Harvard 
College in 1707—8, and served until his death in 1724. 

Richard Parker, merchant, was the owner of the next 
lot to Leverett, and in 1640 it was bought by the mem- 


bers of the First Church, and here they worshiped until 
1797, when the lot was sold to Benjamin Joy, and a new 
church was built in Chauncey Place. The first building 
was burned in 1 7 1 1 , in the great fire. Court Avenue was 
an alley behind the Meeting House, and on its south side, 
the original possession of Richard Truesdale, butcher. 
It was called "Church Square"; "Cornhill Square"; and, 
in 1839, "Court Avenue." Here the first schoolmaster, 
Pormont, lived. 

Valentine Hill, who seemed to have had many posses- 
sions in the early days, in various parts of the town, owned 
the next lot south of Court Avenue, and it eventually came 
into the hands of Thomas Creese and Peter Faneuil. 

The lot next to this was that of Robert Sedgwick, major- 
general, living in Charlestown. He bought it in 1638—39, 
of Samuel Cole. In 1633—34 Cole set up the first house 
of common entertainment in Boston, and in 1635 was 
licensed to keep an "ordinary," as inns were then called. 
In 1646 James Penn was licensed here, and soon after the 
place was acquired by Lieutenant William Phillips, who in 
1656-57 mortgaged "the Ship Tavern." He conveyed the 
property to Captain Thomas Savage in 1660, and by this 
time it no doubt had ceased to be a tavern. December 
13, 1 701, Nicholas Boone, bookseller, advertised at the 
Sign of the Bible in Cornhill and in 171 5 bought the house, 
which he sold in 1742. James Lloyd bought it in 1763, 
and it remained in his family many years. This estate 
was on the north side of Williams Court, which in 1 71 2— 
13 was "a lane in Cornhill to the house of Ephraim 
Savage," and in 1714 Savage and Samuel Moores give 
land for a highway ten feet wide, which evidently was be- 
hind the court. In 1722 it was known as "Savages Court," 
and in 1756 "Williams Court," now colloquially called 
"Pie Alley" by reason of its restaurants. 

t M 


Nozv Pie Alley 


On the north corner of School Street was what was until 
recently known as the "Old Corner Bookstore." William 
Hutchinson had a grant of this lot in 1634, and it extended 
on School Street to the town lot. This became the home 
of his wife, the celebrated Anne Hutchinson, who is 
described by Winthrop as "one Mrs. Hutchinson a member 
of the Boston Church, a woman of ready wit and bold 
spirit, brought over with her dangerous errors," and called 
by Johnson, "The masterpiece of woman's wit," while 
Cotton, on the other hand, speaks of her as "one well be- 
loved and all the faithful embrace her conference and bless 
God for her fruitful discourses." She began to give lec- 
tures and hold meetings for both men and women. It 
is not necessary to enter here into all the Antinomian 
troubles, as the details are to be found in the colony 
records and have been enlarged upon by many writers. 
Governor Vane and Rev. John Cotton were among her 
adherents, Winthrop and Rev. John Wilson were 
vehemently opposed. The whole town was divided against 
itself, and families and individuals ranged themselves on 
one side or the other. She was finally brought to trial 
and banished, and many of her adherents followed her into 
Rhode Island. Those who remained were deprived of 
their arms, which was then considered a disgrace. Many 
of those who followed Anne Hutchinson into banishment 
and thus became the founders of Rhode Island were men 
who had been prominent citizens of Boston, had taken 
part in the foundation of the town, and had rendered im- 
portant service as selectmen, deputies, or in other offices, 
and all were members of the church. They were house- 
holders, active in business and men of influence. What 
was a gain to Rhode Island was a great loss to 

Through his son Edward, William sold this lot with the 


house to his brother Richard Hutchinson, in 1639. Rich- 
ard returned to England and there was agent of the colony. 
He left a large property behind, which was administered 
upon by his son Eliakim. Eliakim died in 17 18, and his 
son EHakim married Elizabeth, daughter of Governor 
Shirley. Both father and son were counsellors and held 
other prominent offices. This corner lot after passing 
through various hands was bought by Thomas Creese, 
apothecary, in 1 707. The old buildings were destroyed by 
fire, and Creese built the present building in 171 5. It 
changed hands several times, and in 1754 it was bought 
by the children of Thomas Palmer; and it again became 
the property of the descendants of Richard Hutchinson, 
for Abigail, wife of Thomas Palmer the elder, was the 
daughter of Eliakim Hutchinson. 

Richard Hutchinson also bought the lot next north of 
the corner lot, which was the original lot of John Cogges- 
hall, mercer, or silk merchant, who was among the first 
selectmen, and held other responsible offices, but was not 
long in the town. 

On the east side of Washington Street, beginning at 
Dock Square, we first come to the house and garden of 
Edward Gibbons, one of those admitted to the church in 
1630, and he seems to have been wise in his choice of the 
location of his home. He was a member of the Artillery 
Company, and major-general of the colony, 1649—52. La 
Tour lodged with him, and Gibbons with Thomas Hawkins 
helped him with ships and money to proceed against his 
rival, D'Aulnay. He had a farm at Pullen Point, and on 
February 17, 1742—3, came riding to Boston on the ice, 
though it was covered with water. 

In the Book of Possessions John Coggan is registered 
as having a house and garden at the northeast corner of 
Washington and State Streets, with John Wilson north 


and east of him. He opened the first shop in the town, and 
was here as early as 1634, when he was made a selectman 
and put upon some town committees. Soon, however, he 
had a rival on the opposite side of the street, for in 1647 
John Capen, of Dorchester, writes to his sweetheart Mary- 
Bass, of Braintree, "While I was with your sister Swift 
being in Boston with sister Upshall, they both being at 
the hatter's shop, they both did think upon you for a hat, 
and chose out ye comlyest fasting hat they could find 
ye shop was ye corner shop over against Mr. Coggan's 
on ye right hand as one goes up to Mr. Cottons house." 

On the south corner of Washington and State Streets 
lived Captain Robert Keayne, tailor. He was admitted 
to the church in 1636 with wife Ann, and had four 
children. The eldest son Benjamin married Sarah, 
daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley, and led a very 
unhappy life. Keayne 's widow married, for a second 
husband, Samuel Cole. At this corner Keayne harbored 
the stray pig which caused so much trouble and led to 
the separation of the legislature into two branches, and 
here were deposited the arms of those who adhered to 
the opinions of Anne Hutchinson, and were in consequence 
deprived of them. 

Up to 1642, the assistants, or magistrates and deputies, 
sat in one chamber and deliberated together. In 1636 
it was ordered that no law should pass as an act of the 
court without the consent of the greater number of the 
magistrates on the one part, and the greater number of 
deputies on the other part. Winthrop fells us how the 
legislature came to be divided into two branches: "At 
the General Court held June 22, 1642, there fell out a 
great business upon a very small occasion. In 1636 there 
was a stray sow in Boston which was brought to Captain 
Keayne: he had it cried divers times and divers people 


came to see it, but none laid claim to it for near a year. 
He kept it in his yard with a sow of his own. Afterwards 
one Sherman's wife having lost such a sow laid claim to 
it, but came not to see it till Captain Keayne had killed 
his own sow. After being shown the stray sow she gave 
out that he had killed her sow. The noise thereof being 
about the town the matter was brought before the elders 
of the church as a case of offence, many witnesses were 
examined and Captain Keayne was cleared. She not 
being satisfied with this, at the instigation of one George 
Story, a young merchant of London, who kept in her 
house (her husband being then in England) and who had 
been brought before the governor on complaint of Captain 
Kea3me as living under suspicion, she brought the cause be- 
fore the Inferior Court at Boston, where upon a full hear- 
ing Captain Keayne was again cleared and the Jury gave 
him three pounds for his cost, and he bringing his action 
against Story and her for reporting about that he had 
stolen her sow recovered twenty pounds damages. It was 
then brought before the General Court in Sherman's name, 
and the best part of seven days was spent in examining 
witnesses and debating the cause, and yet it was not de- 
termined, for no sentence could by law pass without the 
greater number of both Magistrates and Deputies, which 
neither Plaintiff had, for 2 Magistrates and 15 Deputies 
were for the Plaintiff, and 7 Magistrates and 8 Deputies 
for the Defendant. The next year the case was brought up 
again to the Elders and Magistrates, where the Elders 
desired that they might never more be troubled with it. 
The sow business started the question about the Magis- 
trates' negative vote in the Court." Thereafter the two 
bodies sat in two houses, each with a negative vote on the 

Keayne was the prime organizer of the Artillery Com- 


pany in 1638—9. Complaints were often made of him in 
the courts, for overcharging, and selHng dearer than others. 
He was wealthy and left a will, the longest on record, 
which made many public bequests. After providing for 
his wife and only son Benjamin, he left "money 
to the town for a town house, a conduit, a market 
place where those who come from the country 
with their produce may have a place to sit in 
cold weather, and to have a convenient room or 
two for the courts to meet in, also for the townsmen 
and commissioners in the same building and a convenient 
room for a Library. A gallery or room for the Elders to 
meet in and one for an armory." The library and gallery 
being finished he gave "for a beginning his three great 
writing books which are intended for an interpretation of 
the Bible." He denied getting his wealth by wrong deal- 
ings, of which he had been accused. 

Andrew Faneuil later owned this corner, and it became 
famous as a bookstore. Daniel Henchman and Henry 
Knox were tenants, and in 1845 Harrison Gray Otis 
writes: "It was a store of great display and attraction 
for young and old, and a fashionable lounging place. I 
passed it every day and have often seen Knox at the 
counter. This was just before the siege. I remember 
prevailing gossip concerning him and Miss Flucker whom 
he afterwards married." 

Richard Fairbanks, innkeeper and postmaster, had his 
house and garden next to Keayne. In 1646 he was licensed 
to keep a house of entertainment, and in 1652 he sold out 
to Robert Turner, who was licensed in 1659 and no doubt 
before, the fact not being recorded. His widow was 
licensed in 1666. Their son John inherited and was 
licensed in 1667. In 1689 George Monk, who married 
Lucy, the widow of John Turner, succeeded. The inn 


was called the "Anchor," or "Blue Anchor," and is often 
mentioned by Sewall, and in the records of the time. To 
dine at Monk's seemed to imply a great occasion. Monk 
married a second wife, Elizabeth Woodmancy, who suc- 
ceeded him in 1691, and kept the inn until 1703 when 
she sold the estate to James Pitts. In 1708 a neighbor- 
ing estate bounded on the house "formerly the Anchor 
tavern." In 1720 James Palin was occupying the house 
as a tenant of Pitts, and he advertised, June 9, for "an 
Irish man servant who ran away from his master James 
Palin at the Rainbow Coffee House in Cornhill." So 
it kept up the tradition of a restaurant, and it is to be 
hoped it preserved the good reputation of its predecessor. 

John Campbell, the Postmaster and founder of the 
News Letter, lived next south of the Anchor Tavern, which 
house he bought in 1688—89 and here for many years the 
paper was published. He married Mary (Clark) Pember- 
ton, widow of Rev. Ebenezer Pemberton, of the Old South, 
and she married for a third husband, in 1729, Henry Loyd. 

Elder Thomas Oliver was given the next estate, and 
was only separated from the governor by the spring. 
He joined the church in 1630, and was disarmed in 1637, 
thus holding different views from his neighbor. He was 
the father of Peter Oliver, a noted merchant, and the 
progenitor of those who became noted in the next century. 
Water Street was cut through this estate, and part was 
sold to Henry Webb in 1655—56. This he bequeathed to 
Harvard College in 1660, and it was perhaps in one of the 
tenements which the college let to the widow Jackson at 
the Brazen Head, who had a soldier taken ill at her house, 
where the great fire broke out March 20, 1769. 

Thomas Fleet, the printer, bought the house on the 
north corner of Water Street in 1744. He had been here 
as a tenant since 1730—31, when he advertised at the Sign 


of the Heart and Crown. He married Elizabeth Vergoose, 
or Goose, to whose family has been attributed the author- 
ship of the old rhymes. We shall find the family home in 
the next section. After the death of Thomas Fleet, his 
sons changed the name to "The Crown and the Bible." 

John Winthrop took as his lot that between the spring 
and Milk Street. He was also granted six hundred acres 
at "Mistick Neck," and Conant's Island was given to 
him, to be called the Governor's Island or garden, which 
is now Fort Warren. The house in Washington Street 
could not have been very large, but the quality of its 
guests made up for its size, and it is a mystery how so 
many could have been entertained within its walls. Here 
came the Indian chiefs to pay their respects, Chickatawbut 
the chief of the Massachusetts, with his sannups and 
squaws, — that is married men and their wives, — and 
the chief was entertained at the governor's table, and with 
one sannup and squaw passed the night. The next year 
Miantonomo, the chief of the Narragansetts, came and 
was also kindly received. In 1634 there came a messenger 
from the Pequot nation desiring the friendship of the new 
colony. He brought two bundles of sticks, which signified 
how many beaver and other skins he would give the new- 
comers. Sagamore John also came, and John Josselyn, 
the writer of "Two Voyages to New England," was en- 
tertained. The house later served as a parsonage for 
the ministers of the Old South, and during the siege was 
one of those marked to be taken down for fuel. 

Some of the signs in this section of Washington Street 
which cannot be definitely located are, — "June 1733 
Mrs. Alice Quick who lately kept a shop over against the 
town house has now removed over against the Old Brick 
Meeting House in Cornhill at the Sign of the Three Kings, 
and sells, tea, coffee, chinaware, etc."; "November 1734 


Handkerchiefs, gloves etc., to be sold by Roger Hard- 
castle at the sign of the Three Nuns in Cornhill," Richard 
Wilkins, bookseller, with whom Dunton the bookseller 
stayed in 1686, was near the town house. He died in 
Milton in 1704. July 1732, "Plain Spanish snuff 
to be sold at the Crown and Gate opposite to the 
west end of the town house." In 1718 Dr. 
George Stuart was at the Sign of the Black 
Boy in Cornhill. He had a house south of West Street 
and this may have been his office. In 1711 the house of 
Mrs. Russell was next door to the Cross Keys in Cornhill. 
In 1708 Isaac Webb, clockmaker, was "at the Sign of the 
Clock Dial in High Street, two doors from Prison Lane, 
— who formerly lived next door to the Royal Exchange 
Tavern." These premises were all leased. 

In 1669 the controversy on the subject of baptism 
agitated the colony, and not agreeing with the officers of 
the First Church twenty-nine members left the church 
in May, and laid the foundation of the Third Church. 
In 1659 John Norton, of the First Church, had bought 
land of Judith, widow of Stephen Winthrop, and April i, 
1769, Mary, widow of Norton, sold this to the trustees of 
the Third Church, to erect a house for public worship, 
and also a house for the minister. This was on the north 
corner of Milk Street, and was a part of the original grant 
to John Winthrop. Among the first members were some 
of the most influential men of the town. The parsonage 
was not built until some years later, in the rear on Milk 
Street. Some of the many interesting incidents connected 
with the church were Andros insisting upon holding the 
English service there in 1687; Whitefield preached here in 

The day after the massacre, March 6, 1770, Hutchinson 
called the Council together and a town meeting was also 
held, but Faneuil Hall proving too small for the great 



crowd that gathered it was adjourned to the Old South 
Meeting House. A committee was appointed to wait 
upon the governor and council and say that the town must 
be relieved of the soldiers. John Hancock was chairman, 
but when they stood in the council chamber it was Samuel 
Adams who conducted the business, virtually at the head. 
When told that one regiment would be removed to the 
castle, Adams retorted, if one could go why not both? 
The end is well known, that, upon the insistence of the 
people led by Adams, both regiments were removed, and 
they became known as "Sam Adams' regiments." John 
Adams gives a picture of the scene in the council chamber, 
which he said was a fit subject for a painting. Portraits 
of kings and governors were on the walls, and the coun- 
sellors with their large white wigs, and English scarlet 
cloth coats and gold-laced hats seated at the council board, 
were forced to yield before Adams's great appeal. In 
1772 on the anniversary of the Boston Massacre, Dr. 
Joseph Warren gave his famous address, reaching the 
pulpit from a rear window as the crowd was so great. 
December 16, 1773, the Town meeting was held here to 
protest against the three ships which had arrived with 
cargoes of tea, from discharging the same. When it was 
learned that the governor would not grant a permit for 
the clearance of the ships Indians suddenly appeared at the 
door, and followed by the large audience, they made their 
way to Griffen's wharf and discharged the tea into the 
harbor themselves. John Adams wrote, "Last night 28 J 
chests of tea were drowned." 

In 1 775 the Light Horse Dragoons took possession of the 

building and used it as a riding school. The ministers were, 

Thomas Thatcher, 1670-78; Samuel Willard, 1678— 1707; 

Ebenezer Pemberton, 1700-17, who had as assistants 

' Joseph Sewall, 1713-69; Thomas Prince, 1718-58; Alex- 


ander Cummings, 1761—63; Samuel Blair, 1766—69, 
John Bacon and John Hunt ministers, 1771—75; Joseph 
Eckley, 1 779-181 1. Sewall says of Josiah Willard 
who once preached for Mr. Pemberton, "I spent the 
Sabbath at Mr. Colman's, partly out of dislike to Mr. 
Willards cutting off his hair and wearing a wigg." 
Thomas Prince was a voluminous writer and his funeral 
sermons on the prominent men of the day and his sermons 
on especial occasions, are still of value to the 
historian. His most valuable contribution to the history 
of New England was his "Chronology." He bequeathed 
his library to the church, and for many years it was 
neglected and forgotten. Few recognized its intrinsic 
value, and what now remains of it is in the Public Library. 
The Dock was formed by nature to be the chief landing 
place. In 1 64 1 a grant was made by the town to Valentine 
Hill and his associates, of all the waste ground about the 
dock, on certain conditions and with certain privileges, 
and that part of North Street on the north side was 
ordered laid out, and the highway at the head of the dock, 
which later became Washington Street, In 1708 the 
streets immediately bordering on the dock were called 
"Dock Square," "Corn Market," and "Fish Market." 
The dock was also called "Bendall's Dock," as well as 
"the town dock." July 14, 1740, the records say, "that 
whereas in 1734 a Market was erected in Dock Square 
and for some years past it has been demolished and pulled 
down, and as the inhabitants of the town have no certain 
place for buyer and seller to meet, which forces people to 
go out upon the neck and spend the whole day in provid- 
ing necessaries for their families, now Peter Fanueil hath 
offered to put up at his own expense, an edifice for a mar- 
ket." In 1742 the building was finished and accepted, 
and the hall over the market called "Faneuil Hall," and 


rules for the market were settled. The idea of the grass- 
hopper vane on the hall came from England. According 
to Sir Walter Besant, when Queen Elizabeth came to the 
throne the commercial center of the world was Antwerp. 
When she died it was in London, and this was owing to 
Sir Thomas Gresham. He built the Royal Exchange and 
placed on the pinnacle a grasshopper vane, the grasshopper 
being on the armorial crest of his family. Peter Faneuil 
placed a similar one made by Shem Drown, on Faneuil 
Hall and also one in his own garden in Tremont Street. 
In the same year the dock was filled up and called "Market 
Place." "12 May 1761 it was further filled up as far as 
a straight line to be run from the southwest corner 
of Joseph Tyler's shop to the opposite side which will 
end a few feet east of the place where the town's shops 
lately stood, and that part of the dock between said 
lines and the swing bridge to be left open." In 1762 the 
engine and the watch houses were to be removed and the 
whole to be filled. Quincy's Municipal History says, "In 
the beginning of 1823 the space around Faneuil Hall de- 
voted to the market, was broken in the center by Odins 
buildings as they were then called (the feather store) and 
was bounded to the eastward by Roebucks passage and the 
town dock. The central common sewer of the city opened 
into this dock, which was also a station for oyster boats. 
All the buildings were old. The avenues leading to the 
market were narrow and crooked, especially Roebucks 
passage. In a distance of a hundred feet it had three 
bends and was from 13 to 20 feet wide. Improvements 
began here in 1824." 

Edward Bendall, for whom the dock was often called, 
was one of those who joined the church and chose his 
lot in 1630, and he seems to have chosen well. It was 
on the dock and just west of Change Avenue. It later be- 


came the Sun Tavern and was only taken down a few 
years ago. Bendall mortgaged it to Symon Lynde who 
took possession in 1653. His son Samuel inherited; and 
his heirs made a division in 1736. James Meeres occupied 
it as a tavern in 1699— 1700, but it was mentioned as 
early as 1694—5, when a street running to the town dock 
by the Sun Tavern is recorded. Capt James Day was 
licensed in 1757. In 1637 Edward Bendall was to keep 
a ferry boat to carry passengers to Noddles Island and 
also to the ships riding before the town. In 1642 Winthrop 
writes, "The Mary Rose which had been blown up and 
sunk with all her ordnance and other goods, was brought 
to the shore by Edward Bendall. He made two great 
tubs, very tight, and open at one end, upon which were 
hanged so many weights as would sink it to the ground. 
It was let down, the diver sitting in it a cord in his hand to 
give notice when they should draw him up, and another 
cord to show when they should remove it from place to 
place, so he could continue in his tub half an hour and 
fasten ropes to the ordnance, and put the lead, etc. 
into a tub or net. And when the tub was drawn up one 
knocked on the head of it, and thrust a long pole under the 
water which the diver laid hold of and so was drawn up 
by it." Bendall had the large lot of land on North Street, 
as we have seen, but was evidently unfortunate in his 
financial dealings. He had six children born in Boston, 
whose names were, Freegrace, Reform, Hopefor, More 
Mercy, Ephraim, and Restore. 

Another old landmark in the neighborhood was the so- 
called Feather Store, which had a varied history as to 
ownership. It was probably built by Thomas Stanbury 
after the fire of 1679. At one time it was a hatter's store, 
but later Daniel Greenlief , an apothecary, made it famous, 
and early in the nineteenth century the Pomroy family 









kept a feather store here, hence its more familiar name. 
Thomas Hollis, who kept what is now the oldest apothe- 
cary store in Boston, was at first a tenant in the Feather 
Store and some of the old furnishings are still in the 
present store in Union Street. 

There were several taverns near the Dock. The Castle 
was on the west corner of Elm Street. In the Book of 
Possessions, William Hudson, Jr., innkeeper, is credited 
with a house and garden here. In 1674 he conveyed to 
John Wing his house and buildings commonly called 
"Castle Tavern." The estate was mortgaged and for- 
feited, and came into the possession of Benjamin Pember- 
ton in 1694, "a mansion hitherto called Castle Tavern, 
since George Tavern." Exactly when it ceased to be a 
tavern, it is hard to say. On the south side of Faneuil 
Hall Square was the Three Mariners, the original posses- 
sion of Isaac Grosse, cordwainer, which Thomas Grosse 
conveyed to Joseph Pemberton in 1679, and Joseph to 
Benjamin Pemberton in 1 701—2, as the "Three Mar- 
iners." In 1723 it was known as the "Bear Tavern," oc- 
cupied by Elizabeth, widow of Benjamin Davis, who 
bought the property in 1712, and it was still known as the 
Bear Tavern in 1795, when bought by William Stackpole. 
In the nineteenth century it was known as "The Bite." 

There were others in the neighborhood, of which we 
have little record. One was the Pine Tree Tavern, where 
Captain Benjamin Gorham was licensed in Dock Square 
in 1785. In 1789 Mrs. Baker was an innholder at the 
Sign of the Punch Bowie, in Dock Square. The Roebuck 
was occupied by Elizabeth Wittington, who was licensed 
as an innholder in 1776. This was in Roebuck Passage or 
Swing Bridge Lane which later became a part of Mer- 
chants Row. In 1739 John Ballard was licensed as a re- 
tailer at the Shippen's Crane, in Dock Square. In 1727 


John Sale advertised all sorts of household goods at the 
Sign of the Golden Horse near the dock. He was an inn- 
holder in Corn Market in 1728. Signs other than taverns 
were those of J. Phillips, who was at the Stationers Arme 
in 1732 next door to Dolbeare the brazier, and in 1733 
William Rand, apothecary at the Unicorn near the dock, 
'^rozin, oil of turpentine and varnish made and sold by 

Corn Court was a lane from the dock in 1650; in 1670 
called "a wheelbarrow-way of full five feet"; also an "alley 
that leads from the house of James Oliver towards the 
dock"; in 1708 "Corn Court." In 1796 Noyes Alley was 
part of Corn Court. In Corn Court was the Hancock Tav- 
ern, bought by Morris Keefe in 1779. His daughter Mary 
married John Duggan who was a noted lemon dealer and 
who was granted a license to retail liquor in 1790. In 1795 
he advertised lemons at the Sign of the Governor Hancock. 

Merchants Row was called "Mr. Hills highway 
twenty feet in breadth" in 1645 5 i^i 1708, Merchants Row, 
and the part between North Street and the dock, "Swing 
Bridge Lane." This later was called "Roebuck's Passage," 
and after the improvements, became a part of Merchants 
Row. In 1742 Merchants Row was described as the cross 
wall (of early days). 

The Golden Ball Tavern was at the northwest corner 
of Merchants Row and Corn Court. Edward Tyng was 
the first owner of the land. He was a brother of William 
Tyng, and was admitted a townsman in 1639. His pos- 
sessions extended to State Street, where his house was 
located in the Book of Possessions. Theodore Atkinson 
acquired this property before 1662 and conveyed it to 
Henry Deering in 1690. In 1731 part of Deering's estate 
was the house known as the Golden Ball, now occupied 
by Samuel Tyley. Mary (Deering) Wilson inherited and 



bequeathed to her niece, Mary (Deering), wife of John 
Gooch. In 1795 Benjamin Gerrish Gray and wife Mary 
(Gooch) deeded to James Tisdale the house known as the 
Golden Ball Tavern. In 1798 stores covered the site. In 
1 71 1 Samuel Tyley petitioned for renewal of his license 
upon his removal from the Salutation to Mr. Deering's 
house in Merchants Row. "November 14, 1735, died 
Mrs. Wass, wife of Mr. John Wass who formerly kept 
the Golden Ball tavern near the town dock." In 1757 it 
was kept by John Marston. 

On the northeast side of Merchants Row were the 
wharves, John Woodmancy being a prominent owner in 
the early days, and a little later Peter Butler, from whom 
Butler's Row takes its name. At the corner of Merchants 
Row and the present North Market Street stood the Tri- 
angular Warehouse. It was originally on the southern half 
of Richard Bellingham's marsh. It passed through various 
hands and in 1650 James Everell deeded to Joshua Scottow 
part of the marsh in the form of a triangle. Before 1674 
it came into the possession of Richard Wharton. Whar- 
ton was judge of the Court of Common Pleas under 
Andros, and went to England in 1687 to oppose him. He 
died there in 1690. He was largely involved in his deal- 
ings in real estate in Boston and elsewhere, and in 1693 
Ephraim Savage administered on his estate, which he was 
empowered to sell to liquidate his debts. He had large 
interests in Maine, and these were sold to the Pejepscot 
Company, which was formed in 17 14. What is now the 
town of Harpswell was part of his possessions. In 1679 
the great fire destroyed all the buildings in the neighbor- 
hood of the dock, and soon after Wharton built the so- 
called "Triangular Warehouse," which stood until taken 
down for improvements in 1824. In 1700 it was sold to 
John Borland. 


State Street was one of the streets of which we have 
no record that it was ever laid out. Like Topsy, it grew up 
naturally, from the well-worn footpaths. It was called at 
various times "the market street," "the water street," 
"the broad street," "the great street wherein the town 
house stands," "the townsway down upon the flats," 
"street leading to the great wharf"; in 1708, "King 
Street"; in 1788, "State Street." Long Wharf was built 
by a company in 1709. What was called Minot's T, or T 
Wharf, was built on the north side, part of the old 
barricado, and was owned by Stephen Minot and Andrew 
Faneuil in 1718. 

In the early days the First Church was the principal 
building on the street. Organized in Charlestown in 
1630 it was two years before there was a building to wor- 
ship in. The meetings were held in the house of the 
governor, or out of doors. Winthrop tells us that the 
congregation of Charlestown and Boston began the meet- 
ing house in Boston in 1632, for which and for the house 
of Mr. Wilson, the pastor, they had made a voluntary 
contribution. In 1639 he says, "the old meeting house 
being decayed and too small they sold it and agreed to 
build another. But there grew a great difference where 
this new one should stand. Some were for the green, 
others, the tradesmen especially, who dwelt about the 
market place, desired that it might still stand near the 
market. At length they all yielded to have it set up by 
the market place." July 12, 1660, William Colburn, 
"heretofore Deacon now ruling Elder of the First Church," 
testified "that the old meeting house and land was sold to 
Robert Thompson of London, then resident in Boston, 
the dimensions being sixty-six feet long abutting upon a 
lane that lieth between the same and house and land of 
Thomas Leverett, now belonging to Isaac Addington, on 


the north east side; sixty-two feet broad abutting on the 
great street wherein the town house standeth, on the 
north west side, sixty-four feet abutting upon partly the 
aforesaid street, and partly upon an alley that passeth 
between the same and the house and land of Henry 
Phillips on the south west; and being sixty feet broad 
abutting upon a lane that lieth between the same and the 
land of Robert Scott south east." This building was 
on the south side of State Street, between Devonshire 
and Congress Streets. The second building was on 
the West side of Washington Street, near the 
south corner of Court Street. Ministers: John Wil- 
son, teacher, 1630—32; pastor, 1632—67; John Cot- 
ton, teacher, 1633-52; John Norton, teacher, 1656— 
63; John Davenport, pastor, 1668-70; James Allen, 
teacher, 1668— 1710; John Oxenbridge, pastor, 1670—74; 
Joshua Moody, assistant, 1684—92 ; John Bailey, assistant, 
1693—97; Benjamin Wadsworth, pastor, 1696-1725; 
Thomas Bridge, pastor, 1705-15; Thomas Foxcroft, 
pastor, 1717—69; Charles Chauncey, pastor, 1727—87; 
John Clarke, pastor, 1778-98; William Emerson, pastor, 
1 799-181 1. ^'The duties of the pastor were of private 
and public exhortation, and to administer the word of 
wisdom; those of teacher, were doctrinal and Scriptural 
explanation. In the present day they would be called 

Public occasions centred in the church. Meetings and 
lectures were the recreation of the people. Pirates and 
other criminals were taken to the church in chains, to 
listen to a sermon dealing with their sins, while a curious 
public filled the church. The Meeting House was 
used for town meetings until the town house was built. 
Men and women sat apart, and the boys had a separate 
place, with a tything-man to keep them in order. There 


were two sessions each Sunday, which consisted of prayer 
and the singing of psalms in the metrical version, and a 
sermon usually an hour long, timed by the hourglass 
which stood on the pulpit. 

May 14, 1634, the court was kept in the meeting house 
in Boston, and then the new governor (Dudley) and the 
assistants were entertained at the house of the old gov- 
ernor (Winthrop) as before. At this court it was ordered 
that there should be four general courts yearly, but that 
the whole body of freemen should be present only at the 
court for the election of magistrates, and that to the other 
three every town should send its deputies who should assist 
in making laws and in governing. Thus in this little 
church was the beginning of representative government. 

Occasionally a day was set apart to be kept as a 
day for public thanksgiving, or for fasting and prayer, 
when some important matter was to be considered. In 
1680 Jasper Bankers wrote in his journal his impressions 
of a fast-day service. "In the first place a minister read 
a prayer in the pulpit of full two hours in length: after 
which an old minister delivered a sermon an hour long, 
and after that a prayer was made and some verses sung 
out of a psalm. In the afternoon three or four hours were 
consumed with nothing except prayers, three ministers 
relieving each other alternately: When one was tired 
another went up into the pulpit." 

Next to the church the chief building on the street was 
the Town House. March 4, 1633-4, the Court ordered a 
market to be kept every Thursday. In 1636 it was ordered 
that "all timber in the market place shall be taken away," 
showing that one of the sawpits had been there. The first 
town house was built in 1657, when the spot ceased to be 
the market place and the government took possession. 
This was burned in the great fire of 1711. The present 


one was built in 1713, and, though partially consumed by- 
fire in 1767, the walls remain the same. Merchants met 
at the exchange, and the shops beneath were rented to 
booksellers and others. After Captain Keayne had left 
his books to the town, a Library was established at the 
east end. John Oxenbridge also left books to the Library. 
The selectmen and General Court met in the upper 
chamber, and the lower part for a time continued to be 
the place for the market. After the building of Faneuil 
Hall, that was used for the town meetings, and this build- 
ing for the legislature and the courts. In 1 780 John Han- 
cock was here inaugurated the first governor of Massachu- 
setts, and it continued to be the State House until 179S, 
when the new one on Beacon Street was ready. It is now 
used for historical purposes. In this short review it would 
be impossible to write of all the historical and impor- 
tant events which have taken place here. They will be 
found in all historical books. 

For many years the pillory and the whipping post 
stood in front of the building. 

Since the troops had been in Boston there had been fre- 
quent quarrels between the soldiers and citizens, and 
the climax was reached when on March 5, 1770, occurred 
the so-called "Boston Massacre," when five citizens were 
killed as a result of a fracas in State Street. Thereafter 
there was an oration on each anniversary, "To perpetuate 
the memory of the horrid Massacre perpetrated on the 
evening of the 5th of March, 1770." March 24, 1780, 
Jonathan Mason to have five yards of cloth it being a 
custom to allow the same as a compliment for delivering 
an oration. March 25, 1783, it was voted "that the cele- 
bration of the 5th of March shall cease, and instead the 
anniversary of the 4th of July be celebrated by the de- 
livery of a public oration." 


State Street is also noted for its taverns, many of which 
have become famous. The Exchange stood at the north- 
west corner of Exchange Street. In 1646 Anthony Stod- 
dard and John Leverett deeded house and land to Henry 
Shrimpton. His son Samuel inherited in 1666, and in 
1696-97 his son Samuel, Jr., inherited "The Exchange 
Tavern." In 1703 he mortgaged this to Nicholas Roberts, 
and the administrators of Roberts conveyed to Robert 
Stone, in 1654, "The Royal Exchange Tavern." In 1784 
Daniel Parker and wife Sally (Stone) deeded to Benjamin 
Hitchbone. In 1 798 it was occupied by Israel Hatch, inn- 
keeper. The Exchange Tavern is mentioned by Sewall 
as early as 1690-91. March 24, 1701, David Johnston is 
at the Exchange Tavern. August 27, 1712, the vestry of 
King's Chapel meet at the Royal Exchange, the house 
of Mr. Johns. In 1714 Roland Dike petitioned 
for a license. Luke Vardy was here in 1737. In 1764 
Seth Blodgett, in 1770, Mr. Stone, in 1772, Daniel Jones, 
in 1776, Benjamin Loring; and in 1788, John Bowers. 

The Vernon's Head, or Admiral Vernon, was on the 
northeast corner of Merchants Row. The early posses- 
sion of Edward Tyng who sold to James Everell in 165 1— 
52, and he to John Evered, alias Webb, in 1657. Webb 
conveyed to William Alford in 1664, and Peter Butler and 
wife Mary (Alford) inherited and deeded to James Gooch 
in 1 720. In 1 760 John Gooch conveyed to Tuthill Hubbard 
"the Vernon's Head." In 1798 it was a brick store. In 
1745 Richard Smith was licensed, and in 1764 Thomas 
Hubbard. In 1766 William Taunt, who had been at the 
Admiral Vernon several years, "prays for a recommenda- 
tion for keeping a tavern at the large house lately occupied 
by Potter and Gregory near by." Sarah Bean was licensed 
in 1774, Nicholas Lobdell in 1776 and 1786, and John 
Bryant in 1 790. 


One of the most famous taverns was the Bunch of 
Grapes, on the southeast corner of Kilby Street, the early 
possession of WilHam Davis, who sold to William Ingram 
in 1658. Ingram conveyed "the Bunch of Grapes" to 
John Holbrook in 1680, and the administrator of Hol- 
brook to Thomas Waite in 1 73 1. Elisha Doane bought it 
in 1773, and in 1798 its site was covered by a brick store. 
June 7, 1690, Francis Holmes was the keeper, and was 
to billet five soldiers at his house of public entertainment. 
In 1 712 he was still here, and his widow kept it until 
her death in 1730-31. 1731—33 William Coffin was 
the keeper; in 1734, Edward Lutwich; in 1749, Joshua 
Barker. In 1750, kept by Weatherhead, "being noted," 
said Goelet, the traveler, "as the best punch house in 
Boston." In 1757, "one Capt. and one private soldier to 
be billetted at Weatherhead's." 1 764—72 Joseph Ingersol 
was licensed, and Capt. John Marston in 1777-78; Wil- 
liam Foster in 1782. James Vila, 1789, and then re- 
moved to Concert Hall ; and in 1 790 Dudley Colman was 
here. Many noted guests partook of its hospitality, and 
it was here that, as a rule, the "elegant" dinners were 
served to the governors on their arrival. In 1737 there 
was a house called "Bunch of Grapes" in Congress Street, 
and in 1 790 James Bowdoin refers in his will to the Bunch 
of Grapes, his house so called, which was on the west 
corner of Kilby and State Streets. No doubt the tenant 
of the inn rented both these houses because of an overflow 
of guests. 

The Marlborough Arms, or Marlborough Head, was 
next east of the Bunch of Grapes. In 1649 William Hud- 
son was allowed to keep an ordinary here. His son con- 
veyed this to Francis Smith, and Smith to John Holland. 
James Gibson bought it in 1711 and in 1722 Mary Gibson 
deeded to her children "the house named Marlborough 


next the Grapes." It passed through several hands, and 
was bought by William Stackpole in 1 784. In 1 798 the site 
had been converted into brick stores. Elisha Odling was 
licensed here in 1720; Sarah Wormal in 1721; and Eliza- 
beth Smith in 1722. 

The Rose and Crown was on the southwest corner of 
Devonshire Street. Thomas Matson chose this spot when 
the town was first settled. He joined the church in 1630, 
but he soon sold out to Henry Webb, and removed to 
Union Street. Webb deeded to Henry Phillips in 1656-57, 
and his widow to her son Samuel Phillips, "The Rose and 
Crown." Peter Faneuil owned it in 1738, and his heirs 
until 1787, when it had no doubt long ceased to be a 

In 1 719 Thomas Finch was licensed at the Three 
Mariners at the lower end of State Street. In 1740 
groceries were to be sold at the second house on Long 
Wharf, formerly the King's Head Tavern. 

Of the coffee houses, the most famous was the British 
Coffee House, on the north side of the street, between 
Change Avenue and Merchants Row. According to the 
Book of Possessions James Oliver was the owner of the 
estate. Elisha Cooke recovered judgment against Oliver 
and sold to Nicholas Moorcock in 1699. Moorcock to 
Charles Burnham, in 1 71 7, whose heirs deeded to Jonathan 
Badger in 1773. Badger conveyed to Hannah Cordis, in 
1775, "The British Coffee House," and in 1780 the heirs 
of Badger confirm to Joseph Cordis "the American Coffee 
House." Cordis sold to the Massachusetts Bank in 1792. 
Cord Cordis was the innkeeper in 1771, and John Bryant 
was licensed in 1 790. This was the resort of the British 
officers, and here James Otis met his fate at the hands of 
John Robinson. 

The Crown Coffee House was on the north side and 


the first house on Long Wharf. Jonathan Belcher was 
a proprietor, and in 1749 his son Andrew Belcher con- 
veyed to Richard Smith "The Crown Coffee House"; Smith 
to Robert Shellcock in 1751, and his arministrators to 
Benjamin Brown in 1788. In 1798 the site was covered 
by brick stores. In 1714 Thomas Selby was licensed as 
an innholder at the Crown Coffee House, and died here 
ini7i2. In 1729 William Burgess was licensed. March, 
1734, "This is to advertise that Edward Lutwich is 
removed from the Bunch of Grapes to a house in the same 
street belonging to Gov. Belcher, where his father for- 
merly lived, and he keeps a Coffee House, and further that 
Thomas Baker has removed from the Crown Coffee 
House." November, 1734, "whereas Thomas Baker ad- 
vertised in the Journal that all persons who were indebted 
to him at the Crown Coffee House in 1733 to pay him. 
Now this is to give notice that they must pay Edward 
Lutwych who instructed said Baker to manage it for him." 
February, 1734—35, the difference between Lutwych and 
Baker was decided, and those that were indebted 
to the Crown Coffee House were desired "to 
pay sd Ludwych who now lives at the Crown near Scar- 
letts Wharf." In 1762 Rebecca Coffin was licensed, Wil- 
liam Bradford in 1766, and Rebecca Coffin again in 1772. 

Gutteridge Coffee House was on the north side, between 
Washington and Devonshire Streets. Robert Gutteridge 
was a tenant of Hezekiah Usher in 1688, and was licensed 
in 1 69 1. In 1 718 Mary Gutteridge petitioned for a re- 
newal of her late husband's license to keep a public coffee 

The Exchange Coffee House was on the southeast corner 
of Devonshire Street, the original possession of Robert 
Scott. The house was built in 1804, burned in 18 18, 
rebuilt in 1822, and closed as a tavern in 1854. 


Besides being the chief street financially, and the seat 
of the government, it was at first residential. John Wil- 
son, the minister, had his house and garden on the north 
side next to Coggan, on the corner of Washington Street. 
Devonshire Street was cut through his land, and he sold 
off many lots. Part was bought by Hezekiah Usher, 
whose son John sold to John Foye in 1 7 1 1 . Jacob Sheaffe 
also lived on part of this land. Hezekiah Usher was the 
first well-known bookseller. His son John was also a 
bookseller and increased the fortune which his father left 
to him by foreign trade. For a second wife he married 
Elizabeth Allen, daughter of Samuel Allen, a merchant in 
London, who was appointed governor of New Hampshire, 
and Usher became his lieutenant governor, but he lived 
for the most part in Boston in his father's house. He was 
impetuous and domineering, and involved in the connec- 
tion with Andros, under whom he was a counsellor and 
treasurer. He finally removed to Medford. 

On the west corner of Exchange Street, as we have 
noticed, was the Exchange Tavern. 

Exchange Street was a new street in 1646, and later 
known as "Shrimpton's Lane" and "Royal Exchange 

On the east corner of Exchange Street was the Royal 
Custom House in pre-revolutionary times, a house not 
loved by the people. Here Frankland was noted for not 
performing his duties, and he was succeeded by William 
Sheaffe, who issued the writs of assistance, and all the 
officers with the customs were out of favor. Next in 
order was the early possession of William Pierce, part of 
which came into the hands of the U. S. Bank in 1799. 

In 1639 it was "ordered that a passage of seven feet 
wide be taken out of Mr. Pierce's garden into the creek 
near Edward Bendall's house." In 1700 it was "an alley 


from the great street to the land of Clement Grosse, now 
Benjamin Mountford's"; in 1708, "Pierce's alley/' then 
known as "Fitch's alley," "Davis alley," and "Flagg 
alley," and finally in 1841 Change Avenue. 

Edward Tyng was a large land owner next to the 
British Coffee House on the east side of Change Avenue, 
part of which was bought by Andrew Faneuil in 1707-8, 
and was in his family until 1791. 

William Story, who held a position in the Custom 
House, bought a house on the north side between Wash- 
ington and Devonshire Streets, in 1754. This was at- 
tacked by the mob August 26, 1765, and he sold it in 
1766. June 3, 1 73 1, Merrett and Fletcher, grocers, ad- 
vertised at the Three Sugar Loaves and Canisters in King 
Street, near the town house. December 15, 1718, books 
sold at auction at the Sign of the Lighthouse near the 
town house. November 21, 1729, James Vincent, silk 
dyer, advertised at the Sign of the Hoop-Petticoat over 
against the north side of the town house. In 171 7 Sam- 
son Sheaffe and Samuel Tyley, public notaries, advertised 
at the Hand and Pen on the south side of the Court House. 
In 1720 a collection of books to be sold at the Sign of 
the Magpy on the south side of the town house. In 
1727—28 John Phillips was at the Stationers Arms on 
the same side, and there also, in 1734, Thomas Cox had 
books for sale at his shop. The Lamb. 

John Mein, a Scotchman who came with Robert Sande- 
man in 1764, was the first to open a circulation library, 
and kept the London bookstore in 1766; this was just east 
of Change Avenue. In 1767 he was in Newbury Street. 
In 1725 Walter Brown was at a house between Change 
Avenue and Merchants Row, where he advertised a lime 
kiln to be sold at the Sign of the Blue Anchor. 

John Boydell came as secretary to Governor Shute, in 


1 716. In 1 718, for fighting a duel on the Common, he was 
fined ten pounds and twenty-four hours' confinement. 
He was postmaster, and published the Boston Gazette, 
1732-39. June 10, 1 73 1, his wife Hannah advertised tea, 
coffee and other groceries in her shop adjoining the naval 
office, over against the Bunch of Grapes. In July she 
advertised the same, but instead of a sign to the shop 
"there's placed before the window cannisters, jars and 
sugar loaves," thereby imitating her rivals, Merrett and 
Fletcher, farther up the street. In 1732 Governor Bel- 
cher wrote: "Mr. Boydell and wife are very easy under 
the present circumstances. I suppose what he enjoys 
under me makes four to five hundred pounds a year, and 
his grocery shop maintains the family. He is a very 
honest man." 

February 1 732-33, Benjamin Landon has "choice velvet 
corke" to be sold at the Sign of the Elephant, at the 
lower end of King Street. 

On the south side of State Street, as we noted, Captain 
Keayne was on the corner of Washington Street, and 
then came Ralph Hudson, draper, whose daughter mar- 
ried Governor Leverett and became the grandmother of 
the president of Harvard College. Hudson came to New 
England in 1635, and lived first in Cambridge, but in 1637 
was granted a house plot in Boston. He married Mary 
Thwing, daughter of John and Helene Thwing, of King- 
ston upon Hull. 

Isaac Addington lived in Half Square Court, be- 
tween Devonshire and Congress Streets. He was the 
son of Isaac Addington, and Ann, the daughter of Elder 
Thomas Leverett. He was a surgeon by profession, but 
more active in public life, deputy, speaker, assistant, clerk 
of the Council of Safety, and secretary under the provi- 
sional government, and also under the new charter. Also 


a counsellor, register of deeds, and judge of probate, and 
ruling elder of the church. All of these important offices 
show the high esteem in which he was held. He died 
in 1 714— 15. He probably lived for a time on the north 
corner of Essex Street, after his marriage with Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Griffeth Bowen. 

Thomas Leverett was an elder in the church, and came 
in the same ship with John Cotton in 1633. He had been 
an alderman in Boston, England. He was a selectman in 
Boston and died in 1650. His son, the governor, John 
Leverett, lived here after the death of his father. Con- 
gress Street was cut through this estate. 

Andrew Belcher, the father of the governor, acquired 
part of the estate which was part of the early possession 
of John Winthrop, and Governor Jonathan Belcher sold it 
in 1 74 1. On the west corner of Kilby Street was the lot of 
WilHam Davis according to the Book of Possessions. Part 
was bought by a syndicate, and later fell into the hands of 
Jeremiah Dummer, goldsmith. The wife of Thomas 
Leverett released her share in 1677. Dummer was the 
father of two distinguished sons, William, the lieutenant- 
governor, and Jeremiah, who was of Harvard College in 
1699 and passed most of his life as agent of the colonies 
in England. In 1716 Dummer's property was bought 
by William Foye, which his heirs sold in 1744. Foye Vv^as 
also an investor in real estate in other parts of the town, 
in Hanover Street and elsewhere. He removed to Hali- 
fax, where he was receiver general and treasurer of the 
province, 1736—59. His son William was also prominent 
there, and was provost marshal for twenty-two years. 
John Erving obtained possession of this estate, and be- 
queathed it to his daughter, Elizabeth, wife of Governor 
James Bowdoin. In 1 790 Bowdoin bequeathed this house 
called Bunch of Grapes to his widow. 


Gov. John Leverett acquired much of the land from 
just east of Kilby Street to Long Wharf, on the south 
side. This came to Elisha Cooke through his wife Eliza- 
beth (Leverett), which helped to make him one of the 
wealthiest men of the town. 

Devonshire Street existed, in the Book of Possessions, 
only from State Street to Spring Lane. From Dock 
Square to State Street it was in 1654-55, "a lane from the 
dock head to the house of John Wilson," and at times called 
''Wilson's lane" and "Crooked lane, in 1708"; in 1872, 
"Devonshire Street. From State to Water Street it was 
commonly called, "churchway to the old meeting house"; 
"a narrow lane leading from Henry Webb's to Mr. Hib- 
bens"; "the crooked path of the back lane," etc., various 
owners being named in various deeds. It was also "a nar- 
row lane leading from the market place towards the 
spring"; "lane over against the stone house of ensign 
Phillips"; "narrow lane leading from the Rose and Crown 
Tavern down to the back street leading to Oliver's dock 
(Water Street)"; in 1702 called "Pudding Lane," which 
name remained until 1766, when, having been enlarged 
since the fire, was named Devonshire Street in honor of 
a merchant in Bristol, England, who gave two hundred 
pounds to the sufferers. From Water to Milk Street it 
was a highway in 1649; then "a way leading from the 
spring towards the house of John Joyliffe"; "highway to 
Mr. Bridghams"; in 1708, "Joyliff's lane"; in 1788, 
Devonshire Street. Almost all the estates on Washing- 
ton Street between State and Water Streets extended to 
Devonshire Street. 

Congress Square was the property of Robert Scott, 
according to the Book of Possessions. In 1 708 it was called 
"Half Square Court"; in 1738, "Exchange alley"; in 1798, 
"Court Square," and 182 1, "Congress Square." 


Congress Street in 1661 was a cartway to the land 
of John Leverett from the highway towards the 
spring (Water Street), In 1667 ^ street was to 
be laid out through the land of John Leverett "from 
the broad street"; in 1695, "an alley or lane 
leading from the broad street near the Exchange 
into the creek," and "the street leading from the town 
street to the Governor's dock"; in 1708 called "Leverets 
Lane," and for many years known as "Quaker Lane." 
From Water Street to Milk Street it was laid out through 
the land of James Dalton, who bought the land in 1756, 
originally part of the possessions of Henry Bridgham, and 
called Dalton Street. 

The principal building on Congress Street was the 
Quaker Meeting House. The Society grew in spite of 
persecution, and in 1709 it sold its house in Brattle 
Square and bought land on the west side of Congress 
Street, about opposite Exchange Place, of the heirs of 
John Leverett. A small wooden building was built, and 
the burying ground was in the rear. In 1760 the 
Meeting House was partly destroyed in the great 
fire, but was rebuilt. The society became extinct 
in 1808, and in 1827 the property was sold, and the re- 
mains in the burying ground removed to Lynn. 

KiLBY Street was ordered to be laid out in 1649, "of 
twelve feet between Capt. Harding and William Davis, 
along straight to the bridge which the town and Mr. 
Hill set up." The bridge was at the foot of Water 
Street. It went, as usual, by various names, according 
to the fancy of the writer of the deeds, or that of the 
town clerk: "The street going up to Benjamin Gillum's" ; 
"street that leads from the great or market street towards 
Fort Hill"; "highway which leads from Exchange Street 
to the brook and dock called Oliver's dock"; "Dummers 


Lane"; in 1708, "Mackril Lane." Miller's Lane and 
Adams Street were later included in Kilby Street. Until 
the great fire of 1760, the street was very narrow; it was 
then widened and called Kilby Street, after Christopher 
Kilby, who was in New York when the fire occurred, and 
at once sent two hundred pounds for the relief of the 
sufferers. Kilby was the son of John and Rebecca 
(Simpkins) Kilby, and was born in 1705. He married 
Sarah, daughter of Hon. William Clarke, and when he 
grew to man's estate he became a partner of his father- 
in-law, and later of his brother-in-law. He was a rep- 
resentative in the legislature, and in 1739 was sent to 
England as agent, especially in regard to the financial 
questions. He remained there until 1741 and then suc- 
ceeded Francis Wilkes as agent of the province. He soon 
entered into business in London, and thereafter made his 
home in England, visiting his old home at intervals. On 
one occasion he was entertained by the General Court at 
a handsome dinner in Concert Hall. He died in England, 
in 1 77 1. Only one child survived him, his daughter 
Sarah, who married Capt. Nathaniel Cunningham, a rich 
Boston merchant. He died in 1756 leaving two young 
children, and his widow returned to England and married 
Capt. Gilbert McAdam, of Ayrshire. One of her grand- 
daughters married the seventh Duke of Argyle, grand- 
father of the Marquis of Lome. 

Several streets led from Kilby Street east towards the 
water. Doane Street was the highway of Thomas Peck 
in 1695, or his cartway, "and a ten-foot passage to 
Nathaniel Wheatley's wharf"; in 1806, Doane Street. 
Central Street was John Poole's wharf in 1709; in 
1784, Borland's wharf, and in 1798, passage to Wood- 
ward's Wharf; in 1858 accepted as a street. Bangs 
Alley in 1734 was a passage from Mackril Lane to the 
wharf of Benjamin Salisbury, ten feet wide. Exchange 











Place in 1737 was an alley; in 1784, Lindall's Row; in 
1873, Exchange Place. 

Water Street, according to the Book of Possessions 
was a part of Springate. In 1654 the agents of 
Stephen Winthrop laid out a highway through his 
marsh ^'from Henry Bridgham's house to Benjamin 
Ward's wharf, as far as his land goeth, and the 
town grants the residue of the way through the 
marsh." Later it was called "the street that leads 
to Peter Oliver's dock"; in 1660-61 there was a lane, 
which had been cut through the estate of Thomas Oliver, 
and this connected the first part with Washington Street. 
It was all called "Water Street" in 1708. 

William Hibbens was a merchant of note, an assistant, 
and was an agent of the colony in England. His house 
lot was on the south side, just east of Devonshire Street. 
He died in 1654, and the next year his widow, Ann Hib- 
bens, was condemned for witchcraft. She was said by 
some to have been quarrelsome and odious to her neigh- 
bors, and by others that having more wit than some, 
popular clamor was against her and she was hanged. For 
some years the town let this property, and John Rowe 
bought it in 1763. Next to this estate was that of Henry 
Bridgham, which extended to Milk Street, This was 
bought by James Dalton, and Congress Street extended 
through it. 

In 1736 George and Robert Harris advertised at their 
tanyard, at the sign of the Tanners and Curriers and 
Oxhead, which they changed the next year to that of 
the Boys and Bullocks Head. 

In 1659-60 Peter Oliver bought some marsh land of 
Stephen Winthrop on the north side. In 1809 the town 
sold to William Phillips the water course or Oliver's 
Dock, which dock extended west of Kilby Street. Hawes 
Street was a lane in 1723 and a passage to the dock; 


in 1798 called "Russell's alley." Below Kilby Street the 
town sold land to James Johnson in 1656-57, and he 
deeded part to Peter Oliver in 1660-61. This is included 
in Liberty Square. 

In 1760 land was sold where the Blue Anchor was before 
the fire, near Oliver's Dock. March, 1 714-15, Nehemiah 
Partridge advertised "the Indian Mitchean or Moving 
Picture, wherein are to be seen windmills and watermills 
moving around ship sailing on the sea, etc., at his house 
in Water Street at the head of Olivers Dock." 

Bath Street was a highway parting the land of John 
Walley from the land of Jonathan Bridgham in 1685—86. 
In 1708 called "Tanners Lane," from the numerous tan- 
yards in the vicinity; later called "Horn Lane." Part 
of it was included in the extension of Pearl Street, later 
Post Office Square. 

Coopers Alley was a lane in 1685, from Water Street 
south to Milk Street; in 1708 "Coopers alley," also 
"Board alley" and "Parrott's alley," now covered by 
Mason Building. 

Spring Lane was the "Springate" of early times. Here 
was the famous spring which induced Winthrop and his 
companions at the instigation of Blackstone, to come to 
the peninsula and make it their capital. In later days 
Judge Minot had his office here. He was one of the early 
members of the Massachusetts Historical Society, or- 
ganized in 1 79 1. 

Milk Street only extended a short distance from 
Washington Street according to the Book of Possessions, 
and this was called the "fort street;" then it acquired 
other names, such as "the front street"; "lane 
from Robert Reynolds to the marsh"; "highway lead- 
ing to the seaside." In 1663, Peter Oliver and others 
petitioned for making "a highway from goodman 


Wards to goodman Pells." In 1673 "it is now ordered 
that the way laid out in 1663 shall be extended through 
the land of Benjamin Ward, now in possession of William 
Hallowell, and Stephen Butler to the sea." Then it was 
called "lane from the South Meeting House to Atkinson 
dock"; "South Meeting House lane," and, in 1708, "Milk 

On the south side opposite the church is the site of 
the so-called Franklin House, where Benjamin Franklin 
was born. It was owned by Robert Reynolds, the rear 
of his lot on Washington Street, and in 1691 his son 
mortgaged it, "now in the present tenure and occupation 
of Josiah Franklin." The same year Franklin asked 
leave to build a small shed. Soon after the birth of Ben- 
jamin in 1706—7, his father bought the house in Union 
Street. Savil Simpson, a warden of King's Chapel, who 
died in 1725, bought a house and land of the Robert 
Reynolds heirs in 1682, and sold in 1716. He owned 
large farms in Hopkinton and Framingham. 

John Stevenson, whose widow married William Black- 
stone, had the next lot to Reynolds according to the Book 
of Possessions. A little farther east was the lot of James 
Pen, the beadle, who later bought land on Tremont Street. 
William Dinsdale was not far away, and Devonshire 
Street was later extended through this estate. William 
Pell was at the west corner of what later became Federal 
Street. On the east corner of Federal Street Richard Fair- 
banks owned seven acres which extended on the west side 
of Pearl Street and was bought by Theodore Atkinson in 
1667. Congress Street was cut through this pasture. The 
pasture of Eliakim Hutchinson came next, through which 
Oliver Street was laid out. 

On the northeast corner of Devonshire Street Captain 
Thomas Cromwell bought house and land of Richard 


Sherman in 1649. Winthrop wrote of him in 1646, 
"about ten years since he was a common seaman; on 
return from a voyage he had great money and yet he 
took up his lodging in a poor thatched house, and his 
answer was that in his mean estate that poor man had 
entertained him and he would not leave him now." He 
left six bells to the town. His widow Anne married 
Robert Knight, and for a third venture, in 1657, John 
Joyliffe for whom Devonshire Street was called for a time. 
The famous Julien Restaurateur was on the northwest 
corner of Milk and Congress Streets, facing Milk Street, 
According to the Book of Possessions, John Spoor had a 
house and one acre here. In 1648-49 Henry Bridgham 
granted a house and lot in Washington Street to 
Spoor, and it may be that they exchanged lots, for 
Bridgham was the owner of this lot in 1655. 
Bridgham died in 1671, and his widow the next 
year, and in 1680 the estate was divided among 
the three sons. John, the eldest, a physician, settled in 
Ipswich, inherited the new house, and that included the 
west part on the present Congress Street. In 1719 he 
conveyed this portion to his nephew Joseph Bridgham, who 
in 1734-35 deeded to Francis Borland, then measuring 
one hundred and six feet south on Milk Street, seventy- 
six feet east on the part set off to Jonathan Bridgham, 
and west by other estates. Borland also bought a strip 
of James Dalton, in 1763, which reached the whole length 
of the lot on Congress Street, laid out through Dalton's 
land. Borland died in 1763. He left the Milk Street 
estate to his son, Francis Lindall Borland, who was absent 
and feared to be dead. In 1765 the estate was divided 
among the Winthrop children, Jane Borland having mar- 
ried John Still Winthrop in 1750. These heirs conveyed 
this corner to Thomas Clement, and in 1794 he sold it 


to Jean Baptist Gilbert Payplat dit Julien, restaurateur. 
He kept a noted restaurant here, and after his death in 
1806 his widow carried it on. The famous Julien soup 
still keeps his reputation in remembrance. The heirs sold 
to a commercial company in 1823, and the house was 
taken down. 

The Stackpole house was on the east corner of Milk and 
Devonshire Streets, facing Milk Street, originally part of 
the Cromwell estate, and was bought by William Stackpole 
in 1 790. He was a noted merchant and left many valuable 
estates in the town, in State Street, Dock Square, and 
elsewhere. In 1871 the corner stone of the Post Office 
was laid, and this corner was included in the Federal 


OR many years this part of the town was very 
Hke a large village, for it was in a great measure 
devoted to gardens, residences, and the large 
houses of the rich and fashionable. On the east side, 
near the water, were ropewalks. It was not until towards 
the middle of the nineteenth century that business gradu- 
ally but steadily entered its precincts — that is, business 
as we know it to-day. It is now devoted entirely to 
business. According to the divisions which we have 
marked out, this section extended south of School and 
Milk Streets to Boylston and Essex Streets, and from and 
including the east side of Tremont Street to the water 
(the present Purchase Street). 

Tremont Street was a part of the Common, south of 
School Street. Between West and Boylston Streets it 
was laid out about 1666, and in 1667 it was a lane issuing 
out of the Common. In 1708, from Beacon Street to 
Boylston Street was called Common Street. 

Part of the property of Zaccheus Bosworth, at the 
corner of School Street, was bought by William Pollard 
in 1663, and John Pollard deeded to Jonathan Pollard, in 
1722, the Horseshoe Tavern. In 1782 the heirs of Pol- 
lard conveyed it to George Hamlin, when it had probably 
ceased to be a tavern. In 1738 Alexander Cochran was 
licensed here. 

William Aspinwall owned a large estate next to Bos- 
worth, which extended to Washington Street. Bromfield 


-Jf^if^"') I 




Street was extended through it by Edward Rawson. Gil- 
bert Deblois bought the house at the north corner of 
Bromfield Street in 1774, and in 1760, Adino Paddock 
that on the south corner. He sold this to Thomas Bum- 
stead in 1 78 1. Paddock was a coachmaker, and also 
Captain of the Artillery. James Smith, from Scotland, 
living in Milton, had imported some elms from England; 
Gilbert Deblois asked for some, and said in return he 
would name his son for Smith, which he did in 1769. 
Deblois planted the elms and asked Paddock, who lived 
opposite, to look out for them. Hence the elms which 
for so many years stood by the Granary Burying Ground 
came to be known as the ''Paddock elms." But that 
Paddock fulfilled his part is attested by the story that he 
well thrashed a boy for tampering with them. 

In 1662 Arthur Mason, a baker, with Antipas Boyce, 
bought the next large tract which extended to Winter 
Street. Mason was to have the northern portion. Pie 
also bought land in School Street and Washington Street. 
He died in 1707—8 and his estate was divided among his 
seven children. The building known as the "Manufac- 
tory," which stood in Hamilton Place, was on this estate. 
About 1 718 a company from Londonderry, Ireland, ar- 
rived in Massachusetts, bringing with them implements 
for manufacturing linen. December 27, 1720, the town 
appointed a committee to consider about promoting a 
spinning school or schools, for the instruction of children 
in spinning. Little or nothing seems to have been done 
towards furthering this object until June 2, 1753, when 
the town petitioned the legislature for a building. This 
was granted and became the property of the province. 
In 1768 the building was leased. In 1794 Thomas Pem- 
berton writes: "Linen manufacture was begun in the 
Manufactory House with a spirit too violent to continue 


long. Great show and parade were exhibited on the Com- 
mon at its commencement. Spinning wheels were then 
the hobby horses of the public. The females of the town, 
rich and poor, appeared on the Common with their wheels 
and vied with each other in the dexterity of using them. 
At the anniversary of its institution (for it continued three 
or four years) the trustees and company attended public 
worship when a sermon was delivered suited to the occa- 
sion, and a contribution made to aid the business. The 
building was afterwards occupied for a short time for 
the manufacture of worsted hose, metal buttons, etc. 
The Massachusetts Bank was kept here for a long time. 
It now owns it, and it is let to private families." October, 
1768, John Andrews writes: "It was here that the first 
opposition to the soldiers was made. John Brown having 
leased the building from the Province, refused admission 
to the military." During the siege, the British used it 
for barracks and then as a hospital. 

The land at the north corner of Winter Street fell to 
the share of Antipas Boyce. It was bought by Samuel 
Vetch, who was the first governor of Nova Scotia, in 1711, 
but he sold it in 17 13. In 1722 it was conveyed to Adam 
Winthrop, the third of the name. He was active in mili- 
tary affairs and filled many important town offices, and 
was counsellor and representative. He sold the estate to 
Thomas Oxnard in 1742. Oxnard was provincial grand 
master of the Masons in New England, in which office he 
was installed in 1 744. Captain Francis Goelet records in 
1750 his visit to the lodge . . . "which is kept at Stone's 
(the Royal Exchange Tavern) in a very grand manner. 
Mr. Oxnard presided." John Williams was the next 
owner, buying it from the heirs of Oxnard in 1768. In 
1780 Samuel Breck, Jr., writes, in his "Recollections": 
"My father purchased a house for twelve hundred guineas 



in gold. It was greatly out of repair having been oc- 
cupied, as I have often heard, by Lord Percy, who was 
in Boston during the siege. My father put it in excellent 
repair and adorned the extensive garden in the midst of 
which it stood. For a city residence it was remarkably 
fine. This was sold to my uncle John Andrews when we 
removed to Philadelphia in 1792. In these gardens my 
father gave a grand fete on the birth of the dauphin. 
Drink was distributed from hogsheads, and the whole town 
was made welcome to the plentiful tables within doors." 

Lucius Manlius Sargent writes of John Andrews: *'I 
remember him well and his trim dress and white top 
boots and powdered hair. When I knew him he lived 
at the corner of Winter Street and the gardens extended 
down Winter Street. It was an antique wooden house, 
and once occupied by Francis Bernard. My mother 
pointed out to me the chamber she occupied when she 
made them a visit." John Andrews will always be re- 
membered by the letters he wrote before and during the 
siege, which give a vivid picture of the life in Boston at 
that time. He speaks of entertaining Washington at 
dinner. He then lived in School Street. He says, 
"Washington then proceeded to Earl Percy's at the head 
of Winter Street, belonging to Inspector Williams." 

Francis Bernard, the ninth royal governor, occupied this 
house during his term of office. He was born in England 
in 1 71 2, appointed governor of New Jersey in 1758, and 
the following year of Massachusetts. Bernard's daughter 
Julia says, in her reminiscences, that the Province House 
was his official residence or government house. She says 
they had a great number of servants, both black and 
white. A public day each week, a dinner for gentlemen, 
and a drawing-room in the afternoon, when all persons 
of either sex who wished to pay their respects were intro- 


duced ; various refreshments were handed about and some 
cards. They also had apartments at Castle William, 
where they moved when the weather became extremely 
hot. "My father though not tall had something dignified 
and distinguished in his appearance and manners. He 
dressed superbly on all occasions. My mother was tall 
and a very fine woman. Her dresses were ornamented 
with gold and silver and ermine and fine American sable. 
My father had a pleasant house in Jamaica Plain, chiefly 
built by himself, and we generally moved to it in May. 
[This was near Jamaica Pond, the site now partly covered 
by Pond Street.] He was always on the wing on account 
of his situation. There were many worthy and interest- 
ing families in Boston, with some of these we afterwards 
renewed our acquaintance in London." The fashion of 
toasts after dinner was then prevalent, and one of Ber- 
nard's survived and is still repeated. 

"Here's a health to all those that we love, 
Here's a health to all those that love us, 
Here's a health to all those that love them that love those 
That love those that love them that love us." 

During his administration there were six successive minis- 
tries in England, with a corresponding change in secreta- 
ries of state, and notable incidents leading up to the 
Revolution followed each other in quick succession. 

William Pitt, the great commoner, was in the zenith 
of his power, and Edmund Burke began his career. 
Macaulay says, "When the bill for repealing the Stamp 
Act was under consideration, the House of Commons heard 
Pitt for the last time and Burke for the first time, and 
was in doubt to which of them the palm of eloquence 
should be assigned." They were both strong and loyal 
friends to America, and appealed for her interests. In 
March, 1765, the Stamp Act was passed, which led to 


riots, mobs, and the destruction of property, and this 
caused its repeal the following year. The first American 
Congress met in New York, October 7, 1765, which was 
the first step towards the national Union, and about this 
time the terms "Whig" and "Tory" were first used in the 
provinces. October 28, 1767, at an important town meet- 
ing, it was agreed not to import nor use articles of British 
production. September 1768, two regiments, the four- 
teenth and the twenty-ninth, were quartered on the town, 
from which arose no end of trouble. All these facts are 
well known, and have been described minutely many times. 
They affected the life of the townsmen, and changed the 
life of the nation. 

Bernard was upbraided by some for doing too little 
and by others for doing too much, and the situation be- 
tween him and the people became more and more strained. 
In 1769 he was recalled, and there was great joy among 
the people. His administration came at the most critical 
time in the history of the province, and he did not under- 
stand the art of governing the people and at the same time 
of pleasing the king. 

On the south corner of Winter Street lived Paul Dudley, 
in a house which he bought in 1706 and sold in 1724—25. 

Joseph Dudley was the third royal governor, the son 
of Gov. Thomas Dudley, and was born in Roxbury in 1647. 
He always lived there, but was without doubt much at 
the house of his son Paul. He held many public offices, 
but, involved in the troubles of Andros, he passed five 
months in the gaol and was then sent to England. It must 
have been with great satisfaction that he returned to his 
native land as governor in 1702. Sewall says, meeting 
him on board the ship Centurian, "The governor has 
a very large wigg. He rode to Roxbury in Major Hobby's 
coach drawn with six horses richly harnessed." During 


his whole term of office he was at constant warfare with 
the legislature, and he continued to insist that the gov- 
ernor should have a house provided for him and that 
he should have a fixed salary, which the House steadily 
refused. On the death of Queen Anne he asked to be 
retained in office, but this was not granted, and he re- 
tired to Roxbury. 

Samuel Shute was the fourth royal governor, and was 
born in London in 1653. He arrived in Boston commis- 
sioned as governor October 4, 1716, and received the 
usual parade. Hutchinson tells us that he took up his 
lodging at Paul Dudley's. He inherited from his prede- 
cessor the quarrels with the legislature, especially in re- 
gard to a fixed salary, which the people would not give. 
He finally wearied of the strife, and, obtaining leave to 
return, he secretly boarded a vessel January i, 1723, 
leaving the lieutenant-governor, William Dummer, to 
administer the affairs. The land on which St. Paul's 
Cathedral stands was owned by John Wampas, the Indian, 
in 1666-7. 

On both sides of Temple Place and extending to 
West Street was the pasture of Richard Carter, which 
his daughter Ann sold to Hezekiah Usher. In 1 714 it was 
bought by Francis Wainwright and in 1722 by Jonathan 
Williams, who conveyed in 1 742 to Stephen Greenlief, the 
sheriff of Suffolk County and a confirmed royalist. In 
1798 it was owned by Hepsibah Swan for her husband 
James Swan, a merchant who got into financial difficulties 
and was for many years imprisoned in Paris, as he would 
not conform to the laws. In the early part of the nine- 
teenth century the estate was well known as the "Wash- 
ington Gardens," and later was the site of the Masonic 

In 1711-12 Governor Joseph Dudley proposed to pro- 

^ 3 
C - 


vide for the town some field carriages if the selectmen 
would provide a suitable house for them. The site 
selected was in the Common, just south of West Street. 
In 1746 there were eight field carriages here. In 1767 
the selectmen were desired to repair and enlarge the gun 
house for the reception of the artillery lately given by the 
Province for the use of the Boston regiment. In 1769 
Capt. Adino Paddock and others of the Artillery Company 
were given leave to erect a gun house on the town's land 
near the Common. 

September 16, 1774, John Andrews writes: '^Ever since 
the cannon were taken away from Charlestown the Gen- 
eral has ordered a double guard on the new and old 
gun houses where the brass field pieces belonging to our 
militia are lodged. Notwithstanding which, the vigilance 
and temerity of our people have disconcerted him. For 
Wednesday evening or night they took those from the 
old house (by opening the side of the house) and carried 
them away through Frank Johonnot's garden [a distiller 
who lived on Avery Street]. Upon which the General 
gave orders the next day to remove those from the new 
house (which stands directly opposite the encampment of 
the fourth regiment in the middle of the street near the 
large elm) into the camp and to place a guard at each end. 
The officers went to execute his orders and they were 
gone." The conspirators had seized them and lodged 
them in the schoolhouse next door, where they were so 
placed under the master's desk, that they were not found, 
and a little later they were as secretly taken to Roxbury 
and concealed in the woods. They were used during the 
Revolution, and are now at Bunker Hill. 

The ground on which the gun house stood was sold by 
the town to private individuals. The next estate of any 
historical importance was that which the town granted 


to Richard Bellingham, in 1665, which was bought by 
Samson Sheaffe in 1677, and for some years it was the 
home of the schoolmaster. Jacob Sheaffe sold to Abiah 
Holbrook, whose heirs conveyed to Israel Hatch in 1794. 
He was an innkeeper here in 1796. The lot south of 
the tavern, Hatch sold to the proprietors of the second 
theater in the town, in 1796. 

Washington Street between School and Milk Streets 
and Winter and Summer Streets was called "Marlborough 
Street" in 1708, and south of Winter and Summer Streets 
to Boylston and Essex Streets was named "Newbury 
Street." They were otherwise known as "the fore street 
going towards Roxbury"; "the long fore street"; "street 
to Roxbury," etc. 

On the west side on the south corner of School Street 
was the house lot of Atherton Hough, granted to him 
on his arrival in 1633 ^^ ^^^ same ship that brought John 
Cotton and others. Hough was one of the selectmen, and 
with Vane and Elder Oliver were the first appointed to 
argue disputes. Francis Lyle the barber was next to him. 
Harvard Place was later taken out of this lot. It was 
ordered in 1722—23 that a passage be left, ten feet six 
inches wide. Later it was called "Joy's alley," and 
"Coblers Court"; in 1820, "Harvard Place." 

The next lot became famous as the site of the Province 
House. The original possession of Thomas Millard, it 
was bought by Peter Sargent in 1676. Sargent built the 
house and put his initials over the front door, "16 
P. S. 79." He died in 1 714—15. He was a rich merchant 
and held a prominent place in the town. He married for 
a third wife the widow of Sir William Phipps, and he 
was her third husband. For a fourth wife he married 
Mehitable, widow of Thomas Cooper, and she married 
for a third husband, after his death, Simeon Stoddard. 


The official residence of the Provincial Governors 


In 1 716 the heirs sold the estate to the Government, and it 
became the official residence of the provincial governors, 
most of them if not all obtaining other houses for their 
family life. After the evacuation in 1776, our own 
officers used it for public business. 

The Province House was first used by the governors 
as their official residence in the time of Shute, but whether 
many of them lived there is doubtful. It is known that 
during his brief stay in Boston Lord Bellomont occupied it. 
Sewall notes, Midsummer day, 1699, that he dined with 
his lordship at Mr. Sargent's, and that he let him his 
coach house which was at the head of Bromfield Street. 
The Government paid the rent to Mr. Sargent for four- 
teen and a half months and also paid Sewall for the 
coach house. Richard Coote, Earl of Bellomont, was an 
Irish peer, born in 1636, and in June, 1697, was commis- 
sioned governor of the province. He was by nature a 
courtier and tried to please the people, but the first decided 
opposition of the people to the crown came under his 
administration, when he asked that a fixed salary should 
be settled on the governor. They argued that they had 
some control over those to whom they paid a salary raised 
by taxation, which they would not otherwise have. Bello- 
mont is best known by his dealings with Captain Kidd. 
With a view to the capture of the famous Captain William 
Kidd, Bellomont bent his energies. Kidd was known 
to Bellomont in London, where he was helped by 
him and others in fitting out the Adventure galley to 
suppress piracy. Kidd sailed for the Indian Ocean, and 
it was soon rumored that instead of suppressing piracy 
Kidd had himself turned pirate. An order was given for 
his arrest, and without suspicion Kidd came to New York 
and sent word to Bellomont that he had ten thousand 
pounds of goods, part of which was Bellomont's share, and 


he would prove himself innocent of the charges against 
him. A letter from Bellomont to Kidd was considered 
as a safe conduct, and Kidd came to Boston, where he 
was arrested, sent to England, and there tried, condemned, 
and executed. Bellomont's connection with this matter 
has not added to his reputation, and by some he has been 
severely censured. Bellomont went on a visit to New 
York in the summer of 1700, and died there March 5, 
1700— I. 

William Burnet, the fifth governor, the eldest son of 
the Rev. Gilbert Burnet, lord bishop of Sarum, was born 
at The Hague in Holland, March 1686-87, ^.nd named 
William after the Prince of Orange, who stood for his 
godfather. The Boston News Letter wrote of him, after 
his death, ''His body was very large, the image of his 
noble father, and in soul he was heir of his Learning, Jus- 
tice and Moderation." He had been governor of New York 
and New Jersey when he was transferred to Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire by George II. Though all 
the royal governors had been well received, his recep- 
tion exceeded others by its great pomp and parade. The 
News Letter says, July 25, 1728, "His Excellency Gover- 
nor Burnet arrived at Dedham on Thursday night and 
lodged at the house of the Rev. Mr. Dexter. The next 
morning the house was surrounded with a large concourse 
of gentlemen who went to attend and guard him to Boston. 
He was met at the George Tavern by the Lieutenant- 
Governor, the Honorable Gentlemen of his Majestie's 
Council, etc., who lighted out of their coaches and con- 
gratulated him. Here he was received by Colonel Dudley's 
regiment. About twelve o'clock he with the attendance 
of five troops, a vast number of gentlemen on horseback, 
and a great number of coaches and chaises, was ushered 
into Boston with a splendor and magnificence superior 


to what has ever been known in these parts of the world. 
Upon his entrance at the fortification he was saluted by 
guns on small vessels which lay near for that purpose and 
by the guns at Castle William. From the Fortification 
to the Town House the windows, turrets and streets 
seemed to be alive with joyful spectators, while the Pomp 
was making its orderly procession that was appointed for 
his reception. After some stay, at one o'clock he was 
received by the Boston Militia and a train of Magistrates 
and conducted to the Court House where his commission 
was opened. After this he was conducted to the Bunch 
of Grapes where he was entertained at dinner. About 
six o'clock a company of young gentlemen cadets waited 
upon him and conducted him to his lodgings with a long 
procession of merchants etc. following. His Excellency 
having entered the house, they paid their complements 
and were dismissed." He lodged at first with Elisha 
Cooke, as the Province House was undergoing repairs, 
but later possibly occupied the house at the north corner 
of Tremont and Winter Streets. His friendship with 
Cooke was soon broken, on account of their differences 
upon civil government. 

He was dignified in manner, courteous towards all and 
experienced in business, having been bred a lawyer, but 
he was not always politic in his disposal of public offices. 
He did not understand the temper of the people nor appre- 
ciate their spirit of liberty. Hutchinson says that in 
social affairs he led and took the greatest share in the con- 
versation not only by right of precedence but by his 
natural disposition, and that the severe discipline of his 
early life had the tendency to make him not very keen 
in his attendance on religious services. He laid little 
stress on modes or forms, though he was a firm believer. 
His reply is well known when once asked to dine with 


a family who retained the custom of saying grace, and 
he was asked whether he preferred it should be said sitting 
or standing, "Standing or sitting, anyway or no way just 
as you please." 

His short term of office was embittered by the same 
old dispute with the House in regard to the governor's 
salary. As they adhered to their resolution of granting 
no fixed salary he retaliated by keeping the House in 
session all summer, not allowing them to prorogue, and 
in October adjourned the House to meet in Salem, that 
the country members need not be under the influence of 
the people of Boston. He gained nothing by this, but 
rather the more angered the members. Several sessions 
were held in Salem with no more success in reaching an 
amicable solution of the difficulties, and then the gover- 
nor adjourned the House to meet in Cambridge. 

August 31, 1729, as the governor came towards the ferry 
on his way from Cambridge to Boston, his carriage upset 
and he was thrown into the water. The exposure brought 
on his death, and he died after a week's illness. He was 
buried with great solemnity and honor in the old Burying 
Ground. October 7 there was sold "at public vendue 
at the house wherein he dwelt sundry household goods, 
horses, coaches, etc." November 6, William Dugdale, 
executor, asked all persons to settle with the estate at the 
dwelling house, advertising this in the papers of the day. 

William Shirley was one of the governors who used 
the Province House simply as the official residence. He 
bought a house in Roxbury near the Dorchester line. He 
was born in London in 1694, and a lawyer by profession. 
He came to Boston bringing letters to Gov. Belcher, whom 
he succeeded in 1741. His character and abihty were 
appreciated by his fellow citizens who were well satisfied 
with his appointment. He rarely quarrelled with the 


Legislature. War between England and France again 
broke out in 1744, and it was in Shirley's administration 
that the garrison of Louisburg surrendered to the Amer- 
ican forces led by William Pepperrell. Shirley was re- 
called in 1756 and later made governor of the Bahama 
Islands. He returned to Boston in 1769 and died two 
years later in Roxbury. Three of his daughters married 
prominent Boston men: Eliakim Hutchinson, John Erv- 
ing and William Bollan. 

It has never been stated as far as we know where 
Thomas Pownall, the governor who succeeded Shirley, 
actually lived, and he may have passed his whole official 
life in the Province House. He came to Boston in August 
1757 and during his administration William Pitt was 
determined to put an end to the French supremacy in 
America. Pownall wrote to Pitt in regard to the part 
that Massachusetts was wiUing to play, and said, "This 
Province ever did and ever will and ever must take the 
lead when a spirited measure is expected." Pownall was 
appointed Governor of South Carolina and left a good 
reputation, besides a map of the town which has become 

Gen. Thomas Gage was commander-in-chief of the 
king's forces in America, with headquarters in New York. 
When troubles arose in Boston, and Hutchinson had re- 
tired, it was thought best for him to have his headquarters 
in Boston, and therefore he was commissioned captain 
general and governor. He arrived May 17, 1774, and was 
received with the usual parade and "elegant" dinner, be- 
fore taking up his residence at the Province House. He 
also had a house in Danvers. He was not unpopular 
as a commander but he had no sympathy with the people, 
and was insincere and arrogant in his dealings with them. 
The Acts of Parliament had ceased to have any effect upon 


the people. Their continued oppression drew them 
closer together, and they soon recognized no power but 
their own Congress. John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and 
Joseph Warren, as the principal leaders, were ably sup- 
ported by a host of patriots. The Committee of Cor- 
respondence who guided public affairs was ever on the 
alert. Numerous clubs and caucuses were formed, where 
the situation was freely discussed, and ways and means 
planned to meet any emergency that might arise, and to 
watch the movements of the troops. A Committee of 
Safety was appointed, to devise measures, and all were 
silently preparing in case of an open outbreak. Gage, 
sensing the feelings of the people, felt that he too must 
prepare for the worst, and began to seize arms and 
ammunition stored in the neighboring towns, and to fortify 
Boston itself. The result is well known. 

Gage was the last of the royal governors. It was not 
so much the fault of the individual governors as that of 
the government at home, whose instructions they were 
obliged to follow, that led to the mismanagement of the 
colonies. Neither the British ministry nor the governors 
understood the situation nor the people, and they took 
no pains to inform themselves. The governors found 
that they were called upon to rule a people who did not 
want to be ruled, and though they showed lack of wisdom 
in their dealings with them, and their constant bickerings 
and controversies with the legislature were anything but 
dignified ; at the same time any influence which they might 
have exerted was overborne by the insistence of the rulers 
in England that their will must be law. There was less 
excuse for the four governors born on the soil, and these 
were generally the most unpopular. None of them escaped 
censure, but the administrations of Shirley and Pownall 
were the most judicious and most successful. 


Thomas Grubb, a leather dresser, came next to the 
Province House and then WilHam Aspinwall, both of 
whom joined the church in 1630. Aspinwall was 
a deacon and recorder of Suffolk County, 1644- 
51. He was no doubt a liberal subscriber in 
the stock of the company, for he had a larger lot than 
many, and he chose this one which extended to Tremont 
Street, and also had other land in other parts of the town. 
In 1652 this lot was sold to Theodore Atkinson, and 
Aspinwall removed to Brookline. In 1653—54 Atkinson 
conveyed the whole two and a half acres to Edward 
Rawson. Rawson first settled in Newbury and was a 
deputy from there to the General Court, where in 1659 
he was chosen secretary to succeed Increase Nowell who 
had filled the position since 1636, and he remained secre- 
tary until the last meeting of the old colony court, when 
he was ordered to deliver the records to a committee for 
safe keeping. 

Charles Hobby bought the house on the north corner 
of Bromfield Street in 1702, and hired a stable at the 
upper end of Rawson Lane. He sold the house in 1708. 
He was the son of William and Anne, and was born in 
Boston. He was a gay man and free liver, had plenty 
of money at times, but died in London insolvent, in 
1715. In 1710 he was deputy governor of Annapolis 
Royal. He was knighted for bravery in Jamaica in an 
earthquake, but some uncharitably said it was for eight 
hundred pounds. 

William Hoar bought the lot on the south corner 
of Bromfield Street in 1669—70, and in 1687-88 
Simon Bradstreet was taxed in Ward 7, next to Hoar. 
Bradstreet came with Winthrop as one of the assistants, 
and lived to be the nestor of the company and its last 
governor, 1 6 79—86. His home was in Salem and Andover, 


but for some years he hired a house in Boston. It was 
no doubt at this house that Judge Samuel Sewall called 
when he took the walk, May 8, 1685, that has become 
famous, and which he described as follows. He left his 
house (just south of Summer Street) and "called for Mr. 
Bradstreet, and then went up Hoar lane (Bromfield 
Street) to the almshouse (corner of Beacon and Park 
Streets), then down the length of the Common to Mr. 
Deane's pasture (in 1692 bought by Sewall, and was 
part of his so-called Elm pasture), then through Cowell's 
lane (West Street) to the new garden (Sewall had in- 
herited land east of Temple Place), then to our house, 
then to our pasture by Engs (in Summer Street), then I 
waited on his Honor to his gate, and so home." 

May 20, 1686, the last meeting of the Court met at 
the Governor's (Bradstreet) house and then the Court 
adjourned to the second week in October next at eight of 
the clock in the morning. "Samuel Norwell, John Saffin 
and Captain Timothy Prout were a committee for a reposi- 
tary of such papers on file with the Secretary (Edward 
Rawson) as referred to our Charter and negotiations, with 
such as refer to our title of our land by purchase of the 
Indians, etc., and for the security thereof." Sewall gives 
an account of the last meeting: "Friday, May 21, 1686, 
The Magistrates and Deputies go to the governor's, Mr. 
Nowell prayed that God would pardon each Magistrates' 
and Deputies' sin, I moved to sing, so sang the 17th and 
1 8th verses of Habbakkuk. The adjournment which had 
been agreed before, to the second Wednesday in October 
next in the morning, was declared by the weeping 
Marshall-General. Many tears shed in prayer and at 

• On the land of Aspinwall, after various transfers, Philip 
Gatcomb mortgaged a house in 1 744, known by the Sign 

PC ^ 



of the Three Horse Shoes. Ephraim Pope, who called 
himself a planter, came next, but soon sold out to Arthur 
Mason, baker. In 1 639 Pope was imprisoned for drinking 
strong water. 

On the north corner of Winter Street, Jane, widow of 
John Parker, of Brookline, had a house and garden which 
extended about three hundred feet on Winter Street, 
reaching that of the house at the corner of Winter and 
Tremont Streets. In 1656, as the wife of Richard 
Thayer, she sold this to Stephen Greenlief, who two years 
later sold to John Pierse. His son Samuel, who inherited, 
divided it into lots and sold to various persons. In 1713 
the corner lot was bought by Thomas Salter, whose heirs 
deeded to Dr. John Sprague in 1754, and he in 1757 to the 
children of Henry and Mary Quincy. 

On the south corner of Winter Street was the house 
and garden of Robert Blott, who for a time gave his 
name to Winter Street and part of this estate was bought 
by Thomas Bannister, for whom also the street was named. 
Barmister called himself "a playster," when admitted to 
be a townsman in 1685, and later a merchant. He bought 
the Blackstone estate on Beacon Street. 

The lot next south was that of Anthony Harker, who 
sold it to Isaac Vergoose in 1659—60, and it remained 
in his family until 1763. This is the house which is 
credited to "Mother Goose," who is buried in the Granary 
Burying Ground, but, though we are loth to give up the 
old tradition, it must be confessed that definite authority 
is wanting as to the authorship of the old rhymes. 

The next lot was bought by John Hull in 1680 and 
inherited by Samuel Sewall and his wife Hannah. 

On the south corner of West Street was the pasture 
of Edward Cowell, which extended to the Common — 
that is, the present Mason Street. Part of this was bought 


by Dr. John Cutler in 1697, and inherited by his daughter 
Ruth and her husband, Dr. George Stuart, in 1731. 

Jacob Leger bought the lot of Richard Brackett, prison 
keeper, in 1638. Brackett was one of those who joined 
the church in 1630. In 1694 Edward Durant owned both 
sides of Hogg Alley, which he bought of John Blake, 
and he of Ann, the widow of Leger. About 1 702 an alley 
was left out of the land of Durant when he sold a piece 
to James Blin, in 1708 called "Hogg Alley," and now 
covered by the Adams House and Keith's Theater. 
Durant conveyed the southern part of his land to Jona- 
than Waldo, and his son sold to Samuel Cookson in 1780, 
and he to Joel Crosby in 1798. This is the site of the 
Lamb Tavern, which is mentioned in the town records 
as early as 1738; in 1782 Augustus Moor was licensed 
there. It is on the north corner of Avery Street. 

Avery Street was known in 1670 as "widow Colburn's 
lane," as laid out through her land, formerly part of the 
lot of William Colburn, at the north corner of Boylston 
Street. Avery Street was later known as "Sheaffes lane," 
from the schoolmaster whose house was on the corner of 
the lane and Tremont Street. In 1740 called "the high- 
way which was laid out by John Barrell." 

South of the street was the White Horse Tavern, which 
the heirs of Colburn deeded to Thomas Brattle in 1700, 
"the inn known as the White Horse." Brattle mortgaged 
to John Marshall who sold to Jonathan Dwight in 1740. 
William Bowdoin recovered judgment from Dwight and 
conveyed to Joseph Morton in 1765, and he to Perez 
Morton in 179 1. In 1798 it was occupied by Aaron 
Emmes. In 171 7 Thomas Chamberlain was licensed; 
William Cleeres in 1718; Mrs. Moulton in 1764; Israel 
Hatch in 1787, and Joseph Morton in 1789. South of 
the White horse was the Sign of the Lion which was 


kept by Henry Vose, innholder in 1796, and later became 
the site of the Melodeon. Peter Daille, the minister of 
the French church, bought the lot next south of the White 
Horse. All of these were on the lot of Elder William 
Colburn, who chose this lot when he arrived with the first 
settlers. Colburn was one of those who signed the agree- 
ment in Cambridge in 1629, to pass over the seas. 

On the east side of Washington Street, on the south 
corner of Milk Street, was the house and garden of Robert 
Reynolds, shoemaker, and his lot extended down Milk 
Street. The house was later known as the Sign of the 
Buck, where in 1 713—14 Samuel Gerrish kept his book- 
stall after the great fire, but soon removed to King Street. 
February 1 715—16, Robert Pateshall, leather dresser, was 
at the Buck. Daniel Johonnot, the distiller, lived next 
door. In 1732 Catharine Mariott sells women's and chil- 
dren's shoes next door to the Sign of the Buck. Oxen- 
bridge Thatcher was at the Sign of the Three Crowns 
in Marlborough Street when he advertised for a runaway 
slave, in 171 7. In 1800 Luther Emmes was an innholder 
at the Rising Sun, in Marlborough Street. 

John Adams, shopkeeper, went to Nova Scotia in 1710, 
in Colonel Hobby's regiment, and was a conspicuous figure 
there for many years, and was a counsellor. He returned 
to Boston in 1 740, having been compelled by blindness to 
relinquish his duties. He owned a house on the east 
side of Marlborough Street, which he sold in 1741, and 
died in poverty. His daughter Hannah married Hibbert 
Newton, son of Thomas Newton of Boston, who had 
filled many public offices. Hibbert settled in Nova 
Scotia in 1711. 

William Dummer lived on the east side of Washington 
Street, between Milk and Summer Streets. He was 
lieutenant-governor, 1716—30, and acting governor 1723- 


28, on the departure of Shute. It was during his adminis- 
tration that the influence of the famous Jesuit Father 
Rasle was brought to an end by the destruction of his 
chapel at Norridgewock, Me. 

On the north corner of Summer Street Nathaniel Wood- 
ward had his house and garden, which he sold to James 
Penniman in 1659-60, and it remained in his family for 
nearly one hundred years. November 9, 1732, James 
Penniman advertised at the Sign of the Boot, where he 
sold turpentine, etc. The heirs of Penniman sold to John 
Sprague, 1750—51. Stephen and Samuel Salisbury were 
the owners in 1784. They were the sons of Nicholas 
Salisbury, who lived on the west side of Washington 
Street, between Bromfield and Winter Streets. Their 
brother Josiah (1734— 1818), deacon of the Old South 
Church, was one of the last to wear the old cocked hat. 
The story goes that it was always known if he had 
money to let without asking him: if he had he always 
wore the front peak of his hat high up when he walked 
down to Exchange, and low down was always a sad fore- 
boding to borrowers. 

On the south corner of Summer Street George Bethune 
owned the estate in 1724, and two doors farther south 
was the early possession of Robert Hull, which his son 
John, the mintmaster, inherited. This spot became 
famous as the home of Judge Samuel Sewall, who mar- 
ried his daughter Hannah. Sewall was born in 1652 in 
England, and died in 1730. He was graduated from 
Harvard College in 1671, and soon entered upon public 
life. He was counsellor, judge of the Supreme Court, 
and chief justice, 1718-28. He is best known by his 
Diary, which he kept faithfully each day, giving public 
and private events, making it an invaluable political and 
social history of the time. His son Samuel inherited the 


estate, and it was confiscated in 1782 as the property of 
a royalist. 

The next lot was that of Jacob Hurd, part of which 
came to Bartholomew Green, the printer, in 1705. For 
forty years he was the principal printer in the town or 
country, and died in 1732. His father was Samuel 
Green, the printer in Cambridge, who came in 1630. 
Captain Samuel Green used to tell his children that on 
first coming on shore he and several others used to take 
shelter in empty casks, from the weather, for want of 
housing. Bartholomew set up his press with his father, 
but soon came to Boston. He was printer of the Boston 
Neivs Letter from the beginning. John Draper was his 
successor in 1748, and in 1783 the estate was confiscated 
as the property of a royalist. Many books and news- 
papers were here printed. 

William Blanton came next, part of whose land was 
bought by Giles Dyer in 1698-99, and Benjamin Church, 
the traitor, who married Hannah Dyer, lived here. 

Thomas Wheeler, who joined the church in 1636, was 
on the north corner of Bedford Street, and owned down to 
the pond in Bedford Street. Robert Woodward was on 
the south corner, part of which was bought by Samuel 
Walker, whose widow Sarah mortgaged, in 1698, the house 
called the "Brewers Arms," in tenure of Daniel Elton, 

Griffeth Bowen was on the north corner of Essex Street. 
He conveyed this to Isaac Addington who married his 
daughter, Elizabeth Bowen, in 1669. His daughter 
Rebecca married Eleazer Davenport, and this became 
the property of their son Addington Davenport, who was 
born in 1670. He was register of deeds and held many 
responsible positions as clerk of the House and of the 
Supreme Court and of the Court of Common Pleas. He 


was a counsellor and finally judge of the Supreme Court. 
The estate remained in the family until 1758. Of his 
secretary, Edward Turfrey, Sewall says: "January i, 
1702—3, Edward Turfrey dies of the smallpox. He was 
a person of great abilities. His death is a great loss to 
the town and Province but more especially to Mr. Adding- 
ton, Secretary of the Province, to whom he was extraor- 
dinarily serviceable having lived with him ten years. If 
real worth and serviceableness and youth won't give a 
discharge in this warfare What Shall? He is universally 
lamented." He was the son of George Turfrey, of Saco 
and Boston. 

In 1 712 Eleazer Phillips was at the Sign of the Eagle 
on Newbury Street. In 1731 Robert Knox at the Half 
Moon has chaises and horses to let. In 1 789 Israel Hatch 
was at the sign of the Grand Turk, as innholder. 

Bromfield Street was laid out by Edward Rawson in 
1669. He had bought the Aspinwall estate in 1653-4, 
which extended on both sides of the street. In 1708 it 
was called Rawson's Lane, and at times called after the 
residents therein, Cushing's Lane, Hoar Lane, and finally 
the palm was yielded to Edward Bromfield, and it has 
become Bromfield Street. Rawson sold off lots on both 
sides of the street, but the two most noted families were 
those of Bromfield and Gushing. Edward Bromfield, the 
first representative of the family in New England, arrived 
in Boston in 1675. He was a member of the Council, 1 703- 
28. He worshiped at the Old South Church, where he 
was an "example of strict piety and for the advancement 
of religion." That he might be undisturbed in his re- 
ligion he built an oratory in a grove in the pasture behind 
his house, whither he would retire several times a day. 
His daughter married Thomas Gushing. He died in 1734. 
His son Edward, born in 1695, was an eminent merchant. 


He married Abigail Coney in 1723, and built a house on 
Beacon Street, which land he bought in 1742, and here 
he lived until his death in 1756. In 1747 he entertained 
here the famous missionary to the Indians, David 
Brainard. His son Edward, the third of the name, 
was born in 1723. He died in 1746, but not until he 
had made a name which has come down as the first in 
America to make a microscope (grinding and polishing 
his own lenses) and also an organ. 

Thomas Gushing, the first of the name, lived at the 
North End, between Sun Court and Fleet Streets. He 
was a cordwainer and shopkeeper by trade, but became 
prominent in public life. Held town offices, and was 
representative and counsellor. He died in 1740. Thomas 
Gushing, his son, was born in 1694, and married Mary, 
daughter of Edward Bromfield. In 1732 he bought land 
on the south side of Bromfield Street and built his house. 
He also was active in public life. Was representative, 
speaker, and held other offices in the town. He died in 
1746. Thomas Gushing the third was born in 1724. He 
was a patriot and the friend of Hancock and Adams. He 
was representative, speaker, delegate to the Provincial 
Congress and lieutenant governor when the province be- 
came a state. He was a great friend of Franklin, 
and from him received the letters which Hutchin- 
son, Paxton, and others had sent to friends in 
England, and which were soon made public here. He 
died in 1788. John Adams wrote of him, "He is steady 
and constant and busy in the interests of liberty and the 
opposition, and is famed for secrecy and his talent at 
procuring intelligence." Thus all the Cushings were 
active for the welfare for their town and Country. 

The house in which the Bromfields lived became, later, 
the Indian Queen tavern. 


There is no order in the records for the laying out of 
Winter Street, so that it may be inferred that it was 
one of the cow paths to the Common which developed 
automatically into a street. It was called, at times, 
"Blotts Lane," "Bannisters Lane," "Willis Lane," and in 
1708 received the name of Winter Street. This may 
have been on account of the bleakness of the corner on 
Tremont Street. In modern times one of the wits of the 
town said, "The Lord tempered the wind to the shorn 
lamb, but He did not mean that lamb to stand on the 
corner of Winter and Tremont Streets." On the north 
side the estates on both corners met, and gradually were 
cut up into house lots. Jackson Place, on the south side, 
was a twelve-foot passage in 1729. In 1784 Samuel 
Adams, the patriot, bought the house a few doors west of 
Jackson Place. 

Temple Place was part of the Hezekiah Usher estate. 
In 1708 it was called "Turnagain Alley," and in 1714 
"an alley of Francis Wainwright." The eastern portion 
was laid out by Samuel Sewall, Jr., and Henry Howell, 
as a passage twelve feet wide in 1736, but it was not cut 
through to Washington Street until 1864. 

West Street is another of the streets not recorded as 
laid out. It is spoken of in the Book of Possessions as a 
lane, and later as "the lane from the common into the 
broad street"; in 1708, "West Street." The most noted 
building here was the South Writing School, or the school- 
house in the common, for at the time when it was built 
it was practically in the common. March 12, 171 5— 16, it 
was voted that a Writing school be erected in the south 
part of the town." May 15, 171 7, the selectmen set out 
"a convenient piece of land upon the common adjoining 
Mr. Cowell's lot over against Mr. Wainwright 's." 
December 29, 1718, voted "either to alter a carriage house 


or make a new schoolhouse." In 1744 it was to be en- 
larged. February 23, 1780, it was destroyed by fire, and 
a room in the Manufactory was hired until 1782, when 
a new house was built. March 14, 18 14, the selectmen 
were empowered to sell to David Greenough and his 
associates so much of the land of the school lot in West 
Street as in their opinion will not be injurious to the 
schoolhouse. January 3, 18 16, Mr. Greenough presented 
a plan of a piece of land which he offered to exchange for 
the lot on which the schoolhouse stands." January 31 
the offer was accepted "to exchange the lot on which the 
wooden schoolhouse stands for land immediately north 
of the new Medical college in Mason Street." The school- 
masters were, Amos Angier, 1720— 22 ; Jacob Sheaf, 1722— 
27; Peter Blyn, 1727-31; Samuel Allen, 1731-42; 
Zachariah Hicks, 1742 ; Abiah Holbrook, 1742—69; Samuel 
Holbrook, 1769-80; JohnVinal, 1781-95. July 14, 1789, 
the selectmen "permit the Blacks to have the use of Mr. 
Vinal's school for public worship on the afternoon of the 
Lord's Day, provided that the exercises begin at the hour 
on which the several churches in the town are called to- 

BoYLSTON Street was the spot which five of those 
who joined the church in 1630 chose for their house lots, 
and for many years was called the "lane"; also "Snow's 
Lane," "the lane leading from the house of Jacob Eliot 
to the sea," "lane from the fore street up towards the 
trayning field"; in i7o8,"Frog Lane"; in 1809, "Boylston 
Street." According to the Book of Possessions Thomas 
Snow, innholder, owned the land on the northeast corner 
of Tremont and Boylston Streets, and a certain 
amount farther east on Boylston Street. In 1667 
he mortgaged the old house "to which the Sign of 
the Dove is fastened." John Foster, a printer, 


as Sewall calls him, "the ingenious mathematician 
and printer," died in 1681, aged thirty-three years. 
He was the first printer in Boston. The first press in 
the colony was established in Cambridge in 1639, and up 
to 1674 none were allowed in any other town. After 
permission was granted, Foster set up his press in Boston 
"at the Sign of the Dove." It is not at all certain that 
by this is meant the house of Thomas Snow, but, as there 
were few signs in the town at that time, it is not likely that 
there were two of the same name. 

Essex Street was a lane according to the Book of Pos- 
sessions, and only extended to Kingston Street; below that, 
the estates in Summer Street reached to the cove. In 1678 
a highway was laid out from South Street to Windmill 
Point of fifty feet in breadth, upon the beach. The street 
went by the names of "highway leading from the house in 
which Mr. Rainsford now lives," "street leading from 
Deacon Eliot's towards the old windmill"; in 1708 called 
"Essex Street." It was sometimes called Beach Street 
near South Street, thereby causing confusion with its 
neighbor. At one time it was "Auchmuty's Lane," and in 
one instance called "Reagh alias Essex Street." 

The first mint house was on the land of John Hull, which 
he bought in 1653, a little east of Kingston Street. The 
so-called Sheaffe house was at the east corner of Essex and 
Kingston Streets. It was built in 1734 by Thomas Child, 
distiller and sugar baker. His distillery was at the 
corner of Essex and South Streets. Child married 
Susannah Hatch, and their daughter Isabella married 
John Coffin, whose daughter Susannah married William 
Sheaffe, deputy collector under Sir Henry Frankland, 
whom he succeeded. Isaac Coffin became an admiral in 
the British service, and his brother John became a major- 
general. The first glassworks in the town were on the 


south side, at the west comer of Kingston Street, and in 
1 798 the owners were Thomas Walley and Company. 

Oxford Street was Peck's Lane in 171 7. 

Kingston Street was a lane, according to the Book 
of Possessions, later "a lane running up from the seaside to 
the common field." In 1708, Short Street. In 1800, 
when opened to Summer Street through the land of 
Thomas Russell, it was called Plymouth Street, and in 
1810 "Kingston Street." 

Bedford Street was early laid out as far as Kingston 
Street. Below that the estates in Summer Street extended 
to the cove. In 1643—4 it was ordered laid out to the 
south windmill. It was "the highway to Wheeler's pond," 
"street leading from the Green [in Summer Street] to 
Wheeler's pond," "street leading from the fore street 
down to the water"; in 1708, "Pond Street to Captain 
Dyers barn," and "Blind Lane from the lower end of 
Pond Street to the Green"; Bedford Street in 1821. The 
pond, the town's watering place, was on the north side 
not far from the corner of Washington Street. In 1753 
the town's land, including the pond, was sold to Daniel 

Giles Dyer, shopkeeper, was a prominent resident in the 
street, having bought the land in 1699. Previously he 
lived at the North End. He was colonel, sheriff, and 
deputy of his majesty's custom's. He died in 1713, and 
Sewall at his funeral accepted a pair of gloves for friend- 
ship's sake, but refused to be a bearer or go into the 
church, for Dyer was a member of King's Chapel. Sewall 
followed the procession, however. 

Charles Lidgett, son of Peter Lidgett, lived on the 
south side, buying the land in 1678 of the widow of 
Thomas Buttolph. In 1687 he was assistant justice of 
the Supreme Court, one of the founders of the Chapel and 


one of the richest taxpayers. He went to England in 
1690 and died there. 

Robert Calef, merchant, bought house and land on the 
north side at the corner of Washington Street, in 1707—8. 
He answered Cotton Mather in his delusions on witch- 
craft, and published, in 1700, ''More Wonders of the 
Invisible World." In 1771 Benjamin Church, Jr., bought 
the estate of the heirs of Calef. John Rowe, merchant, 
whose wharf on Atlantic Avenue still bears his name, and 
who gave the historic codfish to the town, lived on the 
north side, in the estate he bought in 1764, which in the 
nineteenth century became the home of Judge Prescott, 
the father of the historian. 

The extreme point beyond Essex, South, and Federal 
Streets was called "Windmill Point." Federal Street 
south of Summer Street was in the early days. Sea Street. 
According to the Book of Possessions the estates were on 
the bay, and in 1660 it was "the highway next the sea- 
side"; also called "Rope Lane" on account of the rope- 
walk there, and, in 1708, "Sea Street." It is now covered 
in part by the South Station. 

William Leatherland was admitted to the church in 
1633, and had his house lot here. In 1661 there was a 
windmill set before his land, and in 1663 there was a saw- 
pit here. Roger Clap bought land on the west side, after 
he resigned from the Castle, and here he died in 1690— i. 
He was born in Salcom, Devonshire, and came to Dor- 
chester with the Dorchester Company, in 1630. He 
married Joanna, daughter of Thomas Ford, who came in 
the same ship, and they had fourteen children; only six 
of them lived to man's estate. He held many responsible 
positions in the town, both civil and military, and in 1665 
was appointed captain of the Castle. Here he continued 
until 1686, when with the loss of the charter and change 



Looking east from Washington Street 


of government some things were required of him that were 
grievous to his pious soul, and foreseeing a storm of trouble 
coming to the country, he resigned and came to Boston to 
end his days. He wrote his "Memoirs" for his children, 
which gave a vivid account of the trials of the first settlers. 
He was buried in the old Burying Ground with a military 
funeral, the governor and General Court following his 

Henry Knox was born in Boston of Scottish parents, 
in 1750, in a house in Federal and Essex Streets, which 
was removed when the streets were widened. After his 
school education he was employed in the bookstore of 
Wharton and Bowes, successors of Daniel Henchman, at 
the south corner of Washington and State Streets. At 
the age of twenty-one he began business on his own 
account. In 1774 he married Lucy Flucker, daughter of 
Thomas Flucker, the secretary of the province; she fol- 
lowed his fortunes in spite of the opposition of her parents 
and friends. The career of Knox in the Revolution is 
well known. 

South Street was mentioned as a street in the Book 
of Possessions, and later was known as "the lane leading 
to the water"; in 1708, South Street. Rev. Samuel 
Checkley, minister of the New South Church, bought a 
house on the east side in 1 736, which he made his home. 

Summer Street was the "Mylne Street" of early days, 
also, "the south street," "the broad street from the town 
towards the water," "street to Richard Gridley's," "street 
to the Sign of the Bull," "Seven Star Lane," "South Meet- 
ing House Lane," and, in 1708, "Summer Street." 

The house on the west corner of Summer and Hawley 
Streets, the early possession of John Palmer, was bought 
by Thomas Bannister in 1698, of Robert Earle, — the 
house known by the name of the "Seven Stars." 


Leonard Vassal bought it in 1728, and in 1730 conveyed it 
to John Barnes and others for a meeting house. The 
lot was eighty-six feet on Summer Street and one hundred 
and sixty-nine on Bishops Lane. He bought it for £450 and 
sold it for £514.7.2. The first sermon preached in the 
church built here was on August 15, 1735, by Roger Price, 
of King's Chapel. The stone building, the second one 
erected on the spot, was destroyed in the great fire of 
1872. Ministers: Addington Davenport, 1740—46; 
William Hooper, 1747-67; William Walter, 1767-75; 
Samuel Parker, 1775— 1804. 

The house on the east corner of Hawley Street was that 
of Philip Dumaresque, which he bought in 1727 and sold 
to Joseph Barrell in 1780. Barrell was interested in the 
New England coast trade, and with others fitted out the 
first Boston vessel to sail round Cape Horn. He sold this 
property to Charles Vaughan in 1793, and removed to 
Charlestown. Vaughan also bought more land east of this, 
and through his estate Arch Street was laid out, which 
in 1 794 was a highway leading to Franklin Place. Vaughan 
was one of those interested in developing Franklin Street. 
Next, Benjamin Bussey bought the house, and in 1807 
Governor James Sullivan was living here. 

In 1738 Peter Pelham occupied a house in Summer 
Street, next to that of Philip Dumaresque, where he 
advertised to teach dancing, writing, reading, painting on 
glass, and all kinds of needlework. In 1748 he married 
Mary, widow of Richard Copley. 

Next east of Vaughan was the pasture of Samuel Sewall, 
which William Pepperell and wife Mary (Hirst) inherited. 
In 1780 it was sold as the confiscated property of 
Pepper rell. 

On the south side of the street, where, according to the 
Book of Possessions, Gamaliel Waite had a garden, Leon- 


ard Vassal bought land of Simeon Stoddard in 1727 and 
asked leave to erect a timber house in room of an old 
one he wished to pull down. Vassal was born in Jamaica, 
in 1678, and came to Boston in 1723. He married, for a 
second wife, Phoebe Grosse, a widow, daughter of Samuel 
Penhallow of Portsmouth, and she married third, Thomas 
Graves of Charlestown, and fourth, Francis Borland. In 
1737 the executors of Vassal conveyed the property to 
Thomas Hubbard who lived here until his death in 1783. 
He was a prominent citizen in the town, and treasurer of 
Harvard College 1762-73; a representative 1746—59. 
After the death of his widow the house came into pos- 
session of Frederick Geyer, a loyalist, and it was confis- 
cated, but restored to him in 1791. He lived here until 
he died in 1800, when it was sold to Samuel P. Gardner. 
His son George Gardner built the store of C. F. Hovey 
Co., on the site in 1854. 

Richard Hollich, also spelled Hollidge and Hollings- 
head, owned the next lot to Waite, and in 1680 he and 
his wife Ann conveyed this to the deacons of the First 
Church. The church kept this property in their hands 
until they sold their meeting house on Washington Street 
to Benjamin Joy, who agreed to build a block of brick 
houses on Summer Street, in front of their lot. The house 
here had been used as a parsonage, and they now built 
a new house in the rear. In 1807 a portion of this property 
was sold to open a passage of forty feet wide from Summer 
Street, and this was called Chauncey Place.. Bedford 
Place was the westerly half of Chauncey Place. 
The two places were divided at first by a brick wall, 
pierced with doors corresponding with the sidewalks, and 
later by an iron chain hanging between posts. In 1808 
the street was opened by Mr. Rowe through Rowe's pas- 
ture, and from Bedford to Essex Street called ' 'Exeter 


Street," also "Rowe Street"; in 1856 all called "Chauncey 

The New South Church was built on land granted by 
the town September 20, 171 5, "commonly called Church 
Green, nigh Summer Street," to Thomas Peck and others. 
The first meeting for the formation of this society was held 
at Bull Tavern, July 14, 1715. The lot was sixty-five by 
forty-five feet. The house was dedicated January 8, 
1 71 6-1 7. It was of timber, sixty-five by forty-five by 
thirty-one feet, with flat roof and battlements. The minis- 
ters were, Samuel Checkley, 1719-69; Penuel Bowen, 
1766-72; Joseph Howe, 1773-75; Oliver Everett, 1782- 
92; JohnT. Kirkland, 1 794-1810. 

Widow Tuttle and William Teft were early possessors 
of the next estates, and Lincoln Street was laid out by 
Benjamin Fessenden, Jr., in 1793, through his land which 
he bought of John Sprague, and was through the Tuthill 
estate. These estates originally extended to the cove 
south of Essex Street. 

The Bull Tavern was at the foot of Summer Street. 
Nicholas Baxter had his house and garden here, which in 
1688 he conveyed to John Bull and his wife Mary, the 
daughter of Baxter's wife, Margaret. Baxter died in 1 692 
and in his will recites this deed and divides his personal 
property between his daughter Mary, the wife of John 
Swett, and John and Mary Bull. In 1694 and 1704 Mary 
Swett attempted to regain the whole estate, but Bull 
gained his case each time. John Bull died in 1723, and his 
son Jonathan in 1724 bought the shares of the other heirs. 
He died in England, and by will gave one third of his es- 
tate to his wife, and two thirds to his children, 
Elizabeth, John, and Samuel. Both sons died young, 
and Elizabeth received the whole. She married the 
Rev. Roger Price, in 1735, and in 1753 went to Eng- 




land. Her children returned and tried to regain the 
property, but it was contested by the widow of John 
Bull, and there was an endless complication. Now 
the site is covered by the South Station. John Bull 
was licensed as an innkeeper from 1689 to 1713, 
when his widow was licensed. In 1757 Mr. Bean was 
landlord, and in 1766 the house was let to Benjamin 

In 1740 the Hawk Inn is mentioned in the records as 
in Summer Street. 

Franklin Street was cut through the original pos- 
sessions of Francis East and Nathaniel Heaton on Wash- 
ington Street. In 1767 it was only a passage; in 1784, 
Vincent's Alley, from Ambrose Vincent, who owned land 
in the neighborhood. In 1793 Thomas K. Jones deeds to 
William Scollay land formerly called Greenlief's pasture. 
In 1794 a part of Barrell's pasture was known as 
Franklin Place. The part of the street east of Devonshire 
Street was called Bread Street, and changed to Franklin 
Street in 1796. The improvement in the street and the 
building of the Tontine Crescent, in 1793, is due to 
William Scollay, Charles Vaughan, and Charles Bulfinch. 

According to the Book of Possessions the gardens and 
pastures of some of the more well-to-do citizens lay be- 
tween Milk and Summer Streets. William Hudson, Senior, 
had a garden near Washington Street and Robert Scott was 
east of him. Thomas Oliver and Captain Robert Keane 
had gardens east of Scott. Robert Turner's pasture was 
south of Keayne and northwest of Richard Gridley. The 
latter was on the bay. In 1668-9 the four-and-one-half- 
acre pasture of Eliakim Hutchinson, which he had from 
his father Richard Hutchinson on his marriage with Sarah, 
daughter of Samuel Shrimpton, was bounded by the lane 
to Fort Hill (High Street) south, Theodore Atkinson 


west, a ditch north, and the hangings of Fort Hill, Peter 
Oliver and Edward Hutchinson east. 

Hawley Street in 1645 was a way laid out through 
the gardens towards the south windmill, between the 
houses of Amos Richardson and John Palmer on Summer 
Street, and its various names were, "the lane in which the 
house of Gilbert the tanner stands," "a little lane formerly 
called Gilbert's lane"; in 1679 and 1708, "Bishops alley," 
"the boarded alley leading to Trinity Church; in 1799, 
Hawley Street. 

Devonshire Street from Milk to Franklin Street in 
1697-8, was "the highway from the street to rear lands 
through the property of the Dinsdales"; in 1712, "a 
passage leading from Milk Street to the dwelling of 
John Temple," also "highway of John Dinsdale," "Dins- 
dale alley," "Decosta's alley," that family having bought 
property there; in 1773, "a passage five feet wide"; in 
1796, "Theatre alley." In 1857 it was extended from 
Milk to Franklin Street, and a few years later through 
Otis and Winthrop places to Summer Street. 

Federal Street. In 1642—3 a footway was to be laid 
out from the town to the gardens "near widow Tuthill's 
windmill and a cartway out of my In lane to said gardens"; 
also called "the lane that leads from Theodore Atkinson's 
house to Richard Gridley's." "a little lane east of Captain 
Keayne's garden," "highway from the corner of Pell's 
house to Gridley's"; at times, "Atkinson Street"; in 1708, 
"Long Lane"; in 1788, "Federal Street," as the Federal 
Constitution was ratified in the church there. Federal 
Court was formerly the pasture of William Deming, and 
in 1798 "land formerly Webb's pasture." 

The two buildings by which the street is chiefly known 
before it became devoted to business, were the church 
and the theater. When the Scotch-Irish immigrants, Pres« 



byterians, first came to Boston, in 1727, they converted 
a barn which stood on the northeast corner of Federal 
and Channing Streets into a meeting-house. Later they 
purchased a lot and built a church, the plans being made 
by Charles Bulfinch. It faced Channing Street. It was 
here, on February 6, 1788, that the Convention ratified 
the Federal Constitution after deliberating a week. The 
ministers were John Moorhead, 1730—73; Robert Annan, 
1783-86; Jeremy Belknap, 1 787-1 798; William Ellery 
Channing, 1803—42. Dr. Belknap had been minister at 
Dover, N.H. The society is now known as the Arlington 
Street Church. 

November 9, 1 791, at a full meeting of the inhabitants, 
instructions to their representatives were given relating 
to admitting a theater in the town. August i, 1792, 
comedians from London fitted up a stable in Board Alley 
(Hawley Street) and advertised an exhibition. It was 
soon obliged to close on account of opposition to theaters. 
In spite of this, a few years later, in 1794, the theater 
in Federal Street was built. It was the first, but the 
second soon followed, and the Haymarket in Tremont 
Street was built two years later. The theater stood on 
the north corner of Federal Street and Franklin Place 
facing Federal Street. The land was originally part of 
Captain Keayne's garden, which Nicholas Page and wife 
Ann inherited. It was sold to Daniel Johonnot in 1719, 
and here he erected his large distillery. In 1793 his 
heirs sold to the trustees of the theater. 

In 1 713-14 Jeremiah Jackson, clothier, advertised at 
the Sign of the Three Shuttles in Long Lane. 

Congress Street was laid out through the pasture 
of seven acres which Theodore Atkinson bought of Richard 
Fairbanks in 1667. In 1711— 12 it was called "Atkinson 
Street." From State Street all called Congress Street in 


1800. Atkinson laid out several streets on the west side. 
Channing Street was a street in 1711-12, and Bury 
Street in 1 716. In 1845, Channing Street. Matthew 
Street in 1679 was a highway to be laid out. In 1711-12, 
Round Lane; in 1788, Barracks Lane, and Mathews 
Street in 1868. Leather Square was Sisters Lane in 
1711-12, and in 1867 "Leather Square." 

Pearl Street was "a highway through the fields" in 
1662, "part of EHakim Hutchinson's pasture," a little 
later, " a lane running to the seaward from the long street 
up to Fort Hill." In 1708 Gridley's Lane went from High 
to Purchase Street, which later was included in Pearl 
Street. In 1 732 from High to Milk Street was Hutchinson 
Street, and sometimes called "Palmer Street"; in 1800, 
all Pearl Street. On the west side, between Milk and 
High Streets, there were seven ropewalks, two next to 
Congress Street owned by Theodore Atkinson, as part 
of the old Fairbanks pasture, and five owned by Eliakim 
Hutchinson. Atkinson sold one to Edward Gray in 1712, 
and one to William Tilley the same year. Those of 
Hutchinson were kept in the family until the estate of 
Governor Thomas Hutchinson was confiscated in 1782. 
All were burned in 1794, and business houses began to 
enter this section. March 2, 1770, two soldiers of the 
Fourteenth Regiment got into a quarrel with the workers 
at Gray's ropewalks, and a general fight ensued. 

Thomas Palmer married Abigail, daughter of Eliakim 
Hutchinson, and they inherited almost all the east side of 
Pearl Street. In 1 793 James Lovell bought a house here. 
A house on the northeast corner of Pearl and High Streets 
was bought by John Marchant in 1783, and William 
Phillips in 1791, and became the home of the Quincys. 

Oliver Street was laid out by Peter Oliver, and was 
a new highway in 1668—9; in 1798, Oliver Street. It 


includes Gibbs Lane, which went from Purchase to High 
Street, and was at one time called ''Back Street." It 
was originally the property of Edward Hutchinson, bought 
by Peter Oliver in 1663—4, and part of it by Jacob Wen- 
dell in 1 729. Wendell also bought land south of Fort Hill, 
which was that of Benjamin Gillum according to the 
Book of Possessions. 

High Street was a lane ordered laid out in 1642, as 
"the highway already begun from widow Tuthill's wind- 
mill to the fort." Other names were: "the fort highway," 
"cartway that leadeth up to Fort Hill," "Fort Hill Lane," 
in 1798, "Cow Lane." In 1797 the inhabitants rebelled 
and asked that the name might be changed to High 
Street, which was granted. The west side was chiefly 
the property of Eliakim Hutchinson. The east side was 
a grant of the town to John Leverett in 1664. Nathaniel 
Byfield and wife Sarah, daughter of Leverett, inherited. 
Nathaniel Byfield was a merchant who lived for many 
years in Bristol. He returned to Boston in 1 724. He lived 
with his first wife upwards of forty years, and soon after 
her death, in 171 7, he married Sarah, the youngest 
daughter of Governor Leverett. He died in 1733, in the 
eightieth year of his age, and his grandson, Byfield Lyde, 
inherited the bulk of his estate. He lived on the southeast 
corner of High and Gridley Streets. In 1743 Byfield 
Lyde deeded part to Andrew Oliver, next to the land for- 
merly owned by Richard Gridley, and this extended to 
Summer Street. 

Gridley Street, from High to Purchase Street, be- 
tween Congress and Pearl Streets, was laid out by William 
Tilley, who died in 171 7, and Edward Gray, ropemakers. 
At first called "Tilley Lane," and in 1 753 "Gridley Street." 

Jeremiah Gridley, called the father of the Boston Bar, 
bought land on the southeast side of High Street in 1741 


and lived here. He was the king's attorney, and was the 
head of a political or literary club which defrayed the 
expenses of printing the Weekly Rehearsal, of which John 
Draper was printer. 

Ragged bluffs were on the north and east sides of 
Fort Hill, and on the other sides it gradually sloped 
down. It was flat on top. One of the first orders of the 
Court was in regard to building a fort, and, May 24, 1632, 
the fortification on Corn Hill, as it was called, was begun, 
and men from other plantations came to help, as it was to 
benefit all. In 1634 John Sanford was cannoneer. Fort 
Hill was chiefly used for military purposes until after the 
Revolution, when private houses occupied the summit, 
except for a space which all were to enjoy. In 1869 it 
was leveled to fill in the old barricado. In 1642 Widow 
Tuthill, whose windmill was on Summer Street, was 
allowed to move it into the fort. In 1794 Thomas Pem- 
berton writes, "The old fort has been many years de- 
molished, nor was any other erected on it till the Ameri- 
can war. It was on this hill, in 1765, that the inhabitants 
first demonstrated their resentment against oppressive acts 
of Parliament by consuming in a bonfire on it the effigies 
of the promoters of the Stamp Act." In 1666-7 the 
town leased to Freegrace Bendall land on Fort Hill, and 
he was to lay out a highway from Fort Hill of a rod 
broad down to the waterside through said land and next 
Governor Leverett's land." "He hath since built his house 
on part where said way should be, and now, 1673-4, he 
is ordered to lay out a highway of a rod broad from the 
lower end of the former." This is what is now Belcher 
Lane, once called "Sconce Lane," and "Hamilton Street." 

According to the Book of Possessions, the estates in 
what was later Battery March bordered on the marsh. 
In 1649 Ensign Edward Hutchinson, Benjamin Gillum, 



Benjamin Ward, and others, had liberty to make 
a highway from their house over the marsh to the 
bridge. In 1673 a highway was ordered to run from 
the house of Nathaniel Bishop, known as the 
"Blew Bell," and then to the bridge. The street 
was called, at various times, "highway from the draw- 
bridge towards the South Battery," "the street from 
Swing Bridge to and by the Castle Tavern"; in 1708, 
"Battery March," and part, "Crab Lane." In 1805 Broad 
Street was extended over part of Battery March, and the 
street to-day is unlike what it was at the time of which 
we are writing. 

The Blue Bell Tavern was on the southwest corner of 
Battery March and Crab Alley. The land on which it 
stood was originally a marsh which the town let to Cap- 
tain James Johnson, in 1656. Part of this land was con- 
veyed to Thomas Hull in a deed not recorded, but in 
1674, in a deed of the next property, it bounds "on land 
now of Deacon Allen and Hugh Drury, formerly of 
Thomas Hull, the house called the Blue Bell." In 1673 
the house was let to Nathaniel Bishop, who owned a 
house on the south side of Milk Street. In the partition of 
Hugh Drury's estate, in 1692, there was set off to his 
grandson, Thomas Drury, one half of the house and land 
commonly called the "Castle Tavern." 

The Benjamin Ward estate descended to Benjamin 
Hallowell, his father, William Hallowell, having married 
Mary, the daughter of Ward. It was on both sides of 
the street, and continued in the family until after 1800. 
The old Sun Tavern, at the corner of Belcher Lane, was 
once the residence of Benjamin Hallowell. William 
Hallowell's house in 1731 was known by the name of 
"Union Flag." In 1702 "the house of the widow Salter 
at the Sign of the Roebuck was nigh the South Battery." 


On the east side of the street, in 1764, John Rowe bought 
what has since been known as "Rowe's Wharf." In 1785 
the town conveyed more land to him. Benjamin Gillum 
owned the next lot to Ward, extending to Purchase Street. 
This was largely owned by Oliver Wendell in the next 

Purchase Street. According to the Book of Posses- 
sions John Harrison, ropemaker, and Richard Gridley, 
brickmaker, were the owners of land which afterwards 
became the street, and in 1666 Gridley sold part of 
his land to Harrison. In 1662 it was ordered 
that "there shall be a highway through the fields 
of Richard Gridley and a passage through the 
working ground of John Harrison except at such 
times when he shall be making ropes." In 1673 
Gridley granted a highway through his land "from 
the fort lane to John Harrison's ropewalk of twelve feet 
wide." In 1 708 this was called "Belcher's Lane." In 1 736 
Samuel Adams and other abuttors on Barton's Rope- 
walk asked help for the purchase of a street. In 1741 a 
street was laid out by the abuttors from Summer Street 
to the Sconce, twenty-one feet wide, and called "Purchase 

The most noted resident on Purchase Street was Samuel 
Adams, the patriot. His great-grandfather was Joseph 
Adams, of Braintree, who was the same relation to John 
Adams, the President of the United States. Samuel was the 
son of Samuel Adams and Mary (Fifield), and was born 
in 1722, being older than his cousin John, who was bom 
in Braintree (now Quincy) in 1735. Samuel was gradu- 
ated at Harvard College in 1740 and then took up the 
life of a merchant, or as a help to his father who was a 
maltster, but soon relinquished it for a political career. 
He was more than once in financial difficulties, but friencjs 


were always ready to relieve him from embarrassment. 
He served in various offices in the town but when he was 
elected a Representative his influence in the town began to 
be felt. He was made clerk of the House, which gave him 
the opportunity he wanted. In May, 1764, he first came 
publicly into notice. He was on a committee to instruct 
the Representatives just elected to the Court, of which 
he was one, and it was given to him to draw up the paper. 
It was the first public denial of the right of Parliament to 
enforce the Stamp Act, and contained important sugges- 
tions, and hinted that if no redress could be obtained, 
agreements could be entered into to import no goods from 
Great Britain. He began his life in the legislature the fol- 
lowing October, and freely gave himself to his country al- 
most to the actual end of his life. His work is well known, 
and it is unnecessary to go into details here. As a manager 
he was without equal, and he was the power behind all. 
Jefferson said of him: "I always considered him, more 
than any other member, the fountainhead of our more im- 
portant measures. He was truly a great man, wise in coun- 
sel, fertile in resources, unmoveable in his purposes, and 
had a greater share than any other in advising and direct- 
ing our measures in the northern war." His cousin John 
Adams said: "He is zealous, ardent and keen in the cause, 
is always for softness and delicacy and prudence where 
they will do, but is staunch and stiff and strict and rigid 
and inflexible in the cause." John Fiske wrote, "A man 
who in the history of the American Revolution was second 
only to Washington." 

When he returned to Boston after the siege, he found 
his house had been so mutilated by the British that it was 
uninhabitable. He bought a house on the south side of 
Winter Street, and here he lived until the end came in 


In 1766 Samuel Adams and John Hancock were chosen 
as colleagues of James Otis and Thomas Gushing, in the 
House of Representaives, and these four are inseparably 
connected with all the events that led up to the 
Revolution. Otis and Gushing were not allowed to 
see the promised land, but Adams and Hancock played 
an active part through the troubles, and lived to fill the 
highest positions when the province became a state under 
the federal Gonstitution. And it was these two whom 
Gage exempted from the pardon he offered to the "rebels," 
and whom he hoped to entrap at Goncord. 

Gharles Ghauncey, the clergyman, was another coad- 
jutor in these times. He continued Mayhew's con- 
troversy after his death, and in political as well as 
ecclesiastical matters he was liberal, decided, and firm for 
the rights of America, and not afraid to speak freely 
and openly in what he considered the duties of the govern- 
ment and the people. He opposed Whitefield and all 
rhetorical exhibition in the pulpit. It has been said of 
him that he was in dead earnest every moment of his life, 
both public and private. 

Richard Gridley was admitted to the church in 1633. 
He died in 1674. He and his wife Grace had nine children, 
three of whom were named Return, Believe, and Tremble. 
The possessions of John Harrison were divided in 1685. 

The South Battery or Sconce was mentioned in 1673, 
when the Barricade was to go from Gaptain Scarlett's 
Wharf to the Sconce. It was built by Governor John 
Leverett. In 1666 a committee was sent by the Gourt 
to inspect it, and reported, "a well contrived fort called 
Boston Sconce, the artillery is of good force and well 
mounted." Leverett received a vote of thanks. In 1741 
voted "that the South Battery be rebuilt and fitted to 
receive guns as formerly." The neighbors had encroached 




on the grounds. In 1785 it was claimed by Oliver 
Wendell, and the committee advised giving him a quit 
claim deed of "the land on which the spermacetti works 
stand, and sell the remainder between that and Rowe's 

Griffin^s Wharf, the scene of the Tea Party, was at 
the foot of Pearl Street, now Liverpool Wharf. 

Colonel Thomas Dawes, one of the noted patriots, in- 
herited the estate which his father bought on both sides of 
the street in 1767, between Congress and Summer Streets. 
He was short, not quite five feet, and was stout and fleshy; 
his hair long and gray. He wore smallclothes and buck- 
skin shoes. When it was announced that he was appointed 
to the Supreme Court, in 1792, the story goes that Colo- 
nel Hitchbone, who did not like the appointment, said, 
"I could put him in my pocket," when Judge Dawes 
promptly replied that "if he did he would have more law 
in his pocket than he ever had in his head." On another 
occasion, standing in a drawing-room with five other 
guests, all of whom were tall and stouter than he, one of 
them asked how he felt being so small surrounded by 
so many large men. He replied, "Like a silver sixpenny 
piece among five copper cents, much less in size, but of 
more intrinsic value than all put together." These stories 
are very clever, but it would be interesting to know if they 
are true to life. 

Daniel Oliver, who died in 1732, bequeathed his house 
adjoining Barton's Ropewalk, called "Spinning House," 
with the land, "to be improved for learning poor children 
of the town to read the Word of God and to write if need 
be, etc., or any other work of charity for the public good." 

Atlantic Avenue was laid out in 1868 on the line of 
the old Barricado or old wharf, and included Flounders 
Lane, which was staked out in 1683, thirty feet wide, on 


the south side of land belonging to the late John Gill, 
The Barricado was built in 1673, a wall or flats from the 
Sconce to Captain Scarlett's Wharf, for the security of 
the town from fire or in case of approach of the enemy. 
It had openings for the passage of vessels. It was finally 
built at the expense of private citizens who received in 
return certain privileges. 




THIS section extends west of Sudbury and Tre- 
mont streets and north of Boylston Street. It 
is noted for the spot which the first white man, 
William Blackstone, selected as the site for his cottage, 
where it is thought that for many years he lived alone. 
Also for the Common, the Granary Burying Ground, Alms- 
house, Bridewell Workhouse and Granary, and for rope- 
walks and distill houses north of Beacon Street. The great 
natural feature was the hill, with its three peaks which for 
a time gave the name to the town, "Tra mount," and the 
peaks were called "Beacon Hill," "Cotton Hill" and "West 
Hill." Beacon was the center one, and the highest, one 
hundred and eighty-five feet above sea level, at first called 
"Sentry Hill." March 4, 1634-5, it was ordered that a 
beacon be set up on Sentry Hill, to give notice to the coun- 
try of any danger. Several beacons succeeded, and the 
one blown down in 1 789 gave place to a plain doric column 
of brick and stone, designed by Charles Bulfinch. It had 
a large eagle of wood, gilt, on the top. The height, 
including the eagle, was sixty feet, and the pedestal eight 
feet. In 1753 "the Selectmen find that the hill on which 
the beacon stands and which belongs to the town is six 
rods square." Five years later it was found that Mr. 
Hudson, who had purchased part of the hill was digging 
it away, and an application was made to restrain him, 
but it was not until 1 774 that he proposed that the dispute 
between him and the town should be settled by arbitra- 



tion. In 1807 the Mill Pond Corporation was formed 
and soon after began the digging away and leveling of 
the hill to fill up the Mill Pond. In 1855 Thomas Bul- 
finch writes, in answer to one of "Gleaner's" articles: "At 
my earliest recollection the appearance of the hill was 
this; a grassy hemisphere so steep that one could with 
difficulty mount its sides, descending with a perfectly 
regular curve to the streets on the southwest and north. 
On the east it had been encroached upon and the contour 
was broken. Just opposite the end on Coolidge Avenue 
now Derne Street, there was a flight of wooden steps, ten 
or fifteen in number, leading part way up the hill. After 
that, one had to climb the rest of the way by aid of the 
footholes that had been worn in the surface, along a wide 
path worn bare by the feet to the top, where was also a 
space some fifty feet square, worn bare of sod. In the 
midst of this space stood the monument." 

Cotton Hill, the eastern peak of Tramount, is now the 
site of Pemberton Square, and the West Hill sloped down 
Mount Vernon Street to the water, now much reduced in 
height. At or near the foot was what was called "Black- 
stone Point." 

Mr. Nathaniel I. Bowditch, the noted conveyancer, 
has so graphically told the story of the estates of the early 
inhabitants north of Beacon Street and west of Tremont 
and Sudbury streets that it would be superfluous to go 
over the same ground here, and the following items con- 
cerning the pastures are in a great measure taken from his 
articles signed "Gleaner," in the Boston Transcript 
of 1855, and reprinted in the fifth report of the Record 
Commissioners. For many years this part of the 
town remained unimproved with the exception of 
the estates on Tremont and Beacon Streets. The 
tract was called "Sentry Field," or the "new field" 


and later, "West Boston." It was the section 
devoted to pastures and mowing ground, and land 
was granted to those deserving of a grant for some service 
rendered, or who had been an adventurer in the common 
stock, or for some good reason, from two to twenty acres 
each. The district was chiefly noted for its ropewalks, 
distilleries, and sugar houses. There were fourteen rope- 
walks here. There was only one church, the West Church, 
a windmill, and as far as known only one tavern, the 
White Horse Tavern, which in 1789 was somewhere on 
Cambridge Street. 

Cambridge Street originally extended from Sudbury 
Street to the water, ending in a marsh, the present Charles 
Street. It was not until after 1800 that that part between 
Bowdoin Square and Sudbury Street was included in 
Court Street. According to the Book of Possessions the 
estates were in the New Field. In 1647 there was ordered 
"a highway of twelve feet through Mrs. Stoughton's 
ground and Richard Cook's and Thomas Buttolph's to the 
end of the lots to Thomas Munt's ground." It was known 
by various names — "The lane leading to several men's en- 
closures," "highway leading into Century Field among 
the pastures," "common way leading to the Bowling 
Green," "way running by the windmill"; in 1708 named 
Cambridge Street. 

We will begin with the estates lying north of Cambridge 
Street and west of Sudbury Street. James Hawkins, brick- 
layer, bought the house and garden of William Kirby in 
1652, and laid out a lane to accommodate his children's 
houses. It was called "the highway leading to Hawkins 
pasture," and "an eight foot way that runs to Captain 
Gerrishes pasture"; also called "Tattle Street," and, in 
1732, Hawkins Street. Part of this pasture through 
the Kneeland branch remained in the family until 1791. 


The north corner of Hawkins Street was part of the 
Parker-Gerrish pasture, the south corner that of Robert 
Meeres' pasture according to the Book of Possessions. 
Richard Parker owned a pasture of three acres here, be- 
sides other lots in other parts of the town, which his 
daughter, who married William Gerrish, inherited. In 
1685 they conveyed to Thomas Harris, and Benjamin 
Plarris inherited. 

North of Hawkins Street to the Mill Pond the land was 
acquired by Samuel Howard, and in 1715 Samuel Cun- 
nable and Daniel Bell, who married Cunnable's sister, 
bought the land and laid out a street twenty feet wide. 
It went by the name of "Bogg lane" and "Distil House 
Square" until 1786, when it was widened and called 
BowKER Street, It included all the lots except those on 
Chardon Street, which were a part of the Gerrish pasture. 
This whole neighborhood was given over chiefly to 

William Brenton, who was admitted to the church in 
1633 3.nd filled various offices in the town, dealt largely in 
real estate, and acquired land in this neighborhood. And 
this came to Hugh Drury, whom we have noticed as part 
owner of Castle Tavern. His grandchildren conveyed this 
estate to William Alden and John Drury in 1696. A lane 
ten feet wide was laid out, called Alden Street, and 
the place cut up into house lots. The pasture of Robert 
Meeres extended east from Chardon Street and joined the 
land of Brenton, on Cambridge Street. The corner lot was 
inherited by his son Samuel in 1666, and it was sold to 
John Colman in 1711— 12. Peter Chardon and his wife 
Sarah (Colman) obtained possession in 1733, and after 
passing through various hands it was bought by Chris- 
topher Gore in 1785 who in 1793 removed out of 
town. The estate extended also some distance down 


Chardon Street. In the deed of Colman to Char- 
don, in 1733, it is called ''The Bowling Green." 
In 1 714 Daniel Stevens advertised that the "Bowling 
Green formerly belonging to Mr. James Ivers, now 
doth belong to Daniel Stevens at the British 
Coffee House in Queen Street, which Green will be opened 
on Monday next, where all gentlemen, merchants and 
others that have a mind to recreate themselves can be 

In 1737 Colman sold the lot next to Chardon Street 
to Thomas Bulfinch, and it remained in the family until 
after 1800. 

Chardon Street was laid out through the Parker- 
Gerrish pasture in 1682. It was called "the highway to 
Jackson's distill house," "the lane to the mill pond," and in 
1785, "Chardon 's lane." Pitts Street was also laid out 
through the Harris estate. In 171 7 Benjamin Harris 
promised to lay out a highway. It was sometimes called 
"Gooch Lane," and has thus been confused with its neigh- 
bor. In 1788 the lane by Mr. Gooch 's was named Pitts 

Governor John Leverett owned the large lot next the 
Gerrish pasture, and in 1672 he conveyed a piece to 
Ephraim Savage, and the same year this was transferred 
to Peter Lidgett. James Gooch, Jr., distiller, bought it in 
1 72 1, when a street was laid out and it was cut up into 
house lots. In 1732, "called Gooch Lane," and, in 1877, 
"Norman Street." This street was noted for its sugar 

Green Street was a lane from the earliest days, and 
named Green Street in 1708. Major Thomas Melville, 
housewright, lived in the house that his father, Allan 
Melville, bought in 1760 on the south side east of Stam- 
ford Street. He was a strong patriot, and one of the Tea 


*arty. For many years he was connected with the fire 
department, and gained his commission in the war. John 
Welch, who carved the historic codfish in the House of 
Representatives, lived on the south side and also bought 
land on the north side of the street. His father bought 
land as early as 1733, which he sold to Allen Melville 
in 1760. 

Besides the land which he conveyed to Ephraim Savage 
in 1672, Governor Leverett owned all the land extending 
to Barton Point, or, as it was known in early days, Haugh's 
Point. This was eleven acres and its approximate bounds 
were Green, Chambers, Poplar streets, and the water. 
In 1725 there was a division among the heirs, when 
Leverett Street was laid out, and on the north side near 
the point there was a ropewalk, which later became the 
site of the new almshouse, built in 1800. In 1 756 Barton 
Street was called "a street lately laid out"; later, called 
Second Street. In 1728-9 Spring Street was laid out 
by Knight Leverett, and named Spring Street in 1825. 
William Scollay invested largely in this neighborhood, 
and Milton Street was laid out by him in 1797, as an 
eighteen-foot highway. But it was still many years be- 
fore all these streets were improved. Brighton Street 
was "a beach along the shore"; in 171 7, "a street front- 
ing on Charles River." In 1 71 7 John Allen conveyed land 
to Jonathan Belcher, and he built the Copper Works, 
about which little seems to be known, and the street was 
known as Copper Street for many years. In 1732 John 
Caswell was an owner with Belcher. 

Now, to return to Cambridge Street, we find that by 
various deeds from the early possessors, Simon Lynde from 
1667 to 1685 bought six acres and his son Samuel bought 
the remaining lot. These lay between Green, Chambers 
and Cambridge Streets, and converged to a point called the 


Field Gate, at the east end of Bowdoin Square. In 1700 
Samuel Lynde conveyed to James Allen and others "a 
small piece of land in the form of a triangle, and comes to a 
point where was formerly a gate." This was Bowdoin 
Square. In 1718, with the exception of this piece, it all 
came into the possession of John Stamford, and in 1719 
he laid out Staniford and Lynde Streets, both of which 
received its appropriate name at that time. A windmill 
is shown on the maps of Bonner and Burgis, and though as 
yet we have found little information about it, it is probably 
on or near the site of the West Church. 

In 1736 Hugh Hall and others who had settled in the 
neighborhood, and had opened up their lands to attract 
more purchasers, bought land of Benjamin Fitch and 
John Staniford for the purpose of building a meeting 
house on the northeast corner of Cambridge and Lynde 
Streets. William Hooper, the first minister, was a Scotch- 
man, and was settled over the church from 1 73 7 to 1 746, 
when he suddenly resigned and the same day was chosen 
pastor of Trinity Church. In 1746 Governor Shirley 
wrote that "Hooper came to Boston and was a tutor to 
a gentleman's son about twelve years ago, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his natural abilities and was popular 
as a preacher for which he had great talent, and that a 
church was built for him, and after nine years he suddenly 

Jonathan Mayhew, the next minister, was fearlessly 
outspoken. He was a strong defender of the 
rights and liberties of church and state. Some of 
the ministers had been blamed for keeping silence in 
the cause of liberty, and he was solicited to preach 
on the situation, which he did, and this caused some 
members to leave his church, though otherwise his friends. 
Mayhew did not accept the Trinity, and thus became, in 


fact, the first Unitarian, though Channing was its first 
great interpreter. 

In 1749 the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, established in England 
under Episcopal auspices, was extending its influence in 
America, and aroused the ire of Jonathan Mayhew, of 
the West Church. Thomas Hollis, of London, was a 
famous antiquary, who was interested in America. He 
became interested especially in the writings of Mayhew, 
and a correspondence ensued. Mayhew's writings against 
introducing and establishing episcopacy were most im- 
portant in support of the cause of civil and religious 
liberty, and against the claims of the arbitrary power of 
the British Parliament. The controversy which took place 
had great influence on future events. John Adams said, 
*Tt spread the alarm against the authority of Parliament 
and excited a general and just apprehension that bishops 
and dioceses and churches and priests were to be im- 
posed on us. If Parliament could tax us they could im- 
pose an Episcopal church upon us," and he said, "Mayhew 
practically fired the morning gun of the Revolution." 

Simeon Howard followed Mayhew from 1 767-1804. 
During the Revolution the church was disorganized, and it 
became extinct after 1885. The building is now a branch 
of the Public Library. The church lot adjoined on the 
north a ropewalk belonging to Samuel Waldo, who bought 
the lot on which it stood in 1732, but nothing further has 
been found about this ropewalk. 

John Stamford built a house for himself east of Stam- 
ford Street, and it was here, no doubt, that he entertained 
Whitefield. In 1754 Timothy Newell bought it of Stani- 
ford's widow. Before long Newell bought more land and 
owned nearly to the corner of the square. Newell is well 
known by the Diary he kept at the time of the Revolution. 


On Cambridge Street, just west of Lynde Street, in 1 726, 
Edward Carter, silk dyer and scourer, and Samuel Hall, 
advertised at the Rainbow and Blue Hand, and in 1728 
James Vincent, silk dyer from London, advertised at the 
Blue Dog and Rainbow, in Cambridge Street. 

Edward Carnes, ropemaker (also of the Artillery 
Company and major in the Boston regiment), bought the 
land between Chambers and Lynde Streets of John Stani- 
ford in 1761, and this he named Carnes College, but why 
so named and what was taught there has not been ascer= 
tained. It came into the hands of Harrison Gray Otis in 
1793, and the house that he built on the west corner of 
Lynde Street is one of the few left to-day in the city, of 
those built before the nineteenth century. It is now owned 
and occupied by the Society for the Preservation of New 
England antiquities. 

Next west of the Lynde pasture was that of Charles 
Chambers, mariner, the approximate bounds of which 
were, Cambridge, Eaton, Chambers, and North Russell 
Streets. In 1648 Valentine Hill "grants to WilHam Davis 
four acres in the new field," and in 1695—6 the widow of 
Davis conveyed this to Chambers. He laid out Chambers 
Street; his heirs sold the remainder, and it was cut up 
into house lots by various owners. In 1727 it was called 
*'a new way running from the highway leading to the 
Copper Works (Poplar Street) to Cambridge Street"; 
in 1732, "Chambers Street"; in 1788, called Shute Street 
from Green Street to the ropewalk, and in 1800 this part 
was Wiltshire Street. In 181 1 all called "Chambers 

In 1735 Isaac Solomon, tobacconist, deeded to Michael 
Asher land on the east side of Chambers Street, "with all 
privileges except the use of the Burying Ground as it is 
now fenced in to the Jewish nation," Solomon and Asher 


having bought this land together, of Joseph Bradford, in 

North Russell and Eaton Streets were laid out by 

a company consisting of Daniel Austin, Thomas K. Jones, 
and Thomas Clarke, who bought the land of Thomas 
Russell in 1 794, and the streets received their respective 
names in 1802. 

Next to the Chambers pasture came the Penn-Allen 
estate. James Penn, the beadle, had a grant from the 
town in 1646, and this was probably the eighteen acres 
which he owned as early as 1648. In 1671 Penn de- 
vised this to his nephew, Rev. James Allen, and Allen 
bought two more acres of John Biggs, a grant to him in 
1 64 1. In 1706 Allen gave this pasture to his son, John 
Allen. Its bounds were approximately Cambridge, Cham- 
bers, North Russell, Poplar Streets and the water (Charles 
Street). Allen extended Chambers Street northerly, bend- 
ing round westerly towards the water, "being a thirty-foot 
highway known as Allen's highway"; later. Poplar 
Street. On the south side of Poplar Street there 
were three ropewalks, fronting on Chambers Street 
and extending to the water. John Allen gave these to 
his son, Jeremiah Allen, in 1752, his son-in-law, 
Francis Welles, in 1752, and sold land to Samuel 
Gardner in 1730. Through the Allen pasture several 
streets were laid out — Allen Street, by John Allen, in 
1729, as a forty-foot highway, westward to another high- 
way of thirty feet (Brighton Street). In 1729 Joshua 
Blanchard had a wharf on the south corner of Brighton 
Street, which his heirs still held in 1798. Job Prince 
bought largely on the south side in 1 746, selling off part, 
and part in the family in 1798. McLean Street was a 
way laid out through the marsh by the various owners in 
1797, and received its name in 1828. 


Between North Russell Street and the water the land 
was sold by the heirs of John Allen to Samuel Parkman 
and Charles Bulfinch in 1792, and part to Parkman and 
Harrison Gray Otis in 1797. 

Zachariah Phillips' pasture was on the south side of 
Cambridge Street, bounded approximately by Cam- 
bridge, Charles, Pinckney, and Grove Street, with 
some jogs. It joined the Blackstone estate on Beacon 
Street. In the early days Samuel Cole acquired it and in 
1658 sold nine acres to Zachariah Phillips, butcher. In 
1672 Phillips conveyed this to Governor John Leverett, 
who thus made a substantial addition to his already large 
real estate in various parts of the town. Leverett died in 
1678, and in 1 707 half was assigned to the heirs of Hudson 
Leverett and the other half divided between the six 
daughters of Governor Leverett. In 1726 Nathaniel By- 
field had acquired five of these shares, and he married 
the remaining daughter, thereby getting possession of the 
whole, at the same time buying the half of the heirs of 
Hudson Leverett. In 1729 he conveyed the whole to his 
three grandsons, Byfield Lyde, Francis Brinley, and 
George Cradock. Later, the Mount Vernon Proprietors 
got possession of much of the southern, and Charles Bul- 
finch of the northern part. Byfield laid out streets, and 
the first lots conveyed were in 1729, but it was still many 
years before the place was inhabited. The streets laid out 
were, parts of Phillips Street, called "Southac Street" 
until 1866; Revere Street, called "May Street," until 
1855; West Cedar Street, called "George Street" and 
"Southac Street," until 1826, and two streets now built 
over, called "Hill and Short Streets." In 1793 the pest 
house stood on the southwest corner of Cambridge and 
Grove Streets. In the early days gunpowder was stored 
in private warehouses. That of Robert Gibbs on Fort 


Hill, and the Granary of Arthur Mason on Tremont Street, 
were two of these. In 1702 there was an appeal to the 
government for one or more powder houses, and in 1 703 
one was placed on the Common. In 1770 it was ordered 
removed on account of many accidents, and a new one 
was built at West Boston, which could contain one thou- 
sand barrels of powder. According to an old map of the 
Copley estate, this was found to be in this pasture, near 
the corner of Pinckney and Grove Streets. 

Next to the Phillips pasture was that of the Rev. James 
Allen, who acquired about sixteen and one-half acres 
purchased from various sources. The bounds were prac- 
tically Pinckney, Grove, Cambridge, Irving, Myrtle to 
Joy Streets. This included two and one-half acres which 
he bought of the heirs of Humphrey Davy, which Davy 
had from the heirs of Richard Cooke. This was the 
orchard found on Bonner's map between Joy, Pinckney, 
and Myrtle Streets, at the end of Davies Lane which ran 
across the State House lot. At the death of Allen, in 1 7 1 1 , 
his daughter Mary, wife of John Wheelwright, received 
the southern portion, about seven acres, with the bounds 
of Myrtle, Joy, Pinckney, and Grove Streets. Myrtle 
Street extended over the extreme south part. In 1783 
Jeremiah Wheelwright sold a ropewalk, 900 by twenty- 
four feet, to Jonathan L. and Benjamin Austin, and in 
1784 the Wheelwright heirs sold another to Joseph 
Carnes, 900 by 20 feet, and a third was sold to George and 
Peter Cade in 1792, 900 by 24 feet. In 1805 all were sold 
to a company, and their site was laid out into house lots 
fronting north on Myrtle Street and extending to the 
rear of the Pinckney Street lots. In 1 78 1 Jeremiah Wheel- 
wright sold the remaining part of his pasture to Enoch 
Brown, a dealer in real estate, it would seem, in every 
part of the town. This was later acquired by the Mount 


Vernon Proprietors, and Pinckney Street and part of 
Mount Vernon Street were laid out. 

The northerly portion of James Allen's pasture fell 
to his son Jeremiah, and he opened streets in continuation 
of those in Phillip's pasture, Revere and Phillips Streets, 
and made the cross streets of Grove, Anderson, which 
was called "Centre Street" until 186 1, and Garden 
Streets. The first sale of lots was in 1729. In 1731 
there was a Bowling Green here, west of Anderson Street 
and south of Phillips Street. 

Thomas Buttolph's pasture of eight acres came next, 
extending from Irving Street to Hancock Street and from 
Cambridge Street south to Myrtle Street. Buttolph 
bought the land of William Hudson and James Johnson. 
He died in 1667, but it was not until 1701 that his estate 
was divided between his three grandchildren, the children 
of his son Thomas. Nicholas Buttolph obtained the 
westerly part; Abigail, wife of Joseph Belknap, the middle, 

and Mary, who had married first Thaxter, and second 

Robert Guttredge, the eastern portion. In 1737 the heirs 
of Nicholas laid out Myrtle Street, thirty feet wide, 
from Irving to Hancock Street. In 1 788 called "Warren 
Street from Hancock Street southerly by Austin's rope- 
walk and by the powder house to Cambridge bay." At 
the extreme west end of Nicholas Buttolph's share, 
Irving Street was laid out in 1707 and called "Buttolph 
Street" until 1855. In the middle, in 1737, South 
Russell Street was projected, thirty feet wide, but it 
fell into disuse, and in 1 794 a new street was laid out by 
John Phillips and Knight Leverett, in 1802 called "South 
Russell Street." 

In 1734 Joy Street was laid out in Mrs. Belknap's por- 
tion and called "Belknap Street." On the west side was 
a ropewalk which Nathaniel Belknap sold to Thomas 


Jenner in 1733 and bought by Edward Carnes in 1771. 
Joy Street was begun in 1661, when a ten-foot way was 
reserved for Samuel Bosworth from the Common. Samuel 
sold his land to Richard Cooke, which his grandson Elisha 
Cooke inherited in 1 7 1 5. He extended the street from the 
south line of his pasture, but here it was stopped by the 
ropewalks, and Belknap Street was not extended through 
them until after 1769. In 1736 he sold to John Daniels 
a ropewalk, 261 by 25 feet, on the west side of Hancock 
Street and there were two others which were set off in 
1763 to Mary, daughter of Elisha Cooke and wife of 
Richard Saltonstall. These three ropewalks extended 
from Hancock Street to just west of Joy Street. Joy 
Street received the name Joy, from Beacon to Cambridge 
Street, in 1855. 

The next pasture was that of Joshua Scottow, of four 
acres, extending from the west side of Hancock Street to 
just east of Temple Street, and from Cambridge Street 
back to a little below Derne Street. Richard Wharton 
foreclosed a mortgage on it in 1680, and in 169 1 his admin- 
istrators sold the west half to Stephen Minot and the 
east half to Isaiah Tay. Minot made a ropewalk which 
he sold in 1 73 1 to Samuel Waldo, and his heirs to Joseph 
Ridgway in 1 768. Across the west part of the rope walk 
RiDGEWAY Lane was laid out. In 1 769 it was a new lane, 
ten feet wide. In 1798 it was called "Ridgway Lane," 
Minot's heirs sold lots on the east side of Hancock Street, 
which finally came into possession of Jonathan L. and 
Benjamin Austin. Benjamin Austin, Jr., who lived on the 
corner of Cambridge Street, was a conspicuous figure in 
the eighteenth century, and one of the last to cling to the 
old dress. He became noted for his political articles in 
the Chronicle, under the signature of "Honestus." 

In 1 73 1— 2 Hancock Street was called "a newly laid 


On the left side was the rope walk 


out way called George Street," and in 1736 "Turner 
Street." Elisha Cooke extended his pasture through it, and 
on the east side there was a ropewalk, the land of which he 
had sold to John Daniels in 1731, bounded west by the 
highway. It was one hundred and ninety-two feet on Han- 
cock Street by nineteen feet wide, and later came into 
the hands of the Commonwealth. In 1737 the heirs of 
Isaiah Tay divided his share and laid out a thirty-foot 
way, in 1767 called Temple Street. On the east side 
Joseph Coolidge bought part of the land for a garden. In 
the partition deeds of the heirs of Isaiah Tay they have 
"the privilege of a thirteen foot way next Beacon Hill, at 
the foot of the steps on the north side of the hill." In 
1788 called Hill Street, and in 1806 Derne Street. 

The four-acre pasture of Jeremiah Houchin comes next, 
which his executors sold in 1677 to Richard Middlecott 
and William Taylor. Taylor's son sold his share to 
Middlecott in 1697, and after the death of Middlecott in 
1704 a division was made, and a forty-foot street was 
laid out in 1727, called "Middlecott Street." In 1791 this 
was extended by Daniel D. Rogers to Beacon Street, and 
in 1824 all was called Bowdoin Street. The Middlecott 
pasture extended from a little east of Temple Street to 
just east of Bowdoin Street and back to Derne and Allston 
Streets. In 1 75 7 Harrison Gray bought land which came to 
Harrison Gray Otis in 1795, east of Bowdoin Street, and 
in 1 79 1 Joseph Coolidge built his large mansion on the 
west corner of Bowdoin Street. 

John Newgate had a house and garden about three- 
fourths of an acre, which extended from a little east of 
Bowdoin Street to Bulfinch Street and back to Ashburton 
Place. This is perhaps better known as Bulfinch Pasture. 
In 1665 Newgate's son-in-law, Simon Lynde, inherited, 
and then it went to his son Samuel. The heirs of Lynde 


conveyed to Thomas Bulfinch in 1754, and in 1797 it was 
bought by Kirke Boott and William Pratt. They built 
the large house which later was known as the Revere 
House, taken down in 19 19. 

Bulfinch Street was called "a new street thirty feet 
wide in 1797. On Carleton's map in 1796 it is called 
"Bulfinch Street." 

According to the Book of Possessions, Edward Bendall, 
besides his house at the dock and his estate on North 
Street, had a house and garden with two acres on the west 
side of Court Street, just north of Pemberton Square. He 
sold this to David Yeale in 1645, ^^^ ^^ to John Wall, of 
London, in 1653. This was rented to Governor John 
Endecott. He had always lived in Salem, but when he 
was elected governor, in 1655, at the request of the Gen- 
eral Court he removed to Boston. He continued in office 
until his death in 1665-6, aged seventy-seven years, and 
was "with honor and solemnity interred in Boston," in 
the Granary Burying Ground. 

Captain Cyprian Southac, who was a noted chart maker, 
and served in the French and Indian wars, acquired the 
great part of the Bendall lot in 1702. The lot was about 
one hundred forty-one feet on Tremont Row or Court 
Street, and extended back to Ashburton Place, and then 
with some jogs went to Court Street near Bulfinch Street, 
The east boundary was about one hundred and seventy 
feet on Court Street to near Stoddard Street. South of 
Howard Street the pasture was of an L shape. Valley Acre 
embraced the land on both sides of Somerset Street to 
Bulfinch Street, and extended down the hill to the low 
ground in Court Street. About 1720 Southac laid out a 
street twenty-seven feet wide, called "Southac Court," 
and in 182 1 Howard Street. Hon. James Pitts lived 
here, on the land which he bought in 1748—9. He died 


in 1776. Sampson Salter Blowers, who removed to Nova 
Scotia and there had an honorable career, and lived to be a 
hundred years of age, married Sarah Kent, who in- 
herited an estate on the northeast side of Howard Street, 
which they sold in 1784. 

In 1708-9 there was a new lane leading up to Mrs, 
Pordage's house, which in 1730 was called Stoddard's 
Lane, also at times, "Fitch's lane," as Benjamin Fitch at 
one time was a large landowner in the neighborhood. 

In 1724-5 Southac sold a lot on Tremont Row (Court 
Street) to John Jeykill, who died in 1732. He was col- 
lector of the port for about twenty-seven years, and was 
succeeded by his son. In 1769 his heirs sold the house to 
Dr. James Lloyd who occupied it in 1 798. 

Robert Howen had a house and garden next to Southac, 
east of Stoddard Stret. His son deeded it to Simon Lynde 
in 1662-3, whose daughter Sarah, wife of Nathaniel New- 
gate, conveyed the house known as the "Spring House" to 
Giles Goddard in 1694. Anne Hunne was the early pos- 
sessor of the lot on the south corner of Howard Street, 
which Simon Lynde also bought, and in 1785 Theodore 
Lyman had a fine house and garden here. Robert Meeres 
came next, whose estate Simon Lynde also bought. Part 
of this was bought in 1723 by the Rev. Henry Harris, 
assistant of King's Chapel, and in 1785 Dr. Samuel 
Danforth had his house on part of this lot. 

Dr. Benjamin Bullivant, a physician by profession, 
came to Boston about 1686, and was clerk of the Superior 
Court and attorney-general. He was a friend of Andros 
and was arrested and sent to England with the other 
prisoners, but soon returned. He hired a house in this 
vicinity, for March 19, 1686, he with Simon Lynde and 
other neighbors asked the selectmen to pave the street 
from Bullivant's house to Mrs. Margaret Thatcher's 


property, which was just south of Beacon Street. The 
Bendall lot, which we have described, came next. 

Sudbury Street received its name in the first days of 
the settlement, and as early as 1636 was known as Sud- 
bury end. It extended to School Street and was also called 
the street that leads directly from the trayning field to the 
mill pond." In 1798 it included Deacons Street, which 
was laid out by Benjamin Andrews in 1776, through his 
father's estate, and extended from Friend to Portland 
Street. Stephen Minot lived and died in Sudbury Street. 

According to the Book of Possessions, John Cotton had 
house and garden and one and one half acres. This was on 
the eastern spur of Trimountain. The south bounds were 
just south of the entrance of Pemberton Square, and it em- 
braced the whole central part of the square and extended 
back to the church in Ashburton Place. Sir Henry Vane 
built an addition to the house, which he left to Cotton's son 
Seaborn. Sir Henry Vane arrived in Boston October 6, 
1635. His father was a privy counsellor, and his eminent 
social position and his own personal qualities won for him 
the office of governor the next year. He was only twenty 
years of age, and with no experience, the Pequot War and 
the Antinomian troubles proved too much for him, and he 
held the office for only one year, then returning to 

John Cotton was born in 1685, and after a 
college education he was settled over the parish of St. 
Botolph in Boston, England, and remained there until 
1633, when he succeeded in getting out of the country to 
join friends in New England. Archbishop Laud tried to 
have him arrested for his great influence and his leaning 
towards non-conformity. He arrived in Boston in the 
Griff en, September 4, 1633, and in October was chosen 
teacher of the church where John Wilson was pastor. He 


was twice married and had five children by his second 
wife, who later married Rev. Richard Mather, and his 
daughter Maria married Mather's son. Increase Mather. 
Cotton died in 1652. 

In 1664 the heirs of Cotton sold the south part of the 
estate to John Hull and in 1677 Hull bought the 
residue which hac^ been sold to Nicholas Paige. 
In 1683 Samuel Sewall and wife Hannah (Hull) 
inherited, and the house was occupied by various ten- 
ants, but apparently not by Sewall himself. May 
1 716, a letter from Christopher Taylor to Sewall 
says: "Your house is now altered into two tene- 
ments. I have let the lower part to Mr. Harris, 
the minister, who comes in this day: I live in 
the upper end." In 1729 Sewall's daughter, Judith, 
wife of William Cooper, inherited, and at her death 
in 1758 all was conveyed to William Vassall, who was a 
prominent royalist and lived here until the Revolution. 
In 1790 Patrick Jeffrey bought this with adjoining prop- 
erty and it was sold to Gardiner Greene in 1803. He was 
one of the wealthiest men in the state, and made a beauti- 
ful estate on this spot. It has often been described and 
pictured. He lived here until his death in 1832, and Pat- 
rick Jackson bought it for investment in 1835. Patrick 
Jeffrey married Mary Haley in Boston in 1786. She was 
the widow of Alderman Haley of London, and sister of the 
celebrated John Wilkes. It was a case of a rich widow 
and a young husband. She soon returned to England, 
while he remained in Boston and died in Milton in 181 2, 
aged sixty-four. Gardiner Greene married for his second 
wife the daughter of Copley, the artist. 

Daniel Maud, who was admitted to the church in 1635, 
and who was the first school teacher next to Pormount, 
had his house and garden, next south of Cotton, and also 


a garden plot on the opposite side of Tremont Street, 
north of Winter Street. He removed to Dover, N.H., in 
1642, and Hezekiah Usher bought the estate. After 
passing through various hands it was acquired by Gardiner 
Greene in 1824, and by Patrick Jackson in 1835, who 
included it in his improvements. 

Richard Bellingham had a garden plot next south of 
Cotton and Maud. It embraced all the houses which 
front north on Pemberton Square. He sold the north part 
to Rev. John Davenport in 1669, whose heirs sold it in 
1693 to the deacons of the First Church. After passing 
through other hands this, too, came to Patrick Jackson 
in 1835. In 1663 Bellingham sold the southern part to 
Humphrey Davy, and in 1710 the heirs of Davy con- 
veyed to Andrew Faneuil land and a stone house. In 1 73 7 
his nephew, Benjamin Faneuil, inherited, and here he died 
in 1742, just after giving Faneuil Hall to the town. In 
1772 a daughter of Benjamin Faneuil, Mary Ann, the 
widow of John Jones, conveyed it to John Vassal, and it 
was confiscated as the property of a loyalist in 1783. In 
1 79 1 it was bought by William Phillips, Sr., and occupied 
by his son William Phillips, Jr. In 1805 Phillips bought 
the northern part, and all was acquired by Patrick Jack- 
son in 1835. 

John Coggan, the first shopkeeper in the town, had 
about half an acre next south of Bellingham, which was 
bought by Samuel Myles in 1706-7, and by Rev. John 
Oxenbridge ini67i. In 1728 Ann, the widow of Myles, 
sold to George Cradock, and he sold it in 1733 to John 
Jeffries. Cradock married, in 1718, Mary Lyde, and 
through her inherited part of the large estate of Nathaniel 
Byfield. He was himself a large dealer in real estate in 
various parts of the town. He was collector of the customs 
in 1759, succeeding Benjamin Pollard, and the custom 


house was removed to the house of John Wendell at the 
corner of Court and Tremont Streets. Cradock died in 
1 771, aged eighty-seven. 

The estate was inherited by Dr. John Jeffries, of Har- 
vard College, 1763. He was a physician and a royalist. 
He went to Halifax with the army in 1776. In 1785 he 
twice flew over the British Channel in a balloon, an 
account of which was published in London. He returned 
to Boston in 1790 and died in 1819. Later this spot was 
bought by Samuel Eliot. 

James Penn, a ruling elder, at an early date bought 
land on the north corner of Beacon Street, either of John 
Coggan or John Wilson, as Beacon Street was laid out 
between their estates, or on part of one of them. Colonel 
Penn Townsend inherited from James Penn. In 1750 the 
estate was sold to Samuel Sturgis, and Samuel Eliot 
bought it in 1784 and lived here many years. 

The Granary Burying Ground was originally a part of 
the Common and set apart for a burial place in 1660. 
It was generally known as the "South Burying Ground" 
until 1756, when that on the Common was established. 
It received its name from the Granary which stood at 
the corner of Park Street. The land was let out each 
year, as in the other burying grounds, for pasturage. 
Fences were repaired, tombs built, and drainage looked 
after, and in these particulars often received the atten- 
tion of the Selectmen at their meetings. 

Beacon Street. According to the Book of Possessions 
the estates on Beacon Street were in the New 
Field, and bordered on the Common. In 1640 it 
was "ordered that the street from Atherton Haugh's 
be laid out to the Century Hill." This became 
School Street east of Tremont Street, but it in- 
cluded Beacon Street west of Tremont Street. In 


1658 there "is let to William Hudson the lane between 
Elder Penn and Mr. Wilson's garden, he paying ten 
shillings every first of March and to secure it that it may 
be ready for passage for horse and foot without interrup- 
tion." It was no doubt let for mowing. It was called 
"the highway leading into the common," "the highway 
to John Turner's house," "the way between the house of 
the late John Turner and the almshouse"; In 1708 called 
"Beacon Street," from the corner of Somerset Street. 
The rest was included in School Street. 

Rev. James Allen owned the lot next to the corner, and 
his uncle, James Penn, gave him an additional piece. He 
left the mansion wherein he dwelt to his son Jeremiah 
Allen, on whose death in 1741 his son Jeremiah Allen in- 
herited. Jeremiah's son James inherited the stone house 
and land in 1754 and sold it to his brother Jeremiah, the 
high sheriff, in 1789. In 1710 it was bought by David 
Hinckley, who tore down the old house and built a double 
stone house. The westerly one was his own residence, 
and later became the Somerset Club. 

In 1659—60 James Davis had three acres a little east 
of Somerset Street, which extended in a triangle to within 
a few feet of Ashburton Place, and was only thirteen feet 
on Beacon Street. It was purchased by John Bowers, 
of Somerset, who bought some additional land and laid 
out Somerset Street from Howard Street to Beacon 
Street in 180 1. In 1803 David Sears bought the estate 
which he had occupied some years as a tenant. 

In the early days Robert Turner, shoemaker, had a 
large pasture of about eight acres, which he acquired 
through purchase from various sources. It extended from 
five feet west of Somerset Street, around the State House 
lot to nineteen feet east of Hancock Street, and back to 
Derne Street and Ashburton Place. The western part was 








finally acquired by Thomas Hancock. The sons of Turner 
inherited in 1664, but eventually the greater part came 
into the hands of his son-in-law John Fairweather. He 
died in 1 71 2, and part was bought by David Sears and the 
next lot westerly by Edward Bromfield in 1742. 
He built the house and lived here until his death, and here 
his son Edward worked over the microscope and organ, 
and died in early life. William Phillips, his son-in-law, 
bought the house in 1 763. Phillips was first an apprentice 
and then a partner of Bromfield, and in 1 744 married his 
daughter Abigail. He amassed a large fortune, and was 
active in town affairs and on important committees. The 
next house was bought by James Bowdoin, the governor, 
in 1756, of Jonathan Pollard, to whom Fairweather had 
sold it in 1703. 

The next three acres west, Fairweather sold to Benjamin 
Alford in 1685, and in 1760 it was purchased by William 
Molineux, who died in 1774. Thomas Newell says in 
his Diary, "October 22, 1774. This morning after three 
days illness William Molineux died in the 58th year of 
his life. A true son of Liberty and of America, 'Oh, save 
my country. Heaven,' he said, and died." Charles Ward 
Apthorp was the executor of Molineux, and being a loyalist 
the estate was confiscated and sold to Daniel Dennison 
Rogers. In 1791 Rogers bought more land and laid out a 
private way, which became Bowdoin Street. 

According to the Book of Possessions the State House 
lot was owned by Thomas Millard, and it was bought by 
Thomas Hancock, in 1752; he also bought various pieces 
of land in the vicinity. In 1 795 this pasture was conveyed 
to the town of Boston and by the town to the Common- 
wealth, and the State House was built from designs by 
Charles Bulfinch. 

Zaccheus Bosworth was the first owner of the land 


which Thomas Hancock bought in 1737 and where he built 
the historic Hancock house, which his nephew John Han- 
cock inherited in 1764. March 30, 1776, Edmund Quincy 
wrote to his daughter Dorothy, wife of John Hancock, 
that General Pigot, who lived in the house during the 
winter, had left it in a cleanly state. About 1828 it was 
a boarding house, and it was torn down in 1863. 

In 1692 Samuel Sewall bought what he called his "Elm 
pasture." It was purchased from various owners, and 
streets were laid out for development, but these proved to 
be merely streets on paper, and the plan was never carried 
out. The pasture consisted of about five acres and ex- 
tended from Joy Street to just west of Walnut Street. 
Thomas Bannister bought it in 1732 and in 1791 the part 
west of Walnut Street went to John Joy, who then owned 
all between Joy and Walnut Streets. In 1770 Copley 
bought the west part of the pasture. 

The Francis East pasture was two and one-half acres, 
and extended from Spruce Street to about halfway to 
Walnut Street. Thomas Bannister bought this in 1694, 
and there was a house on the lot. John Singleton Copley, 
the portrait painter, finally became the owner of 
about eleven acres, made up of three divisions. 
The west half of Sewall's Elm Pasture, the Francis 
East Pasture, and the Blackstone lot of six acres. 

Blackstone was a clergyman of the Church of England, 
and was not in favor of the Puritans. He told them that he 
could not join their church, for he left England to escape 
from the lords bishops, and would not serve the lords 
brethren here. He therefore removed from their juris- 
diction and went to Rhode Island. He and Roger Williams 
were the first in that state, as he had been first in the 
town of Boston. There is no actual evidence how 
long he had been in New England, nor in Boston. 


Blackstone released all his land to the town except 
six acres which he sold to Richard Pepys, as 
deposed by Anne Pollard in 171 1, who said that 
Pepys built the house and rented it to her hus- 
band, William Pollard, and that Blackstone frequently 
resorted to their house during the fourteen years they 
lived there. All of this came to Thomas Bannister in 
1708-9, house, barn, stable, orchard, etc. Bannister now 
owned from Walnut Street to Charles Street, and gave it 
the name of Mt. Pleasant. The old house which Bannister 
bought with the East Pasture is now the site of the Somer- 
set Club. Nathaniel Cunningham acquired the whole 
property through foreclosure of a mortgage, and his in- 
ventory mentions house, land, and pasture at the bottom 
of the Common. A legal battle followed, and in 1769 
Peter Chardon, as administrator of Cunningham, conveyed 
it all to John Singleton Copley. In 1796, Copley, 
then living in London, deeded his estate to Jonathan 
Mason, Harrison Gray Otis, and others, called the 
"Mt. Vernon Proprietors," — rather a shrewd investment 
on their part, as it was known to them that 
the new State House was soon to be built in 
the neighborhood. In 1798 John Vinal on the west and 
Charles Cushing east of him were the owners and occupiers 
of two houses on this estate. The bounds of the Copley 
estate were approximately Beacon, Walnut, Pinckney, and 
Charles Streets. 

Park Street was once a part of the Common. In 1733 
openings into the Common were ordered, but in 1737 
the Common was "much broken by means of carts, etc., 
passing and repassing on it, and it was ordered that there 
be but one entrance or passage for carts, coaches, etc., out 
of Common Street into the Common to be left open near 
the Granary to go up along by the Workhouse to Beacon 


Street and that the other gaps be closed." It was called, 
late in the eighteenth century, Center Street and Sentry- 
Street; in 1808, Park Street. In the early days it was 
set apart as the place for public buildings. 

The almshouse stood on the northeast corner of Beacon 
Street. It was erected in 1660 by legacies and gifts, and 
the selectmen "were empowered to compound with work- 
men for the erecting and furnishing it." This building was 
burned in 1684, and rebuilt of brick and stone in the form 
of an L one hundred by one hundred by fourteen feet and 
two stories high. "This to be a place where those in need 
of alms be sent to work." Before long it grew to be a 
bridewell and house of correction, and in 17 13 there was 
a movement to restore it to its primitive and pious design 
for the relief of the necessitous, and to build a house of 
correction to separate those put in for vice and disorder. 
But, with the exception of considering the subject, nothing 
was done until 172 1. In 1735 the ministers of the various 
churches in the town were asked to take turns in preach- 
ing the gospel to the poor in the almshouse. In 1742 
there were no persons there, and in 1769, 230, with 40 
in the workhouse proper subjects for the almshouse. In 
1795 a committee of the town reported that an entire new 
set of buildings should be erected and they had found a 
suitable location at West Boston, on the north side of 
Leverett Street, at Barton's Point. 

In 1 72 1 the bridewell or house of correction was ordered 
to be erected by the County of Suffolk. It was placed next 
to the Almshouse and the dimensions were about fifty by 
twenty by fourteen feet, and built of brick. Beside the 
master, there was to be a whipper constantly in attend- 
ance. A little later part of the house was given up for 
the insane. 

The workhouse was first proposed in 1735, and was 


ready for occupation in 1739, It was placed at the south- 
west end of the house of correction and was one hundred 
and forty by twenty by sixteen feet and built of brick. 
It was to be improved for the reception and employment 
of the idle and the poor of the town. 

In 1 7 1 2 a little house on Fort Hill was let by the town 
to Joseph Callender, for a granary. From that time the 
records show many orders for opening and leasing gran- 
aries, and their management. There was one at the North 
End, near the North Mill, at the end of Prince Street, 
and that of Arthur Mason was on the east side of Tremont 
Street, between Winter and Bromfield Streets. In 1728 
it was voted to build a granary in the Common, next the 
Burying Ground. It was near the corner of Tremont and 
Park Streets and a few years later it was moved nearer 
the Burying Ground to accommodate the workhouse, and 
make the appearance and prospect better. Corn, rye, 
and flour were purchased and sold to the poor. It held 
twelve thousand bushels. In 1788 it was let to a com- 
pany of sail-cloth manufacturers, and in 1791 Dr. Town- 
send, the inspector of ashes, was the occupant. In 1796 
the land was sold to Henry Jackson, all except the build- 
ing, which was to be removed. In 1798 it is in the tax 
list as owned by James Swan and occupied by five tenants 
in stores. It was of four stories and of wood. Park Street 
Church was built in 1809, The Granary was taken down 
and removed to Commercial Point at the corner of Free- 
port, Union, and Neponset Streets. It was fitted up for 
a hotel called the "Tinion." 

In 1 801 the first three lots on "Centrey Street" next that 
sold to Henry Jackson in 1796 were sold by the town 
to Arnold Welles, Peter C. Brooks, and Thomas H. Per- 
kins, and in 1803 the next two to Thomas Amory, which 
included the Almshouse lot. 


In 1637 there was a pound, and Richard Fairbanks was 
poundkeeper, and to be paid in proportion. In 1654-5 
Thomas Woodward sold land lying over against the new 
pinfold, at the entrance of the training green, which placed 
the pound on the west side of Tremont Street, a little 
south of Beacon Street. In 1720 it was voted "to remove 
the pound into the common nigh the upper end of the 
burying place." This was not far from the almshouse. 
In 1737 "the most convenient place for erecting the pound 
is at the northeast corner of the pasture belonging to the 
heirs of the late Thomas Fitch, and ordered placed there." 
This was near Boylston Street. In 1786 it was placed at 
the North End, where the granary was, and it was still 
there in 1798, when it was to be repaired. 

Davies Lane ran across the State House lot to the 
orchard of Humphrey Davy, which later became the 
property of James Allen. In 1798 it was "the way from 
Beacon Street to Allen's orchard." It is now built over 
or included in other streets. 

Chestnut and Walnut Streets were both laid out 
by the Mt. Vernon Proprietors in 1799. 

Charles Street. In 1794 the Selectmen were to lay 
out a street sixty feet wide from Pleasant Street along the 
easterly side of land granted for ropewalks, over the 
marsh, towards Beacon Street, in order to meet a road 
that may be opened from West Boston Bridge. 


"i April 1633 it was agreed that Mr. William Black- 
stone shall have fifty acres of ground set out for him near 
to his house in Boston." "June 10 1684 the deposition of 
John Odlin, age about 82 years, Robert Walker 


about 78, Francis Hudson about 68, and William Lyther- 
land about 76, being antient, and inhabitants of the town 
of Boston from the time of the first planting and contin- 
uing so until this day, depose that about the year 1634 
the then present inhabitants did treat and agree with Mr. 
William Blackstone for the purchase of this estate and 
right of any lands lying within the sd neck of land called 
Boston, and for the sd purchase agreed that every house- 
holder should pay six shillings which was accordingly col- 
lected, none paying less and some considerably more than 
six shiUings, and the sum collected was paid to Mr. 
William Blackstone to his full content and satisfaction. 
In consideration thereof he sold to the then inhabitants 
and their heirs and assigns his whole right in all lands 
within the Neck, reserving only unto himself about 
six acres of land on the point commonly called Blackstone 's 
Point, on part thereof his dwelling house stood. After 
which purchase the town laid out a place for a trayning 
field which ever since and now is used for that purpose, 
and for the feeding of cattle. We further testify that 
Mr. Blackstone bought a stock of cows with the money he 
received and removed and dwelt near Providence." 

The original bounds extended to Beacon Street its full 
length, and the first infringement was in 1660, when the 
almshouse was built and the Granary Burying Ground 
laid out. The houses on Tremont Street between School 
and Boylston Streets, were considered as in the Common, 
which included the gun house and schoolhouse. Many 
orders were passed concerning the Common. All who 
were admitted inhabitants were to have equal rights of 
commonage. There was a cow keeper and a town bull. 
In 1 649 Thomas Painter had leave to erect a mill on Fox 
Hill, which was on what is now the Public Garden. In 
1652 James and Peter Oliver had leave to set up a wind- 


mill on the top of the hill between the town and Fox Hill, 
In 1703 "a watch house and a centry house were to stand 
nigh the powder house on the Common." 

The training was a great source of recreation as well 
as discipline, and great importance was attached to the 
militia, largely made up of volunteers. The Common was 
their training field. It was the playground of the town, 
and it would not be possible to tell in a short space of all 
the happenings on this historic spot. In 1676 there were 
eight Indians shot to death upon Windmill Hill. There 
has been much speculation as to the gallows. We do 
know that it was on the neck, and the only time that 
the records mention gallows on the Common was Novem- 
ber 21, 1787, when "Sheriff Henderson hath liberty of a 
gallows at the lower end of the Common for the execution 
of one Shean." In 1723, "sixty-three chiefs came from 
Albany. They had an ox given to them, which they killed 
with bows and arrows, and in the evening a fire was made 
on the Common, and a kettle hung over it, in which part 
of sd ox was boiled, and they danced after their own man- 
ner." At the entrance of the eighteenth century, Jan- 
uary I, 1 700-1, just about break of day, Jacob Amsden 
and three other trumpeters gave a blast with their trum- 
pets on the Common in rear of Mr. Alford's. Duels were 
frequently fought here. In 1756 land was bought of 
Andrew Oliver, Jr., late Colonel Fitch's pasture, at the 
bottom of the Common for a burying place. This was 
on Boylston Street. September 21, 1740, George Whit- 
field preached to about fifteen thousand people on 
the Common, and again October 12. October 1799 
"several male and female rogues were publicly 
whipped and pilloried on Friday last," says the 
Boston Gazette. "We are glad that the scene for 
their punishment has been removed from State Street 


to the Common." September i, 1794, ''a piece 
of marsh land and flat at the bottom of the Common 
is granted to the owners of the rope walks, which were 
burned in Pearl Street, including the whole or such part 
of Fox Hill as may fall within the bounds specified." 
These ropewalks were repurchased by the city in 1824. 
There were five of them, and they extended from Pleasant 
Street across what is now the Public Garden. 


THE last but not the least important section into 
which we have divided the town is that which 
connects the peninsula with the main land. It 
takes in all that part south of Essex and Boylston Streets 
to the Roxbury line, just south of the present Thorndike 
Street, where a short stone post marks the boundary. The 
land begins to narrow near Essex Street, but the neck 
proper begins at the narrowest point, which is Dover 

Tremont Street, south of Boylston Street, was called 
Nassau Street in 1735. Between Boylston and Hollis 
Streets it was laid out by the Eliot and Holyoke heirs in 
1740, and called "Walker's Street," in 174 1. In 1744 fifty 
pounds was paid to John Clough for the highway laid out 
through his land from Frog Lane to Nassau Street. In 
1788 "from Orange Street by Rev. Mr. Byles house to 
Frog lane named Nassau Street." In 1836 it was ex- 
tended to the Roxbury line, and all called Tremont Street. 
In 1 771 "a cross way formerly so called now Holyoke 

The lot on the southwest corner of Boylston Street was 
that of Robert Walker according to the Book of Posses- 
sions, but he soon sold out to Jacob Eliot, and William 
Powell bought it in 1763. The Ehot heirs owned as far 
as Hollis Street on the west side. 

Mather Byles bought a house and land of Abigail 
Stacey in 1741, about on the site of the Children's 



Mission. The front part of his land was included in 
the widening of Tremont Street. Major John Crane, one 
of the Tea Party, lived opposite Hollis Street. He left 
Boston when the port bill went into effect and served with 
distinction throughout the war, succeeding Knox as colonel 
of the Massachusetts regiment of artillery. He was 
commander of the line on the neck. Nathaniel Bradley 
bought the house on the south corner of Hollis Street in 
1770, and here some of those who were in the Tea Party 
met to dress. 

On the southeast corner of Tremont and Boylston 
Street, on the site of the Hotel Touraine, William Talmage 
had a garden which his niece, Anne Flack, inherited, and 
she conveyed to John Clough in 1705-6. His son James 
Clough inherited. He married Rachel Ruggles of Brain- 
tree, and she married, (2) 1746-7, Arthur Savage, and 
(3), 1768, James Noble, and (4) 1774, James Pecker. 
In 1785 James Pecker and wife Rachel lease to Samuel 
Breck and others, for twenty years, this corner, for a 
duck factory. 

Until 1785, when the Charlestown bridge was built, 
the Neck was the only thoroughfare leading to the neigh- 
boring towns, and it has been the scene of both tragedy 
and comedy. Captain Nathaniel Uring described it when 
on a visit to Boston in 17 10: "The neck of land betwixt 
the city and the country is about forty yards broad and 
so low that the spring tides sometimes wash the road, 
which might with a lit'le change be made so strong as 
not to be forced. There be no way of coming to town 
but over that neck." In 1794 Thomas Pemberton says; 
"The neck which joins Boston with Roxbury, included 
within the limits of Boston is one mile and thirty yards 
to the Fortification. The Fortification was built of brick 
with a deep ditch on the side next the Neck. It had two 


gates through one of which foot passengers and the 
other carriages passed. It began where Orange Street 
[Essex Street], ends and extends to the end of the town 
where the bounds of Roxbury begin." The town records 
say, September 25, 1741: "The Hne run between the town 
of Boston and the town of Roxbury, and the ancient 
bound renewed : beginning at the mouth of the creek which 
runs into the bay leading to Cambridge, and so goes as 
the creek runs until it comes in a range with the fence and 
trees which parts between John Richardson's land, for- 
merly Mr. Nathaniel Brewer's, and Samuel Welles' land 
formerly Mr. Minot's, then cross the street or highway 
till it comes to a stump with a heap of stones, about 
eighty feet from the highway, and from thence straight 
to a little knole upon the edge of the creek, a corner of the 
bounds, and from thence east as the creek runs till it 
comes to a stake with a heap of stones in Colonel Lamb's 
dam, and from thence as the creek runs into the bay be- 
tween Boston and Dorchester." The whole peninsula 
was sometimes called "the Neck," and the Neck has been 
called "the common," or "cow common." 

The first order for the laying out of a way was in 1636, 
when it was agreed that "there shall be a sufficient foot- 
way made from William Colburn's field unto Samuel Wil- 
bore's field end next Roxbury." In 1664 there was a new 
highway laid out through the land of Mrs. Colburn, Henry 
Phillips, William Talmage, Major-General Leverett, and 
Richard Bellingham, for which they were paid, and there- 
after the estates were conveyed in reference to the old 
and new way, as in 1711, the "Towns slip or entrance to 
the old road on the east side of Orange Street." In 1708 
it was called Orange Street from Essex Street to the Forti- 
fication, and after the visit of Washington in 1789 this 
part of the Neck proper received the name of Washington 


Street, which in 1824 included Newbury and Marlborough 
Streets and Cornhill. Money was voted, from time to 
time, to repair the highway. 

The importance of a guard was soon felt, and July 26, 
1 63 1, it was ordered that there be a watch of six men, 
and an officer kept every night, "two whereof to be of 
Boston, two of Charlestown and two of Roxbury," and 
cattle allowed to go on the Neck were taxed for this pur- 
pose. March 23, 1635, ''brother Wilbore was to see to 
the making of the gate and stile next to Roxbury, and 
at the same time, as the wood upon the neck of land 
hath the last winter been disorderly cut up, whereby 
many of the poor inhabitants are disappointed of relief, 
it was agreed that some division should be made and that 
all the wood left shall be gathered up and laid in heaps." * 
In 1639 Samuel Sherman was permitted to build a cow 
house next the gate. In 1674 the town built a house on 
the east side, near the gate, which was let to various 
parties, and there was a pasture on the east side for the 
town bull. 

The gallows were early erected on the Neck, March 
16, 1656, the gallows was to be removed "to the next 
knole of land before the next execution." Three months 
later Ann Hibbens was here executed for witchcraft. 
This was on the site of the Cathedral, and here Quakers 
and other delinquents suffered the penalty of the law of 
those days, which now would be considered as out of all 
reason for the sin committed. August 5, 1685, Judge 
Sewall notes that, as he was riding to Dorchester Lecture, 
he saw a few feet of ground enclosed with boards "which 
is done by the Quakers out of respect to some one or 
more hung and buried near the gallows though the gov- 
ernor forbade them when they asked leave." April 24, 
1765, Stephen Greenlief, the sheriff, asked leave to erect 


the new gallows which had been ordered by the General 
Court, on the left side of the Neck, on a little rising spot 
of ground, and beyond the clay pond, as more convenient 
than the old location. This was just south of Brookline 
Street. In 1707 Judge Sewall issued a warrant to the 
constables: "Whereas Abraham Harris, late of Boston, 
whitewasher, at the age of discretion, hung himself con- 
trary to the peace of our Sovereign Lady, the Queen, As a 
warning to others of the like damnable practices, the sd 
Abraham Harris is denied Christian burial. These are to 
command you to cause the body to be buried on the Neck 
near the highway over against the gallows, and to cause 
a cartload of stones to be laid upon the grave as a brand of 
infamy." The cost was thirteen shillings. He had com- 
mitted suicide. 

August 6, 1 71 7, the town lets "to John Warren, miller, 
a circular piece of land of 94 feet for the accommodation 
of a windmill situated on the southerly side of the gallows 
hill." This changed hands several times and finally was 
blown down October 23, 1761. South of the windmill 
was the clay pond and salt marsh. In 1695—6 Colonel 
Hutchinson and others received a monopoly for making 
salt in the province for fourteen years, and in 1 730 they 
sold their rights to Henry and Samuel Gibbin. In 1791 
Joseph Stacey was "granted liberty to carry on the busi- 
ness of a tallow chandler in the building on the east side 
of the neck lately improved as salt works." 

January 31, 1708-9, the town conveyed to "Samuel 
Phillips and nine others all the upland, beach and flats 
and medow ground on both sides of the highway, the 
highway to be 48 feet in breadth and to be well secured, 
the land between John Bennet's land on the east side and 
land of Daniel Epes on the west side, extending to the 
old Fortifications, and as far as 24 feet beyond the new 


pavement." This tract of about fifty acres extended 
from Castle Street to a line a little short of Dover Street. 
It was about a thousand feet in length. In 1709 a divi- 
sion was made into ten lots. April 30, 1785, the town 
made another grant of fourteen hundred feet. It was 
on condition that a sea wall be made "from the southeast 
corner of the fortification to or outside of Hill's dam and 
to be built of stone, etc. The wall on the northwest side 
of the neck is in a tottering state and it is necessary to 
have a range of strong pickets 1 1 feet long. The grantees 
are to reserve to the town a street between the premises 
of 85 feet wide." This grant extended from a few feet 
south of Dover Street to Maiden Street. It was divided 
into fourteen lots on both sides. 

August 27, 1 71 1, it was voted "to build a line of de- 
fence to face it with stone from the bottom of the ditch to 
the highest part of the rampart, etc." In 1 714-15 a two- 
rail fence was ordered from one end of the Neck to the 
other for the benefit and safety of travelers. In 1718 
Sewall notes that he went to Roxbury and had the pleasure 
to view the wall of our city, the work being closed postern 
and all. Rules were laid down as to the gates which were 
to be closed on Lord's days. In 1746 for further defence 
the ditch was to be cleared and guns mounted on the 
breastwork. These works were a few feet south of Dover 
Street. In 1756 the town voted *'to raise by lottery three 
thousand pounds for paving the neck." 

On the west side, near Roxbury gate, William Hibbens 
had a grant of five acres in 1644, and in 1652 he conveyed 
this to Margery, widow of Jacob Eliot, for the benefit 
of herself and her children. This remained in the family 
and was owned by her descendants, Samuel and Arnold 
Welles, in 1798. The next five acres, north, were granted 
to James Penn in 1644, and he also in 1653 conveyed to 


Margery Eliot. Stephen Minot acquired this in 1698 and 
1 701-2, and then he petitioned for a Hcense "to keep an 
inn at his house nigh Roxbury gate." This was the famous 
George Tavern, first mentioned by name in 1707. In 
1708-9 Samuel Meeres petitioned to sell strong drink as 
an innholder at the house of Stephen Minot in the room 
of John Gibbs. Other innholders here were Simon Rogers 
in 1726, and he was still there in 1733, when Stephen 
Minot, Jr., inherited the estate. Andrew Haliburton was 
keeper in 1734—5. In 1768 Gideon Gardner was licensed. 
Minot sold out in 1738 to Samuel and William Brown, 
and in 1770 Thomas Bracket was approved "as a taverner 
at the house on the Neck called the King's Arms, formerly 
the George Tavern, lately kept by Mrs. Bowdine." July 
30, 1775, it was burned by the British, then encamped 
on the Neck in retaliation for the attack by the Ameri- 
cans on the house of Enoch Brown, July 8. Both armies 
had outposts on the Neck. The George Tavern was 
south of Lenox Street, about opposite Thorndike Street, 
and Brown's house was between Worcester and West 
Concord Streets, both on the west side. 

We will now take up that part which begins at Boylston 
and Essex Streets and extends to Castle Street. 

Harrison Avenue comes into this section. Edward 
Rainsford came with Winthrop in 1630, and chose his lot 
on the corner of Essex Street. The lane received the name 
of Rainsford Lane in 1708, and extended from Essex to 
Beach Street, in 1804, extended south from Beach Street 
and called "Front Street," and in 1841 "Harrison Ave." 
John Haskins, distiller, lived in Rainsford Lane, and the 
story goes, for which we do not vouch, that he was of a 
deeply religious nature. One day, while the family were 
sitting down to dinner, the distillery which adjoined the 
house was discovered to be on fire. The children started 














^— -, 


kJ ^ 


to go out, but were instantly checked by their father. 
CaUing them to the table he returned thanks as was his 
custom, "The Lord be praised for this and all his mercies. 
Now you may go." 

On the east side of Washington Street, the south corner 
of Essex Street, Garret Bourne was the owner of a house 
and the usual half acre. He soon left the town, and 
Jacob Eliot became the owner. This was the site of the 
famous Liberty Tree, an American elm of unknown age, 
but very old and majestic. The ground imder it was 
called "Liberty Hall." March 31, 1766, the Boston 
Gazette noticed, "This tree was planted in the year 1614 
and pruned by order of the Sons of Liberty February 14, 
1766." Here the effigies of Oliver and Bute were hung 
in 1765, and here the Sons of Liberty had many meetings. 
The British had it cut down during the siege. 

Jacob Eliot acquired more land in the vicinity extend- 
ing to near Bennet Street. Andrew Belcher married 
Hannah Frary, granddaughter of Eliot, for his second 
wife and acquired much property through her. His son 
Jonathan inherited. 

Beach Street comes through this estate. In 1675 
the town ordered William Lane to make a highway twenty- 
four feet broad as he had placed his house on what was 
formerly a town way, and he was granted the land on con- 
dition that he would make a new highway between that 
and the marsh "which he has not done." In 1 708 this was 
called Beach Street. Kneeland Street was a creek, and 
was gradually filled up. In 173 1-2 it was a town way or 
common shore, a passage way or water course belonging 
to the town. Named Kneeland Street for Solomon Knee- 
land, leather dresser, who first bought land here in 173 1-2. 
Harvard Street was laid out through the Belcher land. 
In 1 703 it was a lane leading to the waterside, and it was 


called Hollis Street and Harvard Street until 1 788, when 
it was definitely named Harvard Street. 

Jonathan Belcher lived between Harvard and Bennet 
Streets. He was the only son of Andrew Belcher and 
Sarah (Gilbert), and was born in Cambridge in 168 1-2. 
He was graduated at Harvard College in 1699, and like 
his father he became a prominent merchant in Boston. 
He had been a representative, a member of the council, 
and was an agent of the province in 1728-9 in England, 
and was still there when he received his commission. The 
Daily Journal says: "London, December ist, 1729. On 
Saturday last Jonathan Belcher Esq., who not long since 
was deputed by the General Assembly in New England as 
their agent to this Court in relation to the dispute about 
fixing the salary on the governor of that province for the 
time being, had the honor to kiss his Majesty's hand on 
being appointed Governor of the Province of Massachu- 
setts Bay and New Hampshire in the room of William 
Burnet deceased. After which his Excellency and the 
gentlemen trading to New England dined elegantly at 

Belcher arrived in Boston August 8, as the the News 
Letter tells us. "On Saturday last about the middle 
of the afternoon we were notified by a signal from Castle 
William of the near approach of Governor Belcher. He 
could reach no further that night than the entrance to the 
narrows. Here he was waited upon as soon as possible 
by the Honorable committee from the General Assembly, 
with a number of other gentlemen who were all received 
and entertained with that nobleness and affability which 
is natural to the governor. At the opening of the following 
day was the town of Boston in a voluntary alarm prepar- 
ing for his Excellency's reception and entertainment. The 
troop and militia were collected and arranged in the street 


below the town house in martial order to welcome their 
Captain General. The turrets and balconies were hung 
with carpets and almost every vessel was blasoned with 
a rich variety of colors. At length the great object of our 
hopes and reverent affection was received and congratu- 
lated at the end of Long Wharf. Cannon were discharged, 
bells were ringing etc. While the Pomp was making in 
orderly procession the guns which were bursting in every 
part of the town were answered in mild and rumbling 
peals by the Artillery of Heaven. (After opening the com- 
mission at the Court House, etc.), his Excellency was con- 
ducted to a splendid entertainment at the Bunch of 
Grapes, and after dinner to his own pleasant seat." Here 
he was very hospitable and made a great show in dress, 
equipages, etc. He married Mary, daughter of Lieutenant- 
Governor Partridge, of New Hampshire. 

Belcher was a man of the world, and, on the whole, the 
people were well pleased with him, but he was so un- 
reserved in his censure of persons of whose principles he 
disapproved that he made many enemies. His adminis- 
tration was, on the whole, peaceable. He became involved 
in the dispute as to the boundary between Massachusetts 
and New Hampshire, which was one of the causes which 
led to his dismissal. There was a party in England who 
were against him and who used their influence towards 
his removal. Among them were friends of Shirley. 
Belcher was transferred to New Jersey in 1747, where he 
ruled until his death in 1757. 

Part of William Colburn's field was next to the Eliot 
property. In 1663 he sold to Henry Phillips, and Phillips 
to John Bennet. Bennet laid out Bennet Street, which 
was called a new lane in 1706, and in 1732 "Bennet 
Street." The new street divided the lands of Colburn and 
others, as we have seen, therefore we find them on both 


sides. John Bennet bought a large portion of these fields, 
and his possessions extended to Castle Street. 

On the west side, at the south corner of Boylston Street, 
Jacob Eliot, elder of the church and brother of the Apostle 
Eliot, so called, of Roxbury, chose this as his lot in 1630. 
His daughter Hannah, wife of Theophilus Frary, inherited 
after his death. Their daughter Abigail married Berechia 
Arnold, who succeeded to the estate, and their daughter 
Hannah Arnold married Samuel Welles, and thus the 
property remained in the family until 1805, when it was 
sold to Joseph C. Dyer. It was bought by the Boylston 
Market Association in 1809. Peggy Moore occupied part 
of it as a tavern in 1798. Eliot owned nearly to Dix 
Place on Washington Street, and his land extended back 
to Tremont Street. Eliot Street was laid out by the 
Eliot and Holyoke heirs in 1740, thirty feet wide. Dix 
Place came within the bounds of William Colburn's pos- 
sessions. Elijah Dix, for whom the place was named, 
bought land in 1792. It was called "Dutch lane," or 
"Dutch Yard," in 1798. Next to this lot of Colburn's 
came the land of Richard Bellingham. 

In February, 1673-4, James Penniman swore that about 
four years since, being in a "shed that John Clough had 
set up on a piece of land that he had bought of William 
Talmage, Governor Bellingham came riding by on his 
bay horse and enquired whether this deponent knew who 
had pulled down his fence, and he answered he knew not, 
it was so universally done. Every one almost coming that 
way finding it so dirty would be pulling down the fence to 
mend the highway, at which the governor seemed troubled 
and said, I have given Argola the negro a piece of my land 
fronting to the highway of fifty feet square. He saved 
my life coming to me in a boat when I was in the river 
between Boston and Winnissimmet." 


The next lot to this was sold by the heirs of Bellingham 
to Andrew Belcher in 1711—12. This purchase extended 
to very near Common Street. Belcher laid out Mollis 
Street in 1728, but it was sometimes called ''Harvard 
Street," which led to confusion with its neighbor. The 
street was named after Thomas Holiis, a merchant of 
London, who was a great friend of the colony. January, 
1730— I, Governor Belcher proposed to William Pain that 
if he with others would associate themselves together and 
build a house for public worship, he would make them a 
present of a piece of land. Thus certain persons met at 
the house of Hopestill Foster, who in 1728—9 had bought 
a large piece of land on the north side of Holiis Street 
and built a house, and June, 1731, the Society was given 
"leave to build a Meeting House on the land of Governor 
Belcher on the main street to Roxbury seventy by sixty 
feet, and a timber house near by for the ministry, forty- 
eight by thirty-eight." The church was organized Novem- 
ber 14, 1732. The building was on the south side of 
Holiis Street, and faced Washington Street. The church 
was burned in the fire of 1787, and a new one stood until 
1 8 10, when the wooden meeting-house was advertised for 
sale, and the congregation were to build a larger one in 
brick. The old one was removed to Braintree, where 
it stood until recently, when it was burned. The ministers 
were: Mather Byles, 1732-77; Ebenezer Wright, 1778— 
88; and Samuel West, 1 789-1808. In 1734, "through the 
influence of Governor Belcher Mr. Thomas Holiis, 
(nephew to our great benefactor) has presented a fine 
bell of about 800 pounds weight to the south church in 
Holiis Street," writes a friend to the papers. 

There is a story told of the Rev. Mr. Pierpont, who 
once preached in the church but was obliged to leave be- 
cause of his objection to the storing of intoxicating liquors 


in the basement; one of the deacons, a wine merchant, 
using it as a storehouse. It is said that the parson vented 
his disapproval by the following verses: 

"Spirits above, spirits below, 
Spirits of love and spirits of woe. 
The spirits above are spirits divine, 
The spirits below are spirits of wine." 

Next to the Bellingham estate on Washington Street, 
William Talmage had a pasture which in 1670 he deeded 
to his father-in-law, John Pierce, *'on condition that the sd 
Pierce shall maintain Talmage and his two young 
children." 1672-3 it was a passageway. Common Street 
was soon laid out through this land. In 1672-3 
it was a passageway. In 1735 called Walker 
Street and later Nassau Street, as part of Tremont Street. 
In 1824, received its present name of Common Street. 
It was owned by Thomas Walker whose daughter Abigail 
inherited, and sold off many lots in Common Street. The 
titles are somewhat confused, owing to her frequent 
change of name. She married (i), in 1 700-1, Henry Bridg- 
ham; (2) 1723, John Dixwell; (3) 1727, William Stacey 
of Marblehead, and (4) 1737, John Clough. 

The next pasture was that of John Leverett, and this 
extended back to the water and to the Common. He sold 
a lot extending to Tremont Street, to John Bennet in 1675, 
whose heirs deeded to Robert Weir in 1 760. Elisha Cooke 
inherited part of the Leverett estate and he with others 
deeded to Silence Allen in 1710-11. Warren Street 
comes into Washington Street through this estate, Joseph 
Callender having acquired a large portion, which Jonathan 
Mason and Harrison Gray Otis bought in 1 796, and sold 
off in lots. In 1 795 the street was laid out by Aaron May, 
Joseph Callender, Jr., and Nathaniel Gardner, through 
their lands, and was called Warren Street in 1798. John 


Bennet also bought a large portion of the 
Leverett estate in 1675, and in 1735, on the division 
of his property, Pleasant Street was laid out, 
thirty feet wide on Orange Street, and thirty- 
five feet at the northwest part adjoining George Tilley. 
It received its name in 1751. The land of Leverett, ex- 
tending to near the foot of the Common, Elisha Cooke 
conveyed a portion to George Tilley in 1739. In 1741 
Tilley opened a street of thirty-five or forty feet wide 
through his land at the bottom of the Common, beginning 
at Bennet's land. In 1747 it was called Pleasant Street. 
The ropewalks began here when the land was granted to 
those who had been burned out in Pearl Street. 

February 25, 1780, a lot of land was purchased by cer- 
tain proprietors, of Nathaniel Sparhawk, to erect a school- 
house upon. This was on the south side of Pleasant Street, 
not far from Washington Street. In 1 784 Samuel Cheney 
was appointed master for three months. In 1785 the 
committee of the school "notify the town that they will 
let the school to the town for another year provided a 
master be appointed in room of Cheney." They recom- 
mended Elisha Ticknor. In 1788 he was appointed, and 
a few months later William Basson was made assistant. 
In 1789 it was to be called the South Reading School. 
February 10, 1790, it was voted to "erect a new school 
house for a Reading school agreeable to a new system of 
education adopted by the town. March i, 1 790, they paid 
Deacon Richards thirty pounds for land in Nassau Street. 

Next on Washington Street comes the pasture of Wil- 
liam Colburn extending from a little south of Pleasant 
Street to Castle Street, which his heirs conveyed to Daniel 
Epps, and Epps to Silence Allen in 1 713—14. In 1709 
Castle Street was called "a new way of Stephen Minot's 
called Castle Street." In 1774 in one deed it is called 


Cambridge Street. In 1737 "a stagecoach belonging to 
Alexander Thorpe, stablekeeper, and Isaac Casno, saddler, 
will be ready to set out from Boston to Newport and back 
once a week." Thorpe lived on the northeast side of 
Castle Street and Casno in Dock Square. 

Dover Street was proposed to be laid out in 1804. 
In 1834 it was extended to Tremont Street and called 
Dover Street. January 25,172 7-8, "to be let the Rose and 
Crown near the Fortification. Apply to Gillum Phillips." 

It would be impossible to narrate in a book of this 
nature all the incidents which have happened on the Neck. 
It would take a much larger volume. Count Louis 
Phillippe Segur, in his memoirs, describes the 
entrance of the French army into Boston, to em- 
bark for France under M. de Baudruil Novem- 
ber 1782. "Before we entered Boston our troops 
changed their dress in the open air and appeared in a short 
time in an excellent attire. No review or parade ever dis- 
played troops in better order. A great part of the popu- 
lation of the town came out to meet us. The ladies stood 
at their windows and welcomed us with the liveliest 
applause ; our stay was marked by continual rejoicings, by 
feasts and balls." 

Newell says in his Diary, "Sept, 13, 1774, the 59th 
regiment arrived from Salem and encamped on the Neck. 
In April 1774, workmen began to set out a row of trees 
in each side of the Neck." 

The entry of Washington after the siege in 1776, and 
in 1789, has often been described. 

In 1786 Joshua Witherle, one of the original grantees 
and owner of Lot 10, in the rear of Rollins Street, was mint 
master and erected his works here. Seventy thousand 
cents and half cents were ordered struck off. 

Colonel John May had bought Lot 13, and one of the 



Whistling ''Yankee Doodle" For Trade 


posts of the gallows formed the boundary of this lot, which, 
as "Gleaner" tells us, had the words of ownership printed 
on it. A wag added the words "and portion." "Gleaner" 
also tells another anecdote: 

"Two friends riding into town, one of whom, looking at 
the gallows said jocosely, 'Where would you be now if 
everybody had their deserts?' And the reply was, *I 
should be riding into town alone.' " 

Though of a much later date than that we have been 
considering, brief mention should be made of a familiar 
figure well known a generation ago, who daily tramped 
over the Neck: the cobbler with shoes slung over his 
shoulders and gaily whistling all day the old tune of 
"Yankee Doodle." "Yankee Doodle," as he was called, 
is a character we all like to remember. 

William Dawes, Jr., a tanner, was the one selected to 
carry the news to Concord on the i8th of April, 1775, that 
the regulars were going out, and he was to go through Rox- 
bury while Paul Revere went via Charlestown. We cannot 
end our journey through the streets of old Boston better 
than in the company of this staunch patriot. 



When the lights from the old North Church flashed out, 

Paul Revere was waiting about. 

But I was already on my way; 

The shadows of night feU cold and grey 

As I rode, with never a break or pause. 

But what was the use, when my name was Dawes? 

History rings with his silvery name; 
Closed to me are the portals of fame. 
Had he been Dawes and I Revere 
No one had heard of him, I fear. 
No one had heard of me because 
He was Revere and I was Dawes. 

I am a wandering bitter shade, 
Never of me was a hero made. 
Poets have never sung my praise, 
Nobody crowned my head with bays 
And if you ask me the fatal cause, 
I answer only, "My name is Dawes." 

Tis all very well for the children to hear 
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere; 
But why should my name be quite forgot 
Who rode as boldly and well, God wot? 
Why should I ask? The reason is clear; 
My name was Dawes and his Revere. 

Helen F. More. 



The difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian is ten days 
between 1582 and 1700, and eleven days between 1700 and 1800. The two 
modes of reckoning are called "old style" and "new style." The Gregorian 
style was adopted by England and her colonies in 1752, when September 
third of that year was made September fourteenth. Before that time the 
year began on the twenty-fifth of March. Usually double dating is used 
for the first three months of the year, as is done in this work. 

^ Page 3: Just before Winthrop sailed, a company set sail from Dorchester, 
England, organized by the Rev. John White, and arriving May 30, were the 
first to set up a church in the wilderness. They were the founders of 

2 Page 9: This date is one of great importance in our history. Receiving 
its name September 17, 1630 (old style September 7), it is considered as the 
date of the foundation of Boston. On September 17, 1643 (old style Septem- 
ber 7), representatives of the four colonies, Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut and New Haven, met in Boston for the first time; the forerunner of the 
Federal Constitution of the United States, which was adopted by the general 
convention September 17, 1787. 

3 Page 19: Another great fire in 1787 destroyed the Hollis Street church 
and many houses in the immediate vicinity. 

* Page 231: As the whole town was often called the "neck of land," this 
doubtless refers to the wood cut in every part of the town. 


The following are to be found under the general headings: Bridges, Bury- 
ing Grounds, Churches, Coffee Houses, Docks, Fields, Hills, Indians, Maps, 
Newspapers, Pastures, Points, Ropewalks, Schools, Ships, Signs, Squares, 
Streets, Wars and Wharves. 

Acadia, 36, 37 

Adams, Alexander, 35, 46 

Adams, Elizabeth, 35 

Adams, Hannah, 171 

Adams House, 170 

Adams, John, 73, 171 

Adams, John (the President), 40, 49, 

98, loo, loi, 107, 108, 109, 125, 175, 

192, 204 
Adams, John Quincy, 98 
Adams, Joseph, 192 
Adams, Mary (Fifield), 192 
Adams, Samuel, 192 
Adams, Samuel, Jr., loi, 125, 166, 

17s, 176, 192, 194 
Adams, Thomas, 73 
Addington, Ann (Leverett), 142 
Addington, Elizabeth (Bowen), 143 
Addington, Isaac, 132, 142 
Addington, Isaac Jr., 106, 142, 173 
Addington, Rebecca, 173 
Agent of the Colony, 51, i43) 146, 

147, 236 
Albany, 226 
Alden, William, 200 
Alford, Benjamin, 219 
Alford, Mary, 136, 208 
Alford, Mr., 226 
Alford, William, 136 
Allen, Deacon, 191 
Allen, Elizabeth, 140 
Allen, James, 84, 133, 203, 206, 208, 

209, 218, 224 

Allen, Jeremiah, 100, 206, 209, 218 

Allen, Jeremiah Jr., 100, 218 

Allen, Jeremiah, 3rd, 218 

Allen, John, 202, 206 

Allen, Mary, 219 

Allen, Samuel, 140, 177 

Allen's orchard, 224 

Allen, Silence, 240, 241 

Almshouse, 168, 197, 218, 222, 224 

American House, 84 

Amory, John, 85 

Amory, Thomas, 223 

Amsden, Jacob, 226 

Amusements, see recreations 

Andover, 167 

Andrews, Benjamin, 214 

Andrews, John, 109, 154, 155, 159 

Andros, Edmund, 5, 81, 84, 102, 103, 

Angier, Amos, 177 
Annan, Robert, 187 
Annapolis Royal, 2, 167 
Antinomian troubles, 117, 214 
Antwerp, 127 

Apthorp, Charles Ward, 219 
Argola, the negro, 238 
Argyle, Duke of, 146 
Arnold, Abigail (Frary), 238 
Arnold, Berechia, 238 
Arnold, Hannah, 238 
Arnold, John, 94 
Artillery Company, 40, 115, 118, 120, 

153, I5Q, 205, 229 
Asher, Michael, 205 
Aspinwall, William, 8, 57, 152, 167, 168 




Assistants, Court of, 3 

Atkins, Martha, 67 

Atkins, Silas, 67, 76 

Atkinson, Theodore, 130, 149, 167, 

Austin, Benjamin, 208, 210 
Austin, Benjamin, Jr., 210 
Austin, Daniel, 206 
Austin, Jonathan L., 208, 210 
Austin, Joseph, 39 
Avis, John, 66 
Ayrshire, 146 


Bacon, John, 126 

Badger, Jonathan, 138 

Bahama Islands, 165 

Bailey, John, 133 

Baker, John, 29 

Baker, Mrs., 129 

Baker, Thomas, 74, 139 

Baldwin, Thomas, 67 

Ballard, John, 41, 129 

Balston (Baulston), William, 8, 113 

Bannister, Thomas, 169, 181, 220, 221 

Bant, Gilbert, 57 

Baptists, 66, 67 

Barker, Joshua, 137 

Barnard, Bartholomew, So 

Barnard, Dr., 85 

Barnard, John, 69 

Barnes, John, 182 

Barnstable, So 

Barracks, 23, 154 

Barricado, 19S, 196 

Barrel, John, 170 

Barrel, Joseph, 182 

Bartlett, Thomas, 65 

Bass, Mary, 119 

Basson, William, 241 

Batter, James, 49 

Battery, North, 33, 34, 35 

Battery on Copps Hill, 30 

Battery, South, 191, 194. 

Baudreuil, M. de, 242 

Baxter, Nicholas, 184 

Baxter, Margaret, 184 

Baxter, Mary, 184 

Beacon, The, 82, 197 

Beamsley, William, 36, 46 

Bean, Mr., 185 

Bean, Sarah, 136 

Belcher, Andrew, 139, 143, 23s, 236, 

Belcher, Edward, 8 
Belcher, Governor 65, 139, 143, 164, 

202, 239 
Belcher, Hannah (Frary), 235 
Belcher, Jonathan, 139, 235, 236 
Belcher, Mary (Partridge), 237 
Belcher, Sarah (Gilbert), 236 
Belknap, Abigail (Buttolph), 209 
Belknap, Dr., 10 
Belknap, Jeremy, 187 
Belknap, Joseph, 92, 94, 98, 99, 209 
Belknap, Mary (Williams), 94 
Belknap, Mr., 92 
Belknap, Mrs., 209 
Belknap, Nathaniel, 209 
Bell, Daniel, 200 

Bellingham, Penelope (Pelham), 113 
Bellingham, Richard, 35, 45, 46, 97, 

98, 113, 131, 160, 216, 230, 238 
Bellmont, Lord, 34, 81, 161, 162 
Bendall Edward, 8, 37, 127, 128, 140, 

Bendall, Ephraim, 128 
Bendall, Freegrace, 128, 196 
Bendall, Hopefor, 128 
Bendall, More Mercy, 128 
Bendall, Reform, 128 
Bendall, Restore, 128 
Bennet, George, 54, S9 
Bennet, John, 232, 237, 238, 240, 241 
Bennet, Richard, 48, 54, 59, 61, 68, 69 
Bennet, Samuel, 86 
Bermet, Susannah, 68 
Bentley, William, 70, 106 
Bernard, Governor, 104 
Bernard, Julia, 155 
Bernard, Sir Francis, 155, 157 
Berry, Elizabeth (Franklin), 7s 
Berry, Joseph, 75 



Besant, Sir Walter, 127 

Bethune, George, 172 

Bigelow, Benjamin, 185 

Biggs, John, 8, 97, 206 

Biggs, Mary (Dassett), 97 

Bishop, Nathaniel, 191 

Blackstone, Mr., 3 

Blackstone, William, 6, 148, 149, 197, 

220, 221, 224, 225 
Blair, Samuel, 126 
Blake, John, 170 
Blanchard, Joshua, 206 
Blanton, William, 173 
Blin (Blyn), James, 170 
Blin, Peter, 177 
Block Island, 94 
Blodgett, Seth, 136 
Blott, Robert, 169 
Blowers, John, no 
Blowers, Sampson Salter, 213 
Blowers, Sarah (Kent), 213 
Blount, Anthony, 05 
Bollan, Frances (Shirley), loi 
BoUan, William, 100, loi, 165 
Book of Possessions, 11, 12, references 

throughout the book. 
Boone, Nicholas, 116 
Boott, Kirke, 212 
Borland, Francis, 150, 183 
Borland, Francis Lindall, 150 
Borland, Jane, 89, 150 
Borland, John, 89, 131 
Borland, John Jr., 89 
Borland, Phoebe (Penhallow-Grosse- 

Graves), 183 
Boston Atheneum, log 
Boston, 3, 4, 6, 7, II, 13, iS-17 
Boston, bounds run, 230 
Boston, description of, 4, S, 6, 226 
Boston, first mayor of, 23, 114 
Boston, general appearance of, 23, 24 
Boston Harbor, 82 
Boston, Life in, 23, 24 
Boston Massacre, loi, 125, 135 
Boston Militia, 163 
Boston named, 3, s 
Boston Port bill, 55, 229 

Boston Regiment, 57, 159, 205 

Boston, Siege of, 21, 54, 102, 105, 154 

Boston Stone, 80 

Boston, England, 24, 143 214 

Bosworth, Samuel, 210 

Bosworth, Zaccheus, 8, 109, 152, 219 

Bound, Ephraim, 31, 67 

Bound, James, 31, 67 

Bourne, Garret, 235 

Bourne, Nehemiah, 33, 34, 36, 37 

Boutineau family, iii 

Boutineau, Stephen, 109 

Bowdine, Mrs. 234 

Bowditch, Nathaniel I., 198 

Bowdoin, Elizabeth (Erving), 143 

Bowdoin family, in 

Bowdoin, James, 137, 143, 219 

Bowdoin, William, 170 

Bowen, Elizabeth, 143, 173 

Bowen, Griffeth, 143, 173 

Bowen, Penuel, 184 

Bowers, John, 136, 218 

Bowes and Wharton, 181 

Bowling Green, 91, 98, 199, 201, 209 

Boyce, Antipas, 153, 154 

Boydell, Hannah, 142 

Boydell, John, 141 

Boylston Market Association, 238 

Boylston, Mary, 81 

Boylston, Nicholas, 109 

Boylston, Thomas, 81 

Boylston, Zabdiel, 102 

Boynton, Mr., 96 

Bracket, Abigail, 109 

Bracket, Anthony, 109 

Bracket, Elizabeth (Maylem), 109 

Bracket, Joshua, 109 

Bracket, Richard, 8, 94, 170 

Bracket, Thomas, 106, 234 

Bradford, Joseph, 206 

Bradford, Thomas, 36 

Bradford, William, 139 

Bradley, Nathaniel, 229 

Bradstreet, Governor, 168 

Bradstreet, Mr., 168 

Bradstreet, Simon, 167 

Brainerd, David, 17s 

2 50 


Braintree, 29, loi, 119, 192, 239 

Brattle, Elizabeth (Tyng), 98, 112 

Brattle, Thomas, 98, 99, 103, 112, 170 

Brattle, Thomas Jr., 99 

Brattle, William, 104 

Breck (Brick), Nathaniel, 90 

Breck, Samuel, 229 

Breck, Samuel Jr., 154 

Breedon, Thomas, 61, 62 

Brenton, William, 200 

Brereton, John, 2 

Brewer, Nathaniel, 230 

Brewster, John, 44 

Bricks, Laying of, 11 

Bridewell, The, 197, 222 


Cambridge, S ' 

Charlestown, 229 

Draw, 18, 28 

Mill, 18, 27, 28, .58, 61 

West Boston, 224 
Bridge, Christopher, 103 
Bridge, Thomas, 133 
Bridgham, Abigail (Walker), 240 
Bridgham, Henry, 147, 150, 240 
Bridgham, John, 150 
Bridgham, Jonathan, 148, 150 
Bridgham, Joseph, 150 
Bridgham, Mr., 144 
Brimmer family, iii 
Brinley, Francis, 207 
Bristol, 189 
Bristol, England, 144 
British officers, 103, 138 
British soldiers, 31, 53 
British troops, 67 
Brockton, 167 

Bromfield, Abigail (Coney), 175, 219 
Bromfield, Edward, 219 
Bromfield, Edward Jr., 174, 219 
Bromfield, Frances, 66 
Bromfield, Mary, 175 
Brompton, England, 56 
Brookings, Elizabeth, 36 
Brookings, John, 35 
Brookline, 13, 42 
Brooknell, Charles, 103 

Brooks, Peter C, 223 

Broughton, Thomas, 29, 72 

Brown (Browne), Benjamin, 139 

Brown, Enoch, 55, 208, 234 

Brown, James, 8 

Brown, John, 154 

Brown, Samuel, 234 

Brown, Walter, 141 

Brown, William, 69, 87, 234 

Bryant, John, 136, 138 

Buckminster, Joseph, 100 

Bulfinch, Charles, 65, 1S5, 197, 207, 

Bulfinch, Thomas, 198, 201, 212 
Bull, Elizabeth, 184 
Bull, John, 184, 185 
Bull, Jonathan, 184 
Bull, Margaret, 184 
Bull, Mary, 184 
Bull, Samuel, 184 
Bullivant, Dr. Benjamin, 213 
Bumstead, Thomas, 153 
Bunker Hill, 30, 31, 107, 159 
Burden, George, 26, 112 
Burgess, William, 139 
Burke, Edmund, 22, 156 
Burnaby, Andrew, 5 
Burnet, Gilbert, 162 
Burnet, William, 162, 236 
Burnham, Charles, 138 
Burrill, Samuel, 47 
Burying Grounds: 

Copp's Hill, 29, 30 

Granary, 17, 153, 169, 197, 212, 
217, 223-s 

King's Chapel, 102, 103, 181 

Jewish, 20s 

On the Common, 217, 226 

Quaker, 145 
Bury, England, 50 
Bussey, Benjamin, 182 
Butler, Mary (Alford), 136 
Butler, Matthew, 59, 75 
Butler, Peter, 131, 136 
Butler's Row, 131 
Butler, Stephen, 149 
Buttolph, Abigail, 209 



Buttolph, Mary, 209 

Buttolph, Nicholas, 209 

Buttolph, Thomas, 114, 179, 199, 209 

Button, John, 26, 89 

Byfield, Nathaniel, 189, 207, 216 

Byfield, Sarah (Leverett), 189 

Byles, Dr., 23 

Byles, Mather, 228, 239 

Byles, Mather, Jr., 65 

Cade, George, 208 
Cade, Peter, 208 
Calef, Robert, 180 
Callender, Elisha, 67 
Callender, Ellis, 67 
Callender, Joseph, 223, 240 
Callender, Joseph Jr., 240 
Cambridge, 3, S, 29, 60 
Cambridge, England, 171 
Campbell, Duncan, 19 
Campbell, John, 19, 20, 122 
Campbell, Mary (Clark-Pemberton), 

Campbell, William, 36 
Caner, Henry, 103, 104 
Canton, China, 54 
Cape Cod, 2 
Cape Horn, first Boston vessel 

around, 182 
Capen, Hopestill, 87 
Capen House, 87 
Capen, John, 119 
Capen, Patience (Stoddard), 87 
Cards, Manufacture of, 28 
Carnes College, 205 
Cames, Edward, 205, 210 
Carnes, Joseph, 208 
Carr, Sir Robert, 38, 62 
Carroll, Joseph, 69 
Carter, Ann, 158 
Carter, Edward, 205 
Carter, James, 69, 93 
Carter, Mr., 93 
Carter, Ralph, 17, 45 

Carter, Richard, 158 

Cartwright, Colonel George, 62 

Carwithy, Mrs., 63 

Casno, Isaac, 242 

Castle William, 25, 156, 163, 180, 235 

Caswell, John, 202 

Caucuses, 165 

Centre Haven, 29, 72 

Chaffie, Matthew, 42, 72 

Chamberlain, Thomas, 170 

Chambers, Charles, 205 

Champney, Noah, 41 

Channing, William Ellery, 1S7, 204 

Chardon family, iii 

Chardon, Peter, 85, 200, 221 

Chardon, Sarah (Colman), 200 

Charles I, 2 

Charles H, 51 

Charlestown, 3, 9, 16, 31 

Charnock, John, 71 

Charter, Seal of the, 3 

Charter, The, 3 

Charter, The new, 63, 64 

Chauncey, Charles, 100, 133, 194 

Checkley, John, 114 

Checkley, Mary (Scottow), 45 

Checkley, Samuel, 45 

Checkley, Samuel Jr., 45, 50, 181, 184 

Cheever, Bartholomew, S3 

Cheever, Elizabeth, Zj, 

Cheever, Ezekiel, 106, 107 

Cheever, William Downe, 83 

Chelsea, S, 113 

Cheney, Master, 60, 61 

Cheney, Samuel, 241 

Child, Isabella, 178 

Child, Katharine, 80 

Child, Susannah (Hatch), 178 

ChCd, Thomas, 80 

Children's Mission, 228, 229 

Church, Benjamin, 173 

Church, Benjamin Jr., 180 

Church Green, 184 

Church, Hannah (Dyer), 173 

Arlington, see Federal street 
Baptist, First, 1665, 64, 67 



Baptist, Second, 1743, 31, 67 
Blacks, Church for, 1789, 177 
Brattle Square, 1699-1885, 24, 42, 

84, 99 
Christ, 1722, 65 
Church of England, see King's 

Congregational Church, 1 748-1 785, 

Federal Street, 1727 (Scotch-Irish), 

now Arlington Street, 187 
First, 1630, 15, 18, 25, 78, 84, 116, 

123, 132, 134, 137, 183, 216 
Good Shepherd, 60 
Hollis Street, 1732, extinct, 23, 239 
Huguenot, 1686-1748, iii 
Kmg's Chapel, 1686, 65, 84, 102, 

105, 114, 136, 149. 179, 182, 213, 

Manifesto, see Brattle Square 
Methodist Episcopal, First, 1792, 46 
New Brick, 1721, united with Sec- 
ond, 1779, 50, 54, 60 
New North, 1 714-1863, 17, 18, 59, 

60, 66, 70 
New South, 1 719, reorganized 1867, 

41, 181, 184 
North, see Second, 39, 45 
Old North, see Second 
Old Brick, see First 
Old South, 1669, 31, 64, 70, 124, 

125, 172, 174 
Park Street, 223 
Quaker (Friends Meeting), 1664- 

1808, 102, 145 
St. Paul, 158, 231 
Samuel Mather, 1742-1785, 53, 61 
Sanderaanian, 1 764-1823, 60 
Second (Old North), 1649, united 

with New Brick, 1779, 17, 18, 49, 

SO, 54. 60 
Trinity, 186, 203 
Universalist, First, 1785-1864, 61 
West, 1737, extinct, 199, 203, 204 
City Charter, 23 
City Hall, 94 
Clap, Joanna (Ford), 170 

Clap, Roger, 170 

Clark (Clarke), Elizabeth, 40, 48, 52 

Clark, Elizabeth (Hutchinson), 43 

Clark, Jemima, 42 

Clark, John (minister), 133 

Clark, John (physician), 42, 43 

Clark, John Jr., 42, 43, 52, 53, 56 

Clark, Martha, 107 

Clark, Martha (Saltonstall), 42 

Clark, Richard, 109 

Clark, Robert, 103 

Clark, Samuel, 107 

Clark, Sarah, 146 

Clark, Sarah (Shrimpton), 43 

Clark, Sarah (Crisp-Harris-Leverett), 

Clark, Susannah, 109 
Clark, Thomas (merchant), 39, 40, 

Clark, Thomas (Pewterer), 39, 48 
Clark, William, 55, 56, 109, 146 
Cleeres, William, 170 
Clement, Thomas, 150 
Clerks of the Market, 13 
Cleveland, Colonel, 107 
Clough, Abigail (Walker-Bridgham- 

Dixwell-Stacey), 260 
Clough, Ebenezer, 75 
Clough, James, 229 
Clough, John, 228, 229, 238, 240 
Clough, Rachel (Ruggles), 229 
Cobham, Josiah, 91 
Cochran, Alexander, 152 
Cock, Elizabeth, 41, 57 
Cock, Joseph, 41 
Cock, Susannah, 41 
Coddington family, 24 
Coddington, William, 8, 98, 113 
Codfish, Model of, 180, 202 
Coffee Houses, 16, 34 

American, see British, 138 

British, 141, 201 

British in Queen Street, 98 

Crown, 138. 

Exchange, 139 

Great Britain, 46 

Gutteridge, 139 



North, 34 

North End, 40 

Philadelphia, 40 

Rainbow, 122 
Coffin, Charles, 45 
Coffin, Isaac, 44, 178 
Coffin, IsabeUa (ChUd), 178 
Coffin, John, 178 
Coffin, Lydia, 73 
Coffin, Rebecca, 139 
Coffin, Sarah, 7 
Coffin, Susannah, 178 
Coffin, William, 137 
Coggan, John, 118, 140, 216, 217. 
Coggan, Mr., 119 
Coggeshall, John, 118. 
Colburn, Elder, iii 
Colburn, Mrs., 230 
Colburn, William, 8, 10, 132, 170, 

171, 230, 238, 241 
Cole, Ann (Keayne), 119 
Cole, John, 92, 93 
Cole, Samuel, 8, 39, 116, 119, 207 
Colman, Benjamin, 43, 84, 99 
Colman, Dudley, 137 
Colman, Jane, 85 
Colman, Mr., 83 
Colman, Sarah, 200 
Colman, Sarah ( Crisp-Harris- Lev- 

erett-Clarke), 43 
Columbus, Christopher, i 
Commissioners, Royal, S, 38, 62 
Committee of Correspondence, 166 
Committee of Safety, 166^ 
Common, The, 17, 30^96^^ 112, 152, 

156, 168, 169, 176, 197, 208, 210, 

221, 223, 224, 226, 227, 241 
Conant's Island (Fort Warren), 123 
Concert Hall, 85, 86, 92, 137, 146 
Concerts, 86 
Concord, 74, 244 
Concord N. H., 87 
Conduit, The, 34, 87 
Condy, Jeremiah, 67, 68 
Coney, Abigail, 175 
Coney, John, 57 
Congress, 157, 166, 175 

Constitution, The Federal, 194 
Cook (Cooke), Elisha, 106, 107, no, 

138, 144, 240 
Cook, Elisha Jr., no, 210 
Cook, Elizabeth (Leverett), 144 
Cook, Frances, 85 
Cook, Francis, 85 
Cook, Jane (Middleton), no 
Cook, Mary, 210 
Cook, Richard, no, 199, 210 
Cookson, Samuel, 170 
Coolidge, Joseph, 211 
Cooper, Dr., 23 

Cooper, Judith (Sewall), 99, loi, 215 
Cooper, Katharine (Wendell), loi 
Cooper, Mehitable (Minot), 80, 88, 

Cooper, Samuel, 98, 99 
Cooper, Thomas, 88, 160 
Cooper, William, 88, 98, 99, loi, 215 
Cooper, William, Jr., loi 
Copley, John Singleton, 109, 215, 

Copley, Mary, 182 
Copley, Richard, 182 
Copley, Susannah (Clark), 109 
Copp, David Jr., 73 
Copp, Patience, 73 
Copp, William, 29, 30, 72, 74 
Copper Works, 202, 205 
Coppin, Thomas, 43 
Cordis, Cord, 138 
Cordis, Hannah, 138 
Cordis, Joseph, 138 
Cornewall, Thomas, 113 
Comhill Corporation, 93 
Corwin, Elizabeth (Sheaffe), 31 
Corwin, Jonathan, 31 
Cotton, Ann (Lake), 44, 51 
Cotton, John, 50, 92, 117, 133, 143, 

160, 214, 21S, 216 
Cotton, John 3d, 44, 51 
Cotton, Maria, 215 
Cotton, Sarah, go 
Cotton, Seaborn, 214 
Council, The, 124 
Council Chamber, 83, 84 

2 54 


Council of Safety, 83, 142 

Courser, William, 90 

Court House, 95, 141, 163 

Court of Deputies, 13 

Court, The (General), 9, 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, IS, 16, 17, 19, 22, 31, 38, 
51, 62, 64, 84, 95, IIS, 120, 134, 
13s, 146, 167, 181, 212, 232, 236 

Court, The last meeting of, 168 

Cove, The, 43, 78, 178, 179 

Cove, Bendall's, 27, 33 

Cove, Mylne, 57 

Cow Common, 13, 230 

Cow Keeper, 13, 22s 

Cow Paths, 176 

Cowell, Edward, 109 

Cox, Thomas, 141 

Coytemore, Thomas, 35 

Cradock, George, 97, 104, 207, 216 

Cradock, Mary (Lyde), 216 

Crane, Major John, 229 

Cranwell, John, 8 

Creese, Thomas, 116, 118 

Cricke, Deborah, 84 

Cricke, Edward, 84 

Crispe, Richard, 43 

Crispe, Sarah, 43 

Crocker, Hannah (Mather), 53 

Crocker, Joseph, s^ 

Cromwell, Anne, 149 

Cromwell, Oliver, 36, 56, 115 

Cromwell, Captain Thomas, 149 

Crosby, Joel, 170 

Crosswell, William, 106 

Crow, Christopher, 44 

Croychley, Richard, 97 

CuUemore, Isaac, 48, 92 

Cumraings, Alexander, 126 

Cunnable, Samuel, 200 

Cunningham, Nathaniel, 107, 146, 221 

Cunningham, Ruth, 107 

Cunningham, Sarah (Kilby), 146 

Curwin, George, 87 

Gushing, Charles, 221 

Gushing, Mary (Bronrfield), 175 

Gushing, Thomas, 174, 175, 194 

Gushing, Thomas Jr., 17s 

Gushing, Thomas 3rd, 175 

Custom House, 97, 140, 141, 216, 217 

Cutler, John, 170 

Cutler, Ruth, 170 

Cutler, Timothy, 65 


Daille, Peter, iii, 171 

Dalton, James, 147, 150 

Danforth, Samuel 213 

Daniels, John, 210, 211 

Dankers, Jasper, 134 

Dansy, Anne, 164 

Dansey, Joseph, 164 

Danvers, 165 

Darwin, 16 

Dassett (Dossett), John, 97 

Dassett, Martha,* 97 

Dassett, Mary, 97 

D'Aulnay, 37, 38, 118 

Davenport, Addington, 103, 173, 174 

Davenport, Addington Jr., 182 

Davenport, Eleazer, 173 

Davenport, John, 133, 216 

Davenport, Rebecca (Addington), 173 

Davis, Benjamin, 129 

Davis, Elizabeth, 129 

Davis, George, 37 

Davis, James, 218 

Davis, John, 67, 88 

Davis, Nathan, 70 

Davis, William, 137 143, 145, 20s 

Davy, Humphrey, 208, 216, 224 . 

Dawes, Colonel Thomas, 19S 

Dawes, Judge Thomas, 44 

Dawes, William Jr., 243 

Day, James, 128 

Deane, Thomas, 62 

Deblois, Gilbert, 85, 86, 92, iS3 

Deblois, Louis, 85, 86, 92 

Deblois, Mr., 91 

Decosta family, 162 

Dedham, 162 

Deer Island, s, 105 

Deering, Henry, 130 

Deering, Mary, 131 



Deming, William, 186 

D'Estaing, Count, 86 

Dennison, Daniel, 115 

Depositions, 13, 168 

Dexter, Rev. Mr., 162 

Dike, Roland, 136 

DiUaway, Thomas, 89 

Dinely, Fathergone, 97 

Dinely, William, 96 

Dingly, Amasa, 106 

Dinsdale, John, 186 

Dinsdale, William, 149 

Distilleries, 14, 197 

Diving machine, 128 

DLx, Elijah, 238 

DLxweU, Abigail (Walker-Bridgham), 

DixweU, John, 240 
Doane, Elisha, 137 

Atkinson, 149 

Ballantine, see Creek Square, 87 

Bendall, 126 

Governor, 145 

Oliver, 17, 18, 145, 147, 148 

The, 8, 17, 18, 37, 78, 91, III, 126, 
127, 129 

Scottow, see Creek Square, 87 
Dolbeare, the brazier, 130 
Doll, William, 69 
Domesday Book, 11 
Dorchester, 7, 50, 81, 119, 230 
Dorchester company, 180 
Dorchester Heights, 21 
Dorchester Neck, 7 
Douglass (Douglas), Catharine, 88 
Douglass, Goodman, 58, 72 
Douglass, WilHam, 77, 88 
Dover, N. H., 216, 413 
Downes, William, 90 
Dowse, Elizabeth (Franklin-Berry), 

Dowse, Richard, 75 
Draper, John, 173, 190 
Drew, Jemima (Clark), 42 
Drew, Robert, 42 
Drinker, Edward, 36 

Drown, Shem, 60, 127 

Drury, Hugh, 191, 200 

Drury, John, 200 

Drury, Thomas, 191 

Duck factory, 229 

Dudley, Joseph, 47, 94, no, 157, 158 

Dudley, Judge, 6 

Dudley, Paul, 157, 158 

Dudley, Governor, 39, 134 

Dudley, Sarah, 119 

Dudley (Thomas), 3, 119, 157 

Dugdale, William, 164 

Duggan, John, 130 

Duggan, Mary (Keefe), 130 

Dumaresque, Edward, 64 

Dumaresque family, in 

Dumaresque, Mary, 64 

Dumaresque, Philip, 182 

Dummer, Governor, 100 

Dummer, Jeremiah, 143 

Dummer, Jeremiah Jr., 143 

Dummer, William, 143, 158, 171 

Dunbar, Samuel, 106 

Dunster, Henry, 114 

Dunton, the bookseller, 124 

Dupe, Mr., 60 

Durant, Edward, 170 

Dwight, Jonathan, 170 

Duxbur>', ic6 

Dyer, Giles, 173, 179 

Dyer, Hannah, 173 

Dyer, Joseph C, 238 


Earle. Robert, 94, 181 

East Boston, s 

East, Francis, 185 

Earthquake, The great, 100 

Eckley, Joseph, 126 

Edes, Benjamin, 114 

Edes, Edward, 3 

Edes, Peter, 71 

Edict of Nantes, in 

Eighteenth century. Entrance of, 226 

Eliot, Andrew, 59, 61 

Eliot, Deacon, 178 




Eliot, Hannah, 238 

Eliot heirs, 228, 238 

Eliot, Jacob, 8, 228, 233, 235, 238 

Eliot, John (mmister), 59, 61 

Eliot, John, 235 

Eliot, John, "the Apostle," 238 

Eliot, Margery, 233, 234 

Eliot, Samuel, 217 

Elton, Daniel, 173 

Emerson, William, 133 

Emmes, Aaron, 170 

Emraes, Hannah (Parmenter), 77 

Emmes, John, 67 

Emmes, Luther, 171 

Endecott, John, 2, 3, 212 

Engs, 168 

Epes, Daniel, 232, 241 

Erving, Elizabeth, 143 

Erving, John, 21, 22, 143, 165 

Evered, John, alias Webb, 30, 31, 136 

Everell, James, 80, 91, 131, 136 

Everett, Edward, 47, 73, 100 

Everett, Oliver, 47, 184 

Exeter, 105 

Fairbanks, Richard, 19, 121, 149, 187, 

Fairweather, John, 219 
Fairweather Mr., loi 
Faneuil, Andrew, 97, 121, 132, 141, 

Faneuil, Benjamin, 216 
Faneuil Hall, 17, 21, 87, 106, iii, 

124, 126, 127, 13s 
Faneuil, Mary Ann, 216 
Faneuil, Peter, 116, 126, 127, 138 
Farniseed, John, 63 
Farnum, John, 28 
Farr (Fawer), Barnabas, 43 
Farr, Tolman, 43 
Father Rasle, 172 
Feather Store, 128, 129 
Federal Constitution ratified, 187 
Fence viewers, 13 
Fenn, John, 38 

Fenn, Mary (Hawkins), 38 

Ferry to Boston, 31 

Ferry to Charlestown, 31, 74, 76, 80 

Ferry to Noddles Island, 128 

Ferry to Winnissimmet, 63, 132 

Fessenden, Benjamin Jr., 184 


Gentry or Sentry, 198, 199 

Colburn's, 237 

Gate, 203 

Mylne, 29, 72 

New, 114, 198, 199, 217 

Toward Roxbury, 10 

Windmill, 29 
Fifield, Mary, 192 
Finch, Thomas, 138 
Fire engine, 17, 18 
Fires, 11, 18, 23, 188 
Fiske, John, 193 
Fitch, Benjamin, 203, 213 
Fitch, Thomas, 224 
Flack, Anne, 229 
Fleet, Elizabeth (Goose), 123 
Fleet, Thomas, 122, 123 
Fletcher and Merrett, 141 
Flucker, Lucy, 121, 181 
Flucker, Thomas, 181 
Footpaths, 10 
Ford, Joanna, 180 
Ford, Thomas, 180 
Forsyth, Alexander, 74 
Fort, The, 190 
Fort Warren 123 
Fortification, 32, 163, 190, 229, 230, 

232, 233, 242 
Foster, Abigail (Hawkins-Moore-Kel- 

lond), 55 
Foster, Hopestill, 239 
Foster, John, 54, 68, 177, 178 
Foster, Lydia 54 
Foster, Lydia (Turell), 54 
Foster, Sarah, 54 
Foster, William, 137 
Fourth of July, first celebration of, 

Fourth of July oration, 135 
Fowle, Rebecca, 73 



Fowie, Zachariah, 65 

Fowles, Dorothy, 48 

Foye, John, 140 

Foye, William, 143 

Foye, William Jr., 143 

Fox, John, 93 

Foxcroft, Thomas, 133 

Framingham, 7, 149 

France, 49, 83, 165 

Frankland, Agnes (Surriage), 56 

Frankland, Sir Charles Henry, 56, 140, 

Franklin, Benjamin, 70, 75, 76, 80, 

98, 149, 175 
Franklin, Elizabeth, 75 
Franklin House, 149 
Franklin, James, 20, 98 
Franklin, Josiah, 80, 81, 149 
Franklin medal, 70 
Frary, Abigail, 238 
Frary, Hannah, 235 
Frary, Hannah (Eliot), 238 
Frary, Theophilus, 238 
Freake, Elizabeth (Clarke), 40, 48 
Freake, John, 40, 48 
Freeman, James, 44, 103, 107 
Freeman, Martha (Clarke), 107 
Frizell, Dorothy (Fowles-Parnell), 48 
Frizell, John, 48 
Frobisher, William, 89 

Gage, General, 21, 31, 107, 166, 194 

Gage, Thomas, 165 

Gair, Thomas, 67 

Gallop (Galloupe), Benjamin, 31 

Gallop, John, 31, 42, 56, 57 

Gallows, 24, 226, 231, 232, 243 

Gambrel roofs, 10 

Gardens, 9, 153 

Gardiner, (Gardner), George, 183 

Gardiner, Gideon, 234 

Gardiner, Nathaniel, 106, 240 

Gardiner, Samuel, 206 

Gardiner, Samuel P., 183 

Gatcomb, Philip, 168 

Gay, Mrs. Frederick L., 42 

Gee, Elizabeth (Harris), 72 

Gee, Elizabeth (Thatcher), 72 

Gee, Joshua, 29, 30, 45, 72, 76 

Gee, Joshua Jr., 50, 53, 73 

Gee, Lately, 89 

Gee, Peter, 72 

Gee, Sarah, 73 

George, Captain, 82 

George, II, 162 

Gerrish, Captain, 199 

Gerrish, Samuel, 171 

Gerrish, William, 200 

Geyer, Frederick, 183 

Gibbin, Henry, 232 

Gibbin, Samuel, 232 

Gibbons, Edward, 8, 37, 118 

Gibbs, John, 234 

Gibbs, Mrs., 112 

Gibbs, Robert, 31, 207 

Gibson, Benjamin, 206 

Gibson, James, 137 

Gibson, Mary, 137 

Gibson, Samuel, 106 

Gilbert, Sarah, 236 

Gilbert, the tanner, 186 

Gill, John, 98, 196 

Gill, Moses, 98 

Gillum, Benjamin, 145, 189, 190, 192 

Glasgow, 48, 84 

Glassworks, 1 78 

Gleaner (Nathaniel I. Bowditch), 103, 

198, 243 
Glover, John, 112 
Goddard, Giles, 213 
Goelet, Captain Francis, 137, 154 
Goffe, the regicide, 62 
Gooch, James, 136 
Gooch, James, Jr., 201 
Gooch, John, 131, 136 
Gooch, Mary, 131 
Gooch, Mary (Deering), 131 
Goodwin, Benjamin, 76 
Goodrich, see Guttridge 
Goose (Vergoose), Elizabeth, 123 
Goose, Isaac, 169 
Goose, Mother, 169 



Gordon, Dr., 25 

Gore, Christopher, 200 

Gore, Samuel, 102 

Gorham, Benjamin, 129 

Gosnold, Bartholomew, 2 

Gould, Thomas, 67 

Granary, The 17, 197, 208, 217, 221, 

223, 224 
Grant, Moses, 30 
Grasshopper Vane, 127 
Graves, Phoebe (Penhallow), 183 
Graves, Mr., 9 
Graves, Thomas, 183 
Gray, Benjamin Gerrish, 131 
Gray, Edward, 188, 189 
Gray, Ellis, 60 
Gray, Harrison, 211 
Gray, Martha (Atkins), 67 
Gray, Mary (Gooch), 121 
Gray, Robert, 67 
Gray, William, 73, 77 
Greaton, James, 65 
Green (Greene), Bartholomew, 173 
Green, Elizabeth (Brookins-Grove), 

Green, Gardiner, 215, 216 
Green, Joseph, 106, 107 
Green, Samuel, 36, 173 
Green The, 179 
Grosse, Isaac, 129 
Green, William, 36 
Greenlief, Daniel, 128 
Greenlief, Stephen, 158, 169, 231 
Greenough, David, 177 
Greenough family, 77 
Greenough, John, 32 
Greenough, Newman, 74 
Greenough, Thomas, 56 
Greenough William, 41 
Gregory and Potter, 136 
Gresham, Sir Thomas, 127 
Greenwood family, 36 
Greenwood, Nathaniel, 37, 46 
Greenwood, Samuel, 46 
Gridley, Belief 194 
Gridley, Grace, 194 
Gridley, Jeremiah, loi, 106, 108 189 

Gridley, Return 194 

Gridley, Richard, 181, 185, 186, 189, 

192, 194 
Gridley, Tremble, 194 
Grosse, Clement, 141 
Grosse, Edmund, 39 
Grosse, Phoebe (Penhallow), 183 
Grosse, Thomas, 129 
Grouchy, Mary (Dumaresque), 64 
Grouchy, Thomas James, 64 
Grove, Edward, 36 
Grove, Elizabeth (Brookings), 36 
Grubb, Thomas, 8, 167 
Guard, The, 231 
Gun houses, 102, 225 
Gunpowder plot, 78 
Guns, removal of, 159 
Gunnison, Hugh, 112 
Guttridge, Mary (Buttolph-Thaxter), 

139, 209 
Guttridge, Robert, 139, 209 
Gwin, Thomas, 84 


Haley, Alderman, 215 

Haley, Mary (Wilkes), 215 

Haliburton, Andrew, 234 

HaHfax, 21, 22, 81, 143, 217 

Hall, Hugh, 203 

Hall, Samuel, 205 

Hallowell, Benjamin, 81, 191 

Hallowell, Mary (Boylston), 81, 191 

Hallowell, William, 149, 191 

Halsey, George, 39 

Hamilton, Andrew, 19 

Hamilton, Frederick, 91 

Hamlin, George, 52 

Hancock, Dorothy (Quincy), 220 

Hancock, Ebenezer, 86 

Hancock house, 220 

Hancock, John, 40, 48, 49, 86, 98, 

125, 13s, 166, 17s, 194, 220 
Hancock, Lydia (Henchman), 97 
Hancock, Thomas, 40, 46, 97, 219, 

Handicrafts, 14 



Hard castle, Roger, 124 

Harding, Captain, 14s 

Harding, Robert, 8 

Harker, Anthony, 169 

Harris, Abraham, 232 

Harris, Benjamin, 41, 201 

Harris, Elizabeth, 72 

Harris, George, 147 

Harris, Henry, 103, 213 

Harris, Isaac, 70, 77 

Harris, Mr., 215 

Harris, Robert, 147 

Harris, Samuel, 70 

Harris, Sarah (Crisp), 43 

Harris, Thomas, 200 

Harris, William, 43 

Harrison, John, 192, 194 

Harrison, William, 90 

Hartt, Edmund, 76, 77 

Harpswell, 131 

Hartford, 20 

Harvard College, 51, 52, 87, 114, 122, 

Harwood, Charles, 103 
Haskins, John, 234 
Hatch, Israel, 136, 160, 170, 174 
Hatch, Susannah, 178 
Hatten, George, 103 
Hawkins, Abigail, 55 
Hawkins, Elizabeth, 47, 66 
Hawkins, Hannah, 40 
Hawkins, James, 199 
Hawkins, Mrs., 33 
Hawkins, Thomas (baker), 88 
Hawkins, Thomas (mariner), 37, 38, 

40, 47, 55, 66, 89, 118 
Hay, engine for weighing, 17 
Haymarket, 1 7 
Hayward, John, 19 
Heaton, Nathaniel, 185 
Helver, Jonathan, 69 
Henchman, Daniel, 75, 97, 106, 121, 

Henchman, Daniel Jr., 97 
Henchman, Lydia (Hancock), 97 
Henchman, Nathaniel, 65 
Henderson, Sheriff, 226 

Henry IV, 11 1 

Hibbens, Ann, 147, 231 

Hibbens, Mr., 144 

Hibbens, William, 147, 233 

Hicks, Zachariah, 69, 73, 177 

Higgens, Robert, 75 

Hill, Captain, 83 

Hill, John, 26, 27 

Hill, Mr., 14s 

Hill's dam, 233 

Hill, Valentine, 43, 44, 114, 116, 126, 


Beacon, 5, 28, 197, 198 

Blue, 2 

Broughton, 29 

Gentry, 217 

Century, see Beacon, 105 

Copp's, 28-31, 48, 64, 76 

Com, 190 

Cotton, 7, 177, 198 

Fort, 25, 83, 14s, 186, 188, 189, 
190, 207, 208, 220 

Fox, 22s, 226, 227 

Powderhorn, s 

Sentry, see Beacon, 197 

Snow, 29 

West, 197, 198 

Windmill, 226 
Hiller, Joseph, 113 
Hinckley, David, 218 
Hinckley, John, 114 
Hirst, Mary, 182 
Hitchbone, Benjamin, 136 
Hitchbone, Deborah, 53 
Hitchbone, Nathaniel, 53 
Hoar, William, 167 
Hobby, Ann, 167 
Hobby, Charles, 167 
Hobby, Colonel, 171 
Hobby, Major, 158 
Hobby, William, 167 
Hog Island, 5 
Hog-reeves, 13 

Holbrook, Abiah, 69, 93, 160, 177 
Holbrook, John, 137 
Holbrook, Samuel, 177 

2 6o 


Holland, John, iii, 137 

Hollich (Hollinshead), Ann, 183 

Hollich, Mr., 33 

Hollich, Richard, 183 

HoUis, Thomas, 129, 204, 239 

Holmes, Francis, 137 

Holmes, widow, 137 

Holt, EHzabeth, 50 

Hospitals, 1 54 

Hotel Touraine, 229 

Holyoke heirs, 228, 238 

Holyoke, Samuel, 93 

Hooper, William, 182, 203 

Hopkinton, 56, 104, 140, 149 

Houchin, Jeremiah, 80, 85, 211 

Hough, Atherton, 105, 160, 217 

Hough family, 24 

House of Correction, 222 

House of Commons, 156 

House of Representatives, 84, 164, 

194, 202 
Houses, construction of, 11 
Houses, thatched, 10 
Hovey, C. F. Company, 183 
Howard, Samuel, 200 
Howard, Simeon, 204 
Howe, Captain John, 71 
Howe, General, 21, 22, 50 
Howe, Joseph, 184 
Howell, Henry, 176 
Howen, Robert, 213 
Howlett, John, 88, 89 
Howlett, Susannah, 89 
Hubbard, Thomas, 136, 183 
Hubbard, Tuthill, 20, 136 
Hudson, Francis, 132, 225 
Hudson, Hannah, 115 
Hudson, Mary (Thwing), 115, 142 
Hudson, Mr., 197 
Hudson, Ralph, 115, 142 
Hudson, William, 8, 112, 137, 185, 

209, 218 
Hudson, William Jr., 129 
Hughes, Dr. Wilham, 74 
Huguenots, in 
Hull, Hannah, 169, 172 
Hull, John (merchant), 63 

Hull, John (mintmaster), 30, 169, 172, 

178, 21S 
Hull, Mary (Spencer), 63 
Hull, Robert, 172 
Hull, Thomas, 191 
Hunne, Anne, 213 
Hunt, Harriet, 49 
Hunt, Joab, 48 
Hunt, John, 1S6 
Hunt, Samuel, 106 
Hunt, Samuel, Jr., 70 
Hurd, Jacob, 173 
Hutchinson, Anne, 38, 40, 55, 112, 

113, 117, 119 
Hutchinson, Abigail, 117 
Hutchinson, Chief Justice, 108 
Hutchinson, Colonel, 53, 186, 232 
Hutchinson, Edward, 54, 68, 117, 

189, 190 
Hutchinson, Eliakim, 112, 118, 149, 

165, i8s, 188, 189 
Hutchinson, Eliakim Jr., 118 
Hutchinson, Eliakim, 3rd, 112 
Hutchinson, Elisha, 40, 48 
Hutchinson, Elizabeth, 43 
Hutchinson, Elizabeth (Clarke- 

Freake), 40, 49 
Hutchinson, Elizabeth (Shirley), 118 
Hutchinson, Faith, 38 
Hutchinson, Hannah (Hawkins), 40 
Hutchinson letters, 175 
Hutchinson, Lydia (Foster), 54 
Hutchinson, Richard, 107, 118, 185 
Hutchinson, Sarah (Foster), 54 
Hutchinson, Sarah (Shrimpton), 112, 

Hutchinson, Thomas, 38, 47, 52, 54, 

55, 56, 59, 69 
Hutchinson, Thomas Jr. (the gov- 
ernor), 55, 61, 64, 124, 158, 163, 

Hutchinson, William, 38, 40, 55, 117 

India, 44, 56 
Indian Ocean, 161 



Indians, 6, 42, 44, 94, 123, 125, 226 

Chickatawbut, 2, 6, 123 

Massachusetts, The, 6 

Miantonomo, 123 

Narragansetts, The, 123 

Nipmugs, The, 6 

Pequot nation, 123 

Quittamog, John, 6 

Sagamore John, 123 

Thomas, John, 7 

Wampas, 158 
Ingersol, Joseph, 97, 137 
Ingram, William, 137 
Inns, see taverns 
Ireland, 153 
Ivers, James, 98, 201 

Johonnot family, iii 
Johonnot, Frank, 159 
Jones, Daniel, 136 
Jones, John, 216 
Jones, John Cof&n, 44, 81 
Jones, Mary Ann (Faneuil), 216 
Jones, Thomas Kilby, 185, 206 
Josselyn, John, 4, 26, 123 
Joy, Benjamin, 116, 183 
Joy, John, 220 
Joy, Thomas, 41 

Joyliffe, Ann (Cromwell-Knight), 150 
Joyliffe, John, 144, 150 
Julien, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Pay- 
plat dit, 151 
Julien, restaurateur, 150 
Julien soup, 151 

Jacklin, Edmund, 89 

Jackson, Edmund, 44 

Jackson, Elizabeth, 44, 66 

Jackson, Henry, 223 

Jackson, Jeremiah, 187 

Jackson, Jonathan, 66, 68 

Jackson, Mary, 18 

Jackson, Patrick, 215, 216 

Jackson, widow, 122 

Jail, see prison 

James I, 2 

James II, 82 

Jamestown, 2 

Jamaica, 167, 183 

Jamaica Plain, 81, 156 

Jeffrey, Mary (Wilkes-Haley), 215 

Jeffrey, Patrick, 92, 215 

Jeffries, John, 39, 216, 217 

Jenner, Thomas, 209, 210 

Jepson, John, 58 

Jeykill, John, 213 

Johns, Mr., 136 

Johnson, James, 88, 148, 191, 209 

Johnson, John, 6, 96, 117 

Johnson, Mr., 3 

Johnston, David, 136 

Johnston, John, 65 

Johonnot, Daniel, 171, 187 


Keayne, Ann, 119 

Keayne, Benjamin, 119 

Keayne, Captain, 135, 142, 186, 187 

Keayne, Robert, 119, 185 

Keayne, Sarah (Dudley), 119 

Keefe, Mary, 130 

Keefe, Morris, 130 

Kellond, Abigail (Hawkins -Moore), 

Kellond, Thomas, 55 
Kemble, Henry, 46 
Kent, Sarah, 213 
Kerr, Catharine (Douglass), 88 
Kidd, Captain, 94 
Kidd, William, 161, 162 
Kilby, Christopher, 112, 146 
Kilby, John, 146 
Kilby, Rebecca (Simpkins), 146 
Kilby, Sarah, 146 
Kilby, Sarah (Clarke), 146 
King, Mehitable, 61 
Kingston-upon-Hull, 142 
Kirby, William, 199 
Kirkland, John T., 184 
Kittery, 112 
Kneeland family, 199 
Kneeland, Samuel, 97, 98 



Kneeland, Solomon, 235 
Knight, Ann (Cromwell), 150 
Knight, Macklin, 92 
Knight, Robert, 150 
Knox, Henry, 121, 181, 229 
Knox, Lucy (Flucker), 181 
Knox, Robert, 174 

Lake, Ann, 44, 51 

Lake, Thomas, 44, 58 

Lamb's Dam, 230 

Lambert, William, 31 

Lane, William, 235 

Langdon (Landon), Benjamin, 142 

Langdon, Ephraim, 69 

Langdon, John Jr., 36 

Langdon, Josiah, 70 

Languedoc, 108 

Lathrop, Dr. John, 50 

La Tour, 37, 38, 118 

Laud, Archbishop, 214 

Lawson, Christopher, 35 

Leach, John, 41, 71 

Leach, Sarah (Cof&n), 71 

Leatherland (Lytherland), William, 

180, 22s 
Lech ford, Thomas, 14 
Lee, Benjamin, 31 
Lee, Jesse, 46 
Lee, Joseph, 39 
Lee, Thomas, 39, 43, 70 
Leger, Ann, 170 
Leger, Jacob, 170 
Legg, Captain, 92 
Legislature, division into two bodies, 

119, 120 
Le Mercier, Andrew, iii 
Leonard, George, 27 
Leverett, Ann, 142 
Leverett, Elizabeth, no 
Leverett family, 24 
Leverett, Governor, 142, 190, 202 
Leverett, Hannah (Hudson), 115 
Leverett, Hudson, 115, 207 
Leverett, John (governor), no, 114, 

136, 143, 144, 14s, 189, 194, 201, 

207, 240 
Leverett, John (president), 43, 115, 

Leverett, Knight, 202, 209 
Leverett, Major General, 230 
Leverett, Sarah, 189 
Leverett, Sarah (Crispe-Harris), 43 
Leverett, Thomas, 132, 142, 143 
Lewis, Ezekiel, 106 
Lewis, Stephen C, 65 
Liberty Hall, 235 
Liberty Tree, 17, 79, 235 
Library, The, 121, 135 
Library, The circulating, 141 
Lidgett, Charles, 179 
Lidgett, Peter, 179, 201 
Light Horse Dragoons, 125 
Lillys, Samuel, 46 
Lincoln, Countess of, 4 
Lincoln, General, 67 
Lisbon, 21 

Livermore, Edward St. Loe, 22 
Lloyd (Loyd), Henry, 122 
Lloyd, James, 116, 213 
Lloyd, Mary (Clarke-Pemberton- 

Campbell), 122 
Lobdell, Nicholas, 136 
London, 2, 15, 21, 76, 127, 156, 187, 

204, 215, 236 
London Bookstore, 141 
London Stone, 80 
Londonderry, 153 

Long, Elizabeth (Hawkins), 47, 66 
Long Island, 5 
Long, Nathaniel, 47, 66 
Long Room Club, 98 
Loring, Benjamin, 136 
Loring, Jonathan, 68 
Lotteries, 21 
Louis XIV, III 
Louisburg, siege of, 165 
Love, John, 68 

Love, Susannah (Bennet), 68, 69 
Lovell, James, 71, 88, 106, 188 
Lovell, John, 106, 107 
Lovell, Mary, 107 



Lowe, Goodman, 27 

Lowell, John Jr., 107 

Ludwych, Edward, 137, 139 

Lyde, Byfield, 189, 207 

Lyde, Edward, 82 

Lyde, Mary, 216 

Lyle, Francis, 160 

Lyman, Theodore, 213 

Lynn, 3 

Lynde, Samuel, 128, 202, 203, 211 

Lynde, Sarah, 213 

Lynde, Simon, 92, 104, 128, 202, 211, 

Lynham, George, 61 


Macaulay, 158 

McAdam, Captain Gilbert, 146 

McAdam, Sarah (Kilby- Cunning- 
ham), 146 

Mackintosh, Mr., 79 

Madeira, 40 

Magistrates, 38, 120, 163, 168 

Maine, 20 

Makepeace, Thomas, 28 

Malcolm, Daniel, 48 

Maiden, 99, 100 

Man, William, 112 

Manly, John, 68 

Manufactory, 61, 153, 177 

Bonner, 90, 203, 208 
Burgis, 203 
Carlton, 212 
Copley estate, 208 

Marblehead, 49, 99, 240 

Marchant, John, 188 

Mariott, Catharine, 171 

Market Place, 78, 92, 127 

Markets, 17, 126, 134 

Marquis of Lome, 146 

Marshall, John, 170 

Marshall, Thomas, 31, 32, 80, 86, 88 

Marston, John, 137, 170 

Mascarene family, in 

Mascarene, Jean Paul, 108 

Mason, Arthur, 38, 153, 169, 208 

Mason, Jonathan, 135, 221, 240 

Masonic Temple, 158 

Masons, 86, 154 

Masons' hall, 60 

Massachusetts Bank, 138, 154 

Massachusetts Fields, 2 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 46, 
53, 148 

Massachusetts Indians, 2, 6 

Massachusetts, Province, first gov- 
ernor of, 63, 64 

Massachusetts Province, her history 
in wars, 165 

Massachusetts, State, first governor, 

Massey, Samuel, 94 

Mather, Abigail (Phillips), 52 

Mather, Ann (Lake-Cotton), 44, 51 

Mather, Cotton, 50, 52, 61, 180 

Mather, Dr., 23 

Mather, Elizabeth (Clarke), 52 

Mather, Elizabeth (Holt), 50 

Mather family, 84 

Mather, Hannah, 53 

Mather, Hannah (Hutchinson), 52 

Mather, Increase, 18, 44, 50, 51, 52, 
61, 69, 96, 21S 

Mather, Maria (Cotton), 51 

Mather, Richard, so 

Mather, Samuel, 50-53, 56, 61 

Mather, Sarah (Cotton), 50 

Matson, Thomas, 8, 94, 138 

Mattocks, James, 44 

Mattocks, Samuel, 44 

Maud, Daniel, 105, 106, 216 

Maverick, Samuel, 62 

May, Aaron, 240 

May, John, 40, 242 

Mayhew, Jonathan, 194, 203, 204 

Maylem, Elizabeth, 109 

Maylem, Joseph, 109 

Maylem, Mark, 109 

Mayo, John, 6, 50, 61 

Mechanics club, 53 

Medford, 3, 34, 140 

Medical College, 177 



Meeres, James, in, 128 

Meeres, John, 93 

Meeres, Robert, 200, 213 

Meeres Samuel, 200, 234 

Mein, John, 141 

Melodeon, 171 

MelvU, Allan, 201, 202 

Melvil, David, 94 

Melvil, Thomas, 201 

Merrett and Fletcher, 141 

Merry, Walter, 33, 58, 72, 76, 77 

Messenger, Henry, 104 

Mico, John, 109 

Middlecott, Jane, 10 

Middlecott property, 43 

Middlecott, Richard, 211 

Middlesex canal, 28 

MUes, John, 67 

Mill Creek, 18, 26, 27, 28, 32, 34, 45, 

46, 83, 86 
Mill Pond, 28, 63, 67, 78, 19S, 200 
Mill Pond Corporation, 28, 198 
Mill Stream, 76 
Millard, Thomas, 160, 219 
Mills, 27, 28, 223 
MDls, Edward, 93 
Milton, 56, 124, 215 
Minot, John, 97 
Minot, Judge G. R., 10, 148 
Minot, Mary (Dassett-Biggs), 97 
Minot, Mehitable, 88, 160 
Minot, Mr., 230 
Minot, Stephen, 24, 132, 210, 214, 233, 

Minot, Stephen, Jr., 234 
Mint, The, 178, 242 
Mistick Neck, 123 
Molineux, William, 219 
Monk, Elizabeth (Woodmancy), 122 
Monk, George, 121, 122 
Monk, Lucy (Turner), 121 
Montague, William, 65 
Moody, Joshua, 133 
Moorcock, Nicholas, 138 
Moore, Abigail (Hawkins), 55 
Moore, Samuel, 55 
Moores, Samuel, 116 

Moorhead, John, 187 

Mortimer family, 57 

Mortimer, Richard, 61 

Morton, Joseph, 170 

Morton, Perez, 170 

Moulton, Mrs., 170 

Mount Pleasant, 221 

Mount Vernon Proprietors, 198, 207- 

209, 221 
Mount Wollaston, 2, 5, 13 
Mountford, Benjamin, 141 
Mountford, Edmund, 54 
Mountford, John, 41 
Mountford, Jonathan, 54 
Mountford's Corner, 54 
Mountjoy family, S7 
Mountjoy, George, 38 
Moving pictures, 148 
Muddy River (Brookline), 4, 13 
Munnings, George, 94 
Munt, Thomas, 199 
Murray, James, 102 
Murray, John, 61 
Mylam, John, 57 
Myles, Anne (Dansy), 104, 216 
Myles, Samuel, 103, 104 
Myles, Samuel Jr., 103, 216 

Naval engagement, the first on the 

coast, 42 
Neck, The 

Accident on, 97 

British and American encampments 
on, 234 

Clay pond, 232 

descriptions of, 97, 229 

fortifications on, 232 

gallows, 231, 232 

gate and stile, 231 

guard, 231 

land conveyed, 232 

salt marsh, 232 

salt works, 232 

suicide buried, 232 

twenty-ninth regiment encamped 
on, 242 



whole peninsular so called, 230 
windmill, 232 

Negroes, 15 

Nelson, Elizabeth (Tailer), 83 

Nelson, John, 83 

Nevis, island of, 82 

Newbury, 167 

New England, 2, 23, 26, 96, 236 

New Hampshire, 140, 237 

New Jersey, 237 

Newell, Timothy, 204, 219, 242 

Newgate, John, 211 

Newgate, Nathaniel, 213 

Newgate, Sarah (Lynde), 213 

Newman, John, 65 

Newman, Robert, 65 

Newman, Thomas, 65 

Newspapers: 20 

Boston Chronicle, 21, 210 
Boston Evening Post, 20 
Boston Evening Transcript, 198 
Boston Gazette, 20, 96, 98, 142, 

226, 23s 
Boston Gazette or Country Jour- 
nal, 21 
Boston Gazette or Weekly Adver- 
tiser, 20 
Boston News Letter, 6, 7, 19, 20, 

48, S3, 122, 162, 173, 236 
Boston Weekly Advertiser, 21 
Boston Weekly Post Boy, 20 
Independent Advertiser, 20 
Massachusetts Spy, 21, 65, 87 
N. E. Courant, 20 
N. E. Weekly Journal, 20 
Public Occurrences, 19 
Weekly Rehearsal, 20, 190 

Newton, Hannah (Adams), 171 

Newton, Hibbert, 171 

Newton, Thomas, 171 

Nicolls, Colonel Richard, 62 

Nicholson, Colonel, 103 

Noble, James, 229 

Noble, Rachel (Ruggles-Clough-Sav- 
age), 229 

Noddles Island (East Boston), 5, 36, 
103, 128 

Norridgewock, 172 

North Battery, 33, 35 

North end playground, 69 

North-enders, 78 

North, Stephen, 89 

Norton, John, 124, 133 

Norton, Mary, 124 

Norton, Mr., 105 

Nova Scotia, 2, 22, 108, 154, 171, 213 

Nowell, Increase, 167 

Nowell, Samuel, 168 

Noyes, Dr., 86 


Dates, Dr., 96 

Ochterlony, David, 44 

Ochterlony, David Jr., 44 

Ochterlony, Katharine (Tyler), 44 

Odins buildings, 127 

Odlin, John, 224 

Odling, Elisha, 36, 138 

Old Corner Bookstore, 117 

Oldham, John, 42 

Oliver, Andrew, 189, 235 

Oliver, Andrew Jr., 226 

Oliver, Daniel, 195 

Oliver, Elder, 160 

Oliver, James, 130, 138, 225 

Oliver, Nathaniel, 106 

Oliver, Peter, 122, 147, 148, 186, 225 

Oliver, Thomas, 8, 122, 147, 185 

Orange, widow of Robert, 66 

Orme, Sarah, S2, 

Orrak, David, 73 

Orrak family, 74 

Osborn, John, 43 

Otis, Harrison Gray, 97, 121, 205, 207, 

221, 240 
Otis, James Jr., 78, 98, loi, 107, loS, 

Otis, Ruth (Cunningham), 107 
Oxenbridge, John, 133, 135, 216 
Oxnard, Thomas, 154 

Packers of fish and flesh, 13 
Paddock, Adino, 153, 159 

2 66 


Paddock elms, 153 

Paddy, WilUam, 58 

Page (Paige), Ann, 187 

Page, Nicholas, 187, 215 

Pain, William, 239 

Paine, Robert Treat, 106 

Painter, Thomas, 225 

Palin, James, 122 

Palmer, Abigail (Hutchinson), 118, 

Palmer, John, 181, 186 
Palmer, Thomas, 118, 188 
Parker, Daniel, 136 
Parker, Jane, 169 
Parker, John, 169 
Parker, Richard, 115, 200 
Parker, Sally (Stone), 136 
Parker, Samuel, 182 
Parkman, Bridget, 35 
Parkman, Elias, 35, 46 
Parkman, Elizabeth (Adams), 35, 46 
Parkman, Samuel, 207 
Parkman, WUliam, 32, 35, 46 
Parliament, 193 
Parmenter, Hannah, 77 
Parmenter, Joseph, 77 
Pamell, Dorothy (Fowles), 48 
Pamell, Francis, 48 
Parsonage, Brattle Square Church, 97 
Parsonage, Old South Church, 123 
Partridge, Governor, 237 
Partridge, Mary, 237 
Partridge, Nehemiah, 148 

Allen, 206, 207, 208, 209 

Baker, 74 

Barren, 185 

Bennet, 69, 75 

Bulfinch, 211 

Buttolph, 209 

Chambers, 205, 206 

Deane, 168 

East, 220, 221 

Fairbanks, 188 

Fitch, 226 

Gerrish, 199-201 

Gibbs, 31 

Greenlief, 185 

Hawkins, 199 

Houchin, 211 

Hutchinson, 149, 188 

Leverett, 240 

Lynde, 205 

Meeres, 200 

Newgate, 211 

on the Neck, 231 

Parker-Gerrish, 200 

Phillips, 207-209 

Richards, 59 

Rowe, 183 

Scottow, 210 

Sewall's elm, 168, 220 

Sewall on Summer Street, 168, 182 

Shrimpton, 59 

Stanley, 59, 68, 72 

Talmage, 240 

Turner, 185, 218 

Webb, 186 
Pateshall, Robert, 171 
Patten, William, 89 
Paxton Letters, 175 
Payson, Samuel, 106 
Peace of Ryswick, 83 
Pearce, see Pierce 
Pease, Henry, 8, 91 
Peck, Thomas, 146, 184 
Pecker, James, 229 
Pecker, Rachel (Ruggles-Clough-Sav- 

age-Noble), 229 
Pejepscot Company, 131 
Pelham, Mary (Copley), 182 
Pelham, Henry, 23 
Pelham, Mr., 86 
Pelham, Penelope, 113 
Pelham, Peter, 182 
Pell, Goodman, 149 
Pell, WiUiam, 149 
Pemberton, Benjamin, 129 
Pemberton, Ebenezer, 122, 125 
Pemberton, Ebenezer, Jr., 60 
Pemberton, Joseph, 129 
Pemberton, Mary (Clarke), 122 
Pemberton, Thomas, 27, 46, 95, 153, 

190, 229 



Penhallow, Phoebe, 183 

Penhallow, Samuel, 183 

Penn, Elder, 218 

Penn (Pen), James, 8, 105, 116, 149, 

206, 208, 217, 218, 233 
Penn, Mr., 102 

Penniman, James, 8, 172, 238 
Pepperrell, Mary (Hirst), 182 
Pepperrell, Miriam, 44 
Pepperrell, William, 165, 182 
Pepys, Richard, 221 
Percy, Earl, 155 
Percy, Lord, 155 
Perkins, Thomas H., 223 
Perkins, Mr., 93 
Perry, Arthur, no 
Pest House, 207 
Philadelphia, 7, 61, 114, 155 
Phillips, Abigail, 52 
Phillips, Abigail (Bromfield), 219 
Phillips, Deacon, 50 
Phillips, Eleazer, 174 
Phillips, Ensign, 144 
Phillips, Gillum, 242 
Phillips heirs, 114 

Phillips, Henry, 133, 138, 230, 237 
Phillips, J., 130 

Phillips, John, 52, 57, 114, 141, 209 
Phillips, John (biscuit maker), 57 
Phillips, John (the mayor), 23, 114 
Phillips, Samuel, 138, 232 
Phillips, Susannah (Stanley), 59 
Phillips, Thomas. 45 
Phillips, William, 29, 30, 38, 59, 63, 

72, 116 
Phillips, William (merchant), 147, 

188, 216, 219 
Phillips, William, Jr., 216 
Phillips, Zachariah, 207 
Phipps, Mary (Spencer-Hull), 63 
Phipps, Sir William, 36, 63, 64, 74, 

Phipps, Spencer (Bennet), 36, 64 
Pickering, George, 47 
Pierce (Pearce), John, 169, 240 

Pierce, , 52 

Pierce, Joseph, 77 

Pierce, Richard, 19 
Pierce, Samuel, 169 
Pierce, William, 8, 15, 140 
Pierpont, Rev., 239, 240 
Pigot, General, 220 
Pilgrim, Captain Elias, 57 
Pilgrims, 2 

Pinfold, see Pound, 224 
Piscataqua, 20 
Pitcairn, Major, 54 
Pitt, William, 156, 165 
Pitts, James, 122, 212 
Plymouth, 2, 20, 58 

Barton, 202, 222 

Blackstone, 3, 198, 225 

Commercial, 223 

Ferry, 72 

Gallop, 27, 33 

Hough, 202 

Hudson, 32, 76, 77 

Merry, 32 

Pullen, 118 

Wuidmill, 178, 180 
Pollard, Ann, 221 
Pollard, Benjamin, 216 
Pollard, John, 152 
Pollard, Jonathan, 152, 219 
Pollard, William, 152, 221 
Pomroy family, 128 
Poole, John, 146 
Pope, Ephraim, 169 
Pope's Day celebration, 78 
Pordage, Mrs., 213 
Pormont, Philemon, 105, 106, 116 
Porter, Captain David, 40 
Post masters, 20, 183 
Post office, 20 
Postal arrangements, 19 
Posts, Eastern, Southern, Western, 20 
Potter and Gregory, 136 
Pound, The, 224 
Powder House, 208 
Powell, William, 228 
Pownall, Governor, 104 
Pownall, Thomas, 165, 166 
Pratt, William, 212 

2 68 


Preble, Jedidiah, 24 

Prescott, Judge, 180 

Preston, loi 

Price, Elizabeth, 104 

Price, Elizabeth (Bull), 104, 184 

Price, Ezekiel, 104 

Price, Roger, 103, 104, 182, 184 

Prince, Job, 206 

Prince of Orange, 82, 162 

Prince, Thomas, 125 

Prison (gaol, jail), 78 

Printing press, the first in Boston, 

Probate office, 94, 9S 
Proctor, Edward, 41, 43, 57 
Proctor, Edward, Jr., 57 
Proctor, Edward, 3rd, 57 
Proctor, Elizabeth (Cock), 41, 57 
Proctor, John, 66, 69 
Proctor, John Jr., 67, 6g, 93 
Proctor, Mrs., 20 
Prout, Joseph, 57 
Prout, Timothy, 57. 168 
Providence, isle of, 15 
Providence, 22, 225 
Province House, 155, 160, 163, 164, 

Public Garden, 225, 227 
Pulling (Pullen) family, 57 
Pulling, Richard, 89 

Cage, The, 96 

Pillory, The, 96, 13S 

Whipping Post, 96, 135, 226 
Puritans, 2, 24, iii, 220 
Pym, John, 45 
Pynchon, John 

Quakers, 41, 43, 231 
Queen Anne, 158 
Queen Elizabeth, 127 
Quick, Mrs. Alice, 123 
Quincy, 2 

Quincy, Dorothy, 220 
Quincy, Edmund, 220 

Quincy family, 188 
Quincy, Henry, 169 
Quincy, Josiah, 23 
Quincy, Mary, 169 
Quincy, Mrs. E. S., 24 


Radcliffe, Robert, 103, 104 

Rainsford, Edward, 8, 234 

Rainsford, Mr., 178 

Rand, William, 130 

Randle, William, 98 

Randolph, Edward, 83, 90 

Randolph, Mr., 90 

Rasilli, 37 

Ravenscroft, Samuel 84 

Rawlins, brother, 58 

Rawson, Edward, 153, 167, 168 

Ray, Caleb, 94 

Read, John, 77 

Record Commissioners, 198 

Recreations, 15, 24, 30, 78, 79, 133, 

Regiments, Sam Adams', 125 
Representative government begins, 134 
Revere (Rivoire), Apollos, 53 
Revere, Deborah (Hitchbone), 53 
Revere family, iii 
Revere House, 212 
Revere, Paul, 52, 53, 54, 65, 74, 77, 

98, 243 
Revere, Sarah (Orne), 53 
Revolution, The, 65, 76, 99, 109, 

190, 193, 194, 204 
Reynolds, Robert, 148, 149, 171 
Rhode Island, 22, 39, 113, 117, 220 
Rhodes, Jacob, 36 
Rice, Robert, 8 
Richards, Ann (Winthrop), 47 
Richards, Deacon, 241 
Richards, Elizabeth (Hawkins-Long- 

Winthrop), 66 
Richards, John, 47, 59, 66 
Richards, Major, 59 
Richards, Thomas, 47 
Richardson, Amos, 186 
Richardson, John, 230 



Ridgeway, Joseph, 210 
Roberts, Nicholas, 136 
Robertson, David, 68 
Robie, Joseph, 60 
Robie, William, 60 
Robinson, John, 138 
Roe, Stephen, 103 
Rogers, Daniel Dennison, 211, 219 
Rogers, Simon, 234 
Ropewalks, 19, 188, 197, 199, 206, 
208-10, 224, 227, 241 

Austin, 209 

Barton, 192, 195 

Harrison, 192 
Rowe, John, 147, 192 
Rowe, Mr., 183 
Roxbury, 3, 4, 16, 72, 59, 96, 97, 

157, 158, 165, 228, 231, 233, 234, 

Royal commissioners, S 
Royal Exchange, London, 127 
Ruck, Mr., 58 
Ruck, Thomas, 74, 77 
Ruddock, Abiel, 77 
Ruggles, Rachel, 229 
Rumford, Count, 87 
Russell, James, 87 
Russell, John, 67 
Russell, Mrs., 124 
Russell, Thomas, 90, 179, 206 

Saco, 174 

Saffin, John, 91, 168 

St. Andrews Lodge, 88 

St. Augustine, i 

St. Croix river, 37 

Salcom Regis, England, 180 

Sale, John, 130 

Salem, '2, 3, 164, 212 

Salisbury, Benjamin, 146 

Salisbury, Josiah, 172 

Salisbury, Nicholas, 172 

Salisbury, Samuel, 172 

Salisbury, Stephen, 172 

Salter, Charles, 89 

Salter, Thomas, 169 

Salter, widow, 191 
Salter, William, 94 
Saltonstall, Dorothy (Fowles-Pamell- 

Frizell), 48 
Saltonstall, Martha, 42 
Saltonstall, Mary (Cook), 210 
Saltonstall, Nathaniel, 48 
Saltonstall, Richard, 42, 210 
Sandeman, Robert, 60, 141 
Sanford, John, 190 
Sargent, Lucius Manlius, 155 
Sargent, Mary (Spencer-Hull-Phipps), 

63, 160 
Sargent, Mehitable (Minot-Cooper) , 

88, 160 
Sargent, Peter, 63, 88, 160, 161 
Savage, Arthur, 229 
Savage, Ephraim, 116, 131, 201, 202 
Savage, Faith (Hutchinson), 38 
Savage, Habijah, 45 
Savage, Mary (Symmes), 39 
Savage, Rachel ( Ruggles- Clough), 229 
Savage, Thomas, 38, 39, 40, 116 
Sawpit, 45, 134 
Scarlett, Captain, 48 
Scarlett, John, 46 
Scarlett, Samuel, 39 
School Committee, 106 
School house, loj, 106 
School house, The Eliot, 73 
School Inspectors, 106 

Carter, 93 

Centre Writing, 93 

Latin, 44 

Middle or Writing, 60 

Navigation, 41 

North Latin or Grammar, 42, 47, 
60, 69 

North Writing, 53, 55, 67, 68, 69, 
70, 73 

on the Common, 93, 225 

South Reading, 241 

South Writing, 176 

Spinning, 153, 154 
Scollay's Building, 92, 93, 104 
Scollay, William, 93, 104, 202 

2 70 


Sconce, The, 192, 194, 196 
Scott, Robert, 139, 144, 185 
Scottow, Joshua, 6, 45, 62, 86, 93, 


Scottow, Mary, 45 

Scottow, Thomas, 105 

Sealers of leather, 13 

Sears, Alexander, 60 

Sears, David, 218, 219 

Sedgwick, Robert, 116 

Sedgwick, Sarah, 115 

Selby, Thomas, 139 

Selectmen, 13, iii, 135, 197, 224 

Segur, Count Louis Phillippe, 242 

Sendell, Samuel, 91 

Sewall, Hannah (Hull), 30, 172, 215 

Sewall, Joseph, 125 

Sewall, Judge, 6, 231 

Sewall, Judith, 215 

Sewall, Samuel, 18, 29, 30, 32, 36, 41, 
47, 64, 72, 80, 82, 90, 92, 93, 96, 
99, 106, 107, 122, 125, 126, 136, 
161, 168, 169, 172, 178, 179, 215, 
220, 233 

Sewall, Samuel, famous walk with 
Bradstreet, 168 

Sewall, Samuel, Jr., 176 

Sharpe, Thomas, 8, 10 

Shattuck, Dr. George C, 83 

Shaw, Francis, 54 

Shaw, John, 30 

Shaw, Samuel, 54 

Shawmut (Boston). 3, 4, 6 

Sheaffe, Elizabeth, 31 

Sheaffe house, 178 

Sheaffe, Jacob, 30, 93, 140, 160, 177 

Sheaffe, Margaret (Webb), 30 

Sheaffe, Mehitable, 88 

Sheaffe, Mehitable (Sheaffe), 31 

Sheaffe, Samson, 31, 89, 141, 160 

Sheaffe, Susannah (Coffin), 178 

Sheaffe, WUliam, 178 

Shean, , 226 

Shellcock, Robert, 139 

Sherman, Mrs., 120 

Sherman, Richard, 149, igo 

Sherman, Samuel, 231 

Sherwin, Richard, 73 
Shipbuilding, 34 
Shipyards, 76, 77 
Ships and vessels: 

Adventure galley, 161 

Barks, 34 

Blessing of the Bay, 34 

Centurian, The, 157 

Chesapeake, The, 23 

Constitution, 76, 77 

Hoys, 34 

Ketches, 34 

Lee, The, 68 

Lighters, 34 

Liberty, The sloop, 40, 48 

Mary Rose, The, 128 

Old Ironsides, 77 

Pinnaces, 34 

Romney, man of war 

Rose, The frigate, 82 

Shallops, 34 

Shannon, The, 23 

Sloops, 34 

Trial, The, 34 37 
Shippen, Edward, 43 
Shirley, Elizabeth, 118 
Shirley, Frances, 100 
Shirley, Governor, 100, 104, 118, 165, 

166, 203 
Shirley, William, 164 
Shoare, Samson, 75 
Shrimpton, Henry, 36, 38, 59, 112, 

Shrimpton, Mary (Hawkings-Fenn), 

Shrimpton, Samuel, 68, 136, 185 
Shrimpton, Samuel Jr., 136 
Shrimpton, Sarah, 112, 185 
Shute, Governor, 141, 161, 172 
Shute, Samuel, 158 

Bible, 116 

Bible and Three Crowns, 46 

Black Boy, 44, 124 

Blue Anchor, 141 

Blue Ball, 80, 89 

Blue Dog and Rainbow, 91, 205 



Boot, 44, 172 

Buck, 171 

Buck's Head, 90 

Cabbinett, 98 

Case of Drawers, 35 

Chest of Drawers, 61 

Child, Thomas, 80 

Clock Dial, 124 

Cornfields, 90, 91 

Cross, 44 

Cross Guns, 45 

Cross Keys, 124 

Crown, 90 

Crown and Bible, 123 

Crown and Comb, 86 

Crown and Gate, 124 

Eagle, 174 

Elephant, 142 

Good Samaritan, 65 

Green Wigg, 61 

Hand and Pen, 141 

Hoop-Petticoat, 141 

Heart and Crown, 123 

Kings Arms, 61 

Lighthouse, 141 

Magpipe, 141 

Plume and Feathers, 73 

Pope's Head, Mr., 74 

Seven Golden Stars, 45 

Sloop, 44 

Stationers Arms, 130, 141 

Sun, 45 

Tanners and Curriers and Ox 

Head, 147 
Three Crowns, 43, 171 
Three Kings, 123 
Three Nuns, 124 
Three Shuttles, 187 
Three Sugar Loaves and Canisters, 

Timothy Wadsworth, 41, 42 
Two Jars and Four Sugar Loaves, 


Unicom, 130 

Union Flag, 49, 191 
Simpkins, Rebecca, 146 
Simpson, Jane (Borland), 88 

Simpson, Jonathan, 89 

Simpson, SavU, 149 

Skillings, Samuel, 71, 77 

Skillings, Simeon, 71, 77 

Skillman, Isaac, 67 

Skinner, Francis, 74 

Small Pox, 102, 142 

Smibert, John, 94 

Smibert, Mary (Williams), 94 

Smith, Aaron, 70, 106 

Smith, Elizabeth, 138 

Smith, Francis, 137 

Smith, James, 35, 102, 153 

Smith, John, 2 

Smith, Mr., 79 

Smith, Richard, 136, 139 

Smith, Seth, 94 

Snelling, William, 74 

Snow, Thomas, 177, 17S 

Society for the Preservation of An- 
tiquities, 205 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, 204 

Solomon, Isaac, 205 

Somerset Club, 218, 221 

Sons of Liberty, 235 

South Battery, 191, 194 

South-enders, 78 

South Station, 180 

Southac, Captain, 102 

Southac, Cyprian, 212 

Sparkawk, Nathaniel, 241 

Spencer, Mary, 63 

Spencer, Roger, 63 

Spermacetti Works, 195 

Spinning House, 19s 

Spoor, John, 150 

Sprague, Dr. John, 169, 172 

Sprague, Judge, 49 

Spring Gate, 12 

Spring House, 213 

Spring, The, 3, 8, 148 

Adams, 99 

Bowdoin, 92, loi, 199, 203 
Brattle and Brattle Close, 99, 100, 
loi, 102, 14s 



Clarke, see North 

Congress, 144 

Creek, 86 

Court, see Congress, 144 

Dock, 8, 20, 86, 90, 118, 126, 129, 
144, 146, 151, 242 

Exchange Alley, see Congress, 144 

Faneuil Hall, 129 

Frizell, see North, 49 

Half Square Court, see Congress, 
142, 144 

Hay market, 28 

Liberty, 148 

Market, see North, 49 

North, 17, 18, 49, SZ, 74 

Post Office, 148 

Pemberton, 8, 198, 212, 214, 216 
Stackpole House, 151 
Stackpole, William, 129, 138, 151 
Stacey, Abigail (Walker-Bridgham- 

Dixwell), 228, 240 
Stacey, Joseph, 232 
Stacey, William, 240 
Stage coach, 85, 242 
Stamp Act, 79, 156, 190, 193 
Stanbury, Thomas, 128 
Staniford, John, loi, 203, 205 
Stanley, Christopher, 54, 58, 59, 68 
Stanley, Susannah, 59 
State House (old), 11, 135 
State House (new), 135, 208, 219, 

221, 229 
Stebbins, John, 89 
Stebbins, Rebecca (Hawkins), 89 
Stevens, Daniel, 45, 98, 201 
Stevenson, John, 149 
Stillman, Samuel, 64, 67 
Stoddard Anthony, 39, 136 
Stoddard, Mary (Symmes-Hutchin- 

son), 39 
Stoddard, Mehitable (Minot-Cooper- 

Sargent), 160 
Stoddard, Patience, 87 
Stoddard, Simeon, 160, 183 
Stoddard, Thomas, 32, 87 
Stone, Robert, 136 
Stone, Mr., 136, 1S4 

Stone, Sally, 136 

Story, George, 120 

Story, William, 141 

Stoughton, Israel, 81 

Stoughton, Mrs., 199 

Stoughton, Rebecca, 81 

Stoughton, William, 64, So, 81, 91 

Street commissioners, 13 

Streets first laid out, 10, 26, 230 


Adams (Kilby), 146 

Alden, 200 

Allen, 206 

Allen's highway (Poplar), 206 

Alston, 211 

Anderson, 209 

Ann (North), 11, 34, 44, 45, 46, 98 

Arch, 182 

Ashburton Place, 211, 212, 214, 218 

Atkinson (Federal), 186 

Atkinson (Congress), 146, 187 

Atlantic Avenue, 180, 195 

Auchmuty lane (Essex), 17S 

Avery, 159, 170 

Back (Salem), 63 

Baker's alley, S4 

Ball's alley (North Centre), 58 

Bang's Alley, 146 

Bannister Lane (Winter), 169, 176 

Baptist Alley (Stillman), 67 

Barracks Lane (Matthews), 188 

Barton, 200, 202 

Bath, 148 

Battery March, 5, 9, 34, 190, loi 

Battery, 35, 46 

Beach, 234, 235 

Beach (Essex), 178 

Beacon, 114, 168, 152, 169, 175, 
loi, 198, 207, 210, 211, 214, 217, 
218, 221, 222, 224, 225 

Bedford, 173, 179, 183 

Bedford Place, 183 

Belcher Lane, 190-192 

Belcher Lane (Purchase), 192 

Belknap (Joy), 209, 210 

Bell Alley (Prince), 49, 55, 72 

Bennet Avenue, 69, 70, 73, 74 



Bennet, 236, 237 

Bishop's Alley (Hawley), 182, 186 

Black Horse Lane (Prince), 72, 73 

Blackstone, 28, 86 

Blake's Alley (North Centre), 58 

Blind Lane (Bedford), 179 

Blott's Lane (Winter), 176 

Board Alley, 42, 43, 57 

Board Alley (Cooper's Alley), 148 

Board Alley (Hawley), 186, 1S7 

Bogg Lane (Bowker), 200 

Bosworth, 100 

Bowdoin, 211, 219 

Bowker, 200 

Boylston, 8, 10, 152, 160, 170, 177, 

197, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 234 

Brattle, 93, 98, 112, 113 

Bread (Franklin), 185 

Brighton, 5, 202 

Bromfield, 167, 174 

Brookings Lane (Salutation), 46 

Bulfinch, 211, 212 

Bury (Channing), 188 

Buttolph (Irving), 209 

Cambridge, 91, 92, 98, 100, 199, 

200, 202, 203, 205-207, 209, 210 
Cambridge (Castle), 241, 242 
Castle, 233, 234, 238, 241, 242 
Causeway, 5, 27, 28 
Center, Centrey (Park), 222, 223 
Central, 146 

Centre (Anderson), 209 
Centre (North Centre), 58 
Centrehill (Court), 91 
Centrey (Park), 223 
Chambers, 202, 205, 208 
Change Avenue, 127, 138, 141 
Channing, 187, 188 
Chapman Place, 109-116 
Chardon, 14, 100, 201 
Charles, 199, 201, 206, 207, 221, 

Charter, 29, 54, 59, 63, 65, 72, 74, 

76, 16S 
Chauncey Place, 116, 183, 184 
Cheapside (Cornhill), 93 
Chestnut, 224 

Clarke, 38, 47, 59 

Clough (Unity), 75 

Cobblers Court (Harvard Place) , 

Cold Lane (Portland), 91 
Commercial, 32, ZZ, 46, 54, 58, 

64-71, 75, 76 
Common, 159, 217, 224, 240 
Common (Tremont), 152 
Conduit (North), 34 
Coney's Lane (North Centre), 57 
Congress, 18, 133, 137, 143, 145, 

147, 149, 150, 187-189, 195 
Cook's Court (Chapman Place), 

Coolidge Avenue (Derne), 198 
Cooper's Alley (Brattle), 99 y 

Cooper's Alley, 148 ^ 

Copper (Brighton), 202 
Corn Court, 130 
Cornhill, 93, 231 
Cornhill (Washington), 11, 18, 20, 

45, 112, 116 
Corn Market, 126, 130 
Court Avenue, 105, 116 
Court, 78, 83, 85, 91, 94, 97, 98, 

loi, 104, 114, 133 
Cove (Washington Street), iii 
Cow Lane (High), 189 
Cowell's Lane (West), 166 
Crab Lane, 191 
Creek Lane, 45 
Crooked Lane (Devonshire Street), 

Cross, 26, 34, 43, 44, 46, 50, 57, 60, 

Cushing Lane (Bromfield), 175 
Dalton (Congress), 145 
Dassett's Lane (Franklin Ave.), 98 
Davis's Alley (Change Avenue), 

Davies Lane, 98, 208, 224 
Deacons (Sudbury), 214 
Declination Alley (Henchman), 75 
Decosta Alley (Devonshire), 186 
Derne, 198, 210, 216, 218 
Devonshire, 18, 83, 90, 94, 133, 

2 74 


138, 142, 144, 147, 149, 150, 18s, 

Dinsdale Alley (Devonshire), 188 
Distil House Square (Bowker), 200 
Dix Place, 238 
Doane, 146 
Dover, 233, 242 
Drawbridge (North), 34, 35 
Dummer's Lane (Kilby), 145 
Dutch Lane or Yard (Dix Place), 

Eaton, 205, 206 
Elbow AUey, 43 
Eliot, 238 

Elm, 81, 83, Qi, 112, 129 
Essex, 143, 152, 16c, 173, 178, 180, 

181, 183, 184, 228, 230, 234, 235 
Exchange, 140 
Exchange (State), 145 
Exchange Place, 145, 147 
Exeter (Chauncey Place), 183 
Federal, 149, 180, 181, 186, 187 
Federal Court, 186 
Ferry way (Commercial), 32, 76 
Fish (North), 34, 43, 45, S7, 66, 

Fitch's Alley (Change Avenue), 141 
Fitch's Lane (Stoddard), 213 
Flagg Alley (Change Avenue), 141 
Fleet, 26, 39, 48, 49, 55, 60, 66 
Flounders Lane (Atlantic Avenue), 

Fort HUl Lane (High), 189 
Fort, The (Milk), 148 
Foster, 54, 75, 77 
Foster (Clarke), 47 
Franklin Avenue, 98, 102 
Franklin, 104, 182, 185 
Franklin Place, 182, 185, 187 
Friend, 90, 240, 214, 234 
Frog Lane (Boylston), 177, 228 
Front (Harrison Avenue), 234 
Gallop's Alley (Board Alley), 42 
Garden, 209 

Garden Court. 42, 49, 55, 56 
George (Elni), qi 
George (Hancock), 211 

George (West Cedar), 207 

Gibbs Lane (Oliver), 189 

Gilberts Lane (Hawley), 186 

Gooch Lane (Norman), 201 

Gooch Lane (Pitts), 201 

Governor's Alley (Province), 110 

Green, 201, 202, 205 

Green Lane (Salem), 63 

Green Dragon Lane (Union), 87 

Greenough Lane, 74 

Gridley Lane, 18S, 189 

Grove, 207, 208, 209 

Guttredge (Goodrich) Alley (Fos- 
ter), 75 

Hamilton (Belcher Lane), 190 

Hamilton Place, 153 

Hancock, 209, 210, 218 

Hanover, 35, 41, 43, 46, 47, 52-55, 
58-62, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77-80, 84, 
86, 87, 89-92, 143 

Hanover Avenue, 46, 47 

Harris, 47 

Harrison Avenue, 234 

Harvard, 235, 236 

Harvard (Hollis), 236 

Harvard Place, 160 

Hawes, 147 

Hawkins, 199, 200 

Hawkins (Clarke), 47 

Hawley, 181, 182, 186 

High, 185, 188, 189 

Hill, 207 

Hill's Alley (Webster Avenue), 68 

Hill (Derne), 211 

Hilliers Lane (Brattle), 99 

Hoar Lane (Bromfield), 168, 174 

Henchman, 75 

Hogg Alley, 170 

Hollis, 229, 239 

Hollis (Harvard), 239 

Holyoke (Tremont), 228 

Horn Lane (Bath), 148 

Houchin's Lane (Hanover), 79 

Howard, 212, 213, 218 

Hudson Lane (Elm), 91 

Hughes Lane (Parmenter), 74 

Hull, 30, 31 



Hutchinson (Pearl), 165, 188 

Irving, 208, 209 

Jackson Avenue, 75 

Jackson Place, 176 

Joy, 208-210, 220 

Joy's Alley (Harvard Place), 160 

Joyiiffe Lane (Devonshire), 144 

Kilby, no, 137, 143, 144, 146-48 

King (State), 18, 20, 104, 132, 141, 

142, 145, 171 
Kingston, 17S, 179 
Kneeland, 235 
Lafayette Avenue, 73 
Leather Square, 188 
Lenox, 234 
Leverett, 28, 202, 222 
Leveret's Lane (Congress), 145 
Lime Alley, 75 
Lincoln, 184 
Lindall's Row (Exchange Place), 

Link Alley, 89 
Long Lane (Federal), 186 
Love Lane (Tileston) , 68, 69 
Lyn (Commercial), 76 
Lynde, 203, 295 
McLean, 206 

Mackril Lane (Kilby), 145, 146 
Maiden, 233 
Margaret, 31, 73 
Market (Comhill), 93 
Market (State), 132 
Marlborough (Washington), i6o> 

171, 231 
Marsh, 87 

Marshall, 80, 86, 87, 90 
Mason, i6g, 177, 223 
Matson, Goodman's Lane (Union), 

Matthew, 188 
May (Revere), 207 
Merchants Row, 129-131, 136, 138, 

Methodist Alley (Hanover Avenue), 

Middle (Hanover), 27, 58, 61 
Middlecott (Bowdoin), 211 

Milk, 18, 78, III, 123, 124, 144, 

148-150, 152, 160, 171, 18s, 186, 

188, 194 
Mill (Hanover), 80 
Mill Bridge (Hanover), 58 
Miller Lane (Kilby), 145 
Milton, 202 

Minot's Court (Friend), 91 
Moon, 49, 52, 54, 56 
Mount Vernon, 209 
Mylne (Summer), 181 
Myrtle, 208, 209 

Nassau (Tremont), 228, 240, 241 
Newbury (Washington), 141, 160, 

Norman, 201 
North, 31, 33-36, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 

46, 57-60, 71, 72, 74, 77, 87, 90, 

113, 126, 128, 212 
North (Hanover) 32, 35, 58 
North Bennet, 52, 53, 58, 61, 66, 

68, 69 
North Centre, 58 
North Margin, 28 
North Russell, 205, 206, 207 
North Market, 131 
Noyes Alley, 130 
Old Way, 32 
Oliver, 149, 188 
Orange (Washington), 228, 230, 

Otis Place, 186 
Oxford, 1 79 
Paddy's Alley, 58 
Palmer (Pearl), 188 
Park, 168, 179, 217, 221-223 
Parmenter, 50, 60, 61, 74 
Parrott's Alley, 148 
Pearl, 19, 148, 149, 188, 189, 227, 

Peck's Lane (Oxford), 170 
Phillips, 207 

Pie Alley (Williams Court), 116 
Pierce's Alley (Change Avenue), 

Pinckney, 207-209, 221 
Pitts, 201 



Pleasant, 224, 227, 241 
Plymouth (Kingston), 179 
Pond (Bedford), 179 
Poplar, 202, 205, 206 
Proctor's Lane (Richmond), 56 
Portland, 84, 89, 90, 91, loi, 214 
Prince, 27, 29, 31, 33, 50, 52, 53, 

59, 61, 63, 66, 72, 73, 74, 77, 223 
Prison Lane (Court), 79, 92, 97, 

Province, no, in 
Pudding Lane (Devonshire), 144 
Purchase, 152, 188, 189, 192 
Quaker Lane (Congress), 145 
Queen (Court), 20, 46, 92, 95, 96, 

Rainsford Lane (Harrison Ave.), 

Rawson Lane (Bromfield), 167, 174 
Reagh (Essex), 178 
Red Lyon Lane (Richmond), 56 
Revere, 207, 209 
Richards Lane (Harris), 47 
Richmond, 26, 41, 45, 56, 57, 60, 

Ridgeway Lane, 210 
Roberts Lane (Webster Avenue), 

Roebuck. Passage (Merchants Row), 

127, 130 
Rollins, 243 

Rope Lane (Sea or Federal), 180 
Round Lane (Matthews), 188 
Rowe (Chauncey Place), 184 
Royal Exchange Lane (Exchange), 

140, 190 
Russell's Alley (Hawes), 148 
Salem, 31, 33, 59, 60, 63, 66, 68, 

70, 74, 167 
Salutation, 35, 46 
Salt Lane, 87 
Savages Court (Williams Court), 

School, 69, 78, 91, 93, 102, 105, 

no, III, 117, 153, i55» 160, 214, 

217, 218, 225 
School Alley (Bennet Avenue), 69 

Sconce Lane (Belcher Lane), 190 

Scott Alley, 45 

Scott's Court (Friend), 91 

Scottow's Alley, 45 

Sea (Federal), 180 

Second (Barton), 202 

Sendell Lane (Portland), 91 

Sentry (Park), 222 

Seven Star Lane (Summer), 181 

Sheaffe, 31, 47, 64, 67 

Sheaffe's Lane (Avery), 170 

Short, 207 

Short (Kingston), 179 

Shrimpton Lane (Exchange), 140 

Ship (North), 34, 66 

Shute (Chambers), 205 

Shute's Lane (Battery), 46 

Sisters (Leather Square), 188 

Sliding Alley (Jackson Avenue), 75 

Snow Hill, 29, 30, 31, 72, 73 

Snow's Lane (Boylston), 177 

Somerset, 218 

South, 178, 180, 181 

South Latin School (School), 105 

South Meeting House Lane (Milk), 

South Margin, 28 
South Russell, 209 
Southac (Phillips), 207 
Southac (West Cedar), 207 
Southac Court (Howard), 212 
Spring, 202 

Springate (Spring Lane), 147, 148 
Spring Lane, 148 
Spruce, 220 

Staniford, 201, 203, 204 
State, 18, 20, 58, 83, 90, 96, 97, no, 

118, 119, 132, 133, 13s, 138, 142, 

144, 151, 181, 187 
Stillman 67 
Stoddard, 212 
Sudbury, 58, 78, 91, 92, 197, 198, 

199, 214 
Sudbury End (Sudbury), 214 
Summer 104, 160, 171, 172, 178, 

180-186, 189, 190, 19s 
Sun Court, 41, 49, 54, 56, 60, 66, 74 



Swing Bridge Lane (Merchants 

Row), 129, 130, 144 
Tanners Lane (Bath), 148 
Tattle (Hawkins), 199 
Temple, 210, 211 
Temple Place, 158, 168, 176 
Thatcher, 73 

Theatre Akiey (Devonshire), 186 
Thorndike, 234 

Tileston, 52, 55, 59, 65, 67, 68 
Tilley Lane (Gridley), 189 
Tremont, 61, 66, 9i-93» 96, 102, 

104, 105, 109, 113, 127, 149, 152, 

163, 167, 169, 170, 176, 177, 197, 

198, 20S, 212, 216, 217, 223-225, 

228, 229, 240, 242 
Tremont Row (Court), 213 
Turnagain Alley (Temple Place), 

Tyng's Alley (Brattle), 99 
Union 26, 34, 44, 46, 60, 79, 80, 

86-91, 129, 149 
Unity, 74, 75 
Vernon Place, 74 
Vincent Alley (Franklin), 185 
Waldo (Causeway), 28 
Walker (Common), 240 
Walker (Tremont), 228 
Walnut, 114, 220, 221, 224 
Warren, 240 
Warren (Myrtle), 209 
Washington, 5, 8, 10, 18, 90, 91, 97, 

99, III, 118, 119, 123, 126, 133, 

139, 142, 144, 147, 149, 150, 152 

153, 160, 171, 176, 180, 181, 183, 

185, 230, 235, 238, 240 
Water, 18, 20, 122, 144, 145, 147 
Webster Avenue, 68 
West, 124, 152, 158, 159, 169, 176, 

West Cedar, 207 
Whitebread Alley (Harris), 47 
Widow Colburn's Lane (Avery), 

Williams Court, 18, 104, 116 
Willis Lane (Winter), 176 
Wilson's Lane (Devonshire), 144 

Wiltshire (Chambers), 205 
Wings Lane (Elm), 86, 91 
Winter, 66, 153, 154, 155, 157, 160, 
163, 169, 172, 176, 193, 216, 223 
Winthrop Place, 186 
Wood Lane (Richmond), 56 
Writing School (Tileston), 68 

Stuart, Dr. George, 124, 170 

Stuart, Ruth (Cutler), 170 

Sturgis, Samuel, 217 

Suffolk County, 222 

Suffolk County recorder, 167 

Suffolk County sheriff, 158 

Sugar, Gregory, 84 

Sugar houses, 102 

Sullivan, Governor James, 182 

Sumner, Increase, loi 

Surriage, Agnes, 56 

Surveyors, 13 

Swan, Hepzibah, 158 

Swan, James, 158, 223 

Swett, John, 184 

Swett, Mary (Bull), 184 

Swift, Sister, 119 

Symmes, Mary, 39 

Symmes, Zachariah, 39 

Symonds, Henry, 26 

Tailer, Elizabeth, 83 

Taller, Rebecca (Stoughton), 81, 83 

Tailer, William, 81-83 

Talmage, William, 8, 229, 230, 238, 

Taunt, William, 136 
Taverns, 16, 26, 34, 58 

Adams House, 156 

Admiral Vernon, see Vernon's Head, 

American, 84 

Anchor, 122 

Bear, see Three Mariners, 24 

Baker's Arms, see Green Dragon, 

Baker's Arms, Hanover Street, 89 

Baulston, William, 113 



Bite, see Three Mariners, 129 
Black and White Horse, locality not 

stated. In 1767 Robert Sylvester 

was licensed here 
Blue Anchor, Oliver's Dock, 148 
Blue Anchor, Washington Street, 

45, 122 
Blue Anchor (locahty not stated. 

In 1767 a man lodged here) 
Blue Bell, Union Street, 89 
Blue Bell, Battery March, 191 

see Castle 
Brazen Head, 18, 122 
Brewers Arms, 1 73 
Bull, 183 
Bunch of Grapes, 137-139, 142, 

143, 163 
Castle, Battery March, 197, 200 
Castle, Dock Square, 129 
Castle, see Kings Head, North 

Street, 39 
Castle, locality not stated. In 1721 

Adrian, widow of John Cunning- 
ham, was licensed here, and in 

1722 Mary English 
Cole, Samuel, 16 
Concert Hall, 85 
Courser, William, 90 
Cromwell's Head, 109 
Crown, 139 
Dolphin, 41 
Dove, 177 
Exchange, 140 
Flower de Luce, 44 
George, see Castle, Dock Square, 

George, on the Neck, 162, 234 
Globe, 77 
Goat, locality not stated, mentioned 

in Elisha Cooke's inventory in 

Golden Ball, 130, 131 
Grand Turk, 1 74 
Green Dragon, 53, 60, 79, 88, 89 
Half Moon, 84, 174 
Hancock, 130 
Hatch, 160 

Hawk, 185 

Horse Shoe, 152 

Indian Queen, 175 

King's Arms, see George on the 

Neck, 234 
King's Arms, Long wharf, 138 
King's Arms, North Street, 39 
King's Arms, Washington Street, 

King's Head, see Castle, North 

Street, 39 
Lamb and White Lamb, 141, 170 
Lion, 170 
Logwood Tree, 77 
Marlborough Arms or Head, 137 
Mitre, 39 
Noah's Ark, 38 ' 
Orange Tree, 85 
Peacock or Turkic Cock, 43 
Peggy Moore, 238 
Pine Tree, 129 
Punch Bowl, 129 
Queen's Head, 77 
Red Cross, 43 
Red Lyon, 34, 41, 57 
Rising Sun, 171 
Roebuck, Battery March, 191 
Roebuck, Merchants Row, 129 
Rose and Crown, Washington 

Street, 242 
Rose and Crown, Devonshire Street, 

138, 144 
Royal Exchange, see Exchange, 124, 

136, 154 
Salutation, 35, 131 
Schooner, and Schooner in Distress, 

43, 48 
Seven Star, 181 
Ship, North Street, see Noah's Ark, 

34, 38 
Ship, North Street, 41 
Ship, Washington Street, see Cole, 

Shippen's Crane, 129 
Star and Star Ale House, 87, 89 
State's Arms, see King's Arms, 

Washington Street, 112 



Sun, Battery March, 191 
Sun, Dock Square, 86, 128 
Sun, Washington Street, 114 
Swan, North Street, see Queen's 

Head, 34 
Swan, Commercial Street, 77 
Swann, locality not stated. In 1777 

mentioned in Town Records 
Three Crowns, 43 
Three Horse Shoes, 169 
Three Mariners, Dock Square, 18, 

Three Mariners, State Street, 138 
Tinian Hotel, 223 
Turk's Head, 39 
Turkie Cock, see Peacock, 43 
Two Palaverers, see Salutation, 36 
'V^ernon's Head, 136 
White Bear, locality not stated; 

mentioned in Town Records in 


White Horse, Cambridge Street, 199 

White Horse, Washington Street, 
170, 171 
Tay, Isaiah, 210, 211 
Taylor, Christopher, 215 
Taylor, Gillum, 114 
Taylor, William, 211 
Tea Party, 102, 109, 201, 202, 229 
Teft, William, 184 
Temple, John, 186 
Temple, Sir Thomas, 36, 83 
Thatcher (Thacher), Elizabeth, 39, 

Thatcher, Judah, 30 
Thatcher, Margaret (Webb), 213 
Thatcher, Mary, 30 
Thatcher, Oxenbridge, 100, 171 
Thatcher, Peter, 30, 59, 60, 66 70, 99 
Thatcher, Thomas, 31, 88, 125 
Thaxter, Mary (Belknap), 209 
Thayer, Jane (Parker), 169 
Thayer, Richard, 169 

Federal Street, 187 

Haymarket, 160, 187 

Keith's, 170 

Thing, John, 89 

Thomas, Evan, 39 

Thomas, Isaiah, 65, 87 

Thompson, Benjamin, 87, 106 

Thompson, Robert, 132 

Thoreau Henry, 74 

Thoreau, John, 73, 74 

Thorpe, Alexander, 242 

Thursday Lecture, 15, 82 

Thwing, Benjamin, 98 

Thwing, Helene, 142 

Thwing, John, 142 

Thwing, Mary, 115, 142 

Ticknor, Elisha, 241 

Tileston, John, 73 

Tileston, John Jr., 69, 71, 73 

Tileston, Lydia (Coffin), 73 

Tileston, Rebecca (Fowle), 73 

Tilly, George, 241 

Tilly, William, 188, 189 

Tisdale, James, 131 

Tontine Crescent, 185 

Tories, 12, 22, 53, 157 

Town bull, 225, 231 

Town crier, 24, 90 

Town House, 14, 18, 83, 108, 114, 

124, 134, 163 
Town meetings 12-14, 125, 135 
Town records, 43 
Town Slip, 32, 230 
Town watering place, 179 
Town, Wards of, 12 
Townsend, Colonel, 102 
Townsend, Dr., 223 
Townsend, Penn, 217 
Townsend, Solomon, 75 
Trades, The, 37 
Trades, inspectors of, 113 
Trades, Lords of, 81 
Train band, 17, 115 
Training field, 102, 214, 226 
Tramount, 4, 102, 198 
Travers, Daniel, 30 
Triangular warehouse, 131 
Trimountain, 3, 102, 214 
Trotman, John, 98 
Trotman, Katharine, 98 



Troutbeck, John, 103 
Truesdale, Richard, 116 
Trumbull, John, 94 
Trumpeter, 24, 62, 226 
Tucker, Commodore Samuel, 49 

Tudor, , 108 

Turell, Ebenezet, 84, 85 

Turell, Daniel, 29, 43, 54, 63 

Turell, Jane (Colman), 85 

Turell, Lydia, 54 

Turf and twig, delivery of a house 

by, 6 
Turfrey, Edward, 174 
Turfrey, George, 174 
Turner, John, 121, 218 
Turner, Lucy, 121 

Turner, Robert, 124, 185, 218, 219 
Tuttle (Tuthill), Anne, 36, 46 
Tuttle, widow, 184, 186, 190 
Twine factory, 31 
Tyler, Andrew, 44 
Tyler, Joseph, 127 
Tyler, Katharine, 44 
Tyler, Miriam (Pepperrell), 44 
Tyley, Samuel, 36, 131, 141 
Tyng, Edward, 130, 136, 141 
Tyng, Elizabeth, 98 
Tyng, William, 88, 98, 112, 113, 130 
Tythingman, 13 


Underbill, John, 8 

Unitarian, the first, 204 

Unitarian chapel, 103 

United States Bank, 140 

United States flag, the first around 

the world, 67 
Upshall, Nicholas, 41, 54, 56 
Upshall, sister, 119 
Upshall, Susannah, 41 
Uring, Captain Nathaniel, 229 
Usher, Elizabeth (Allen), 140 
Usher, Hezekiah, 90, 139, 140, 158, 

176, 216 
Usher, John, 83, 140 

Valley Acre, 212 

Vane, grasshopper, 127 

Vane, The cockerel, 60 

Vane, Governor, 117, 160 

Vane, Henry, 214 

Vardy, Luke, 136 

Vassal, John, 216 

Vassal, Leonard, 182, 183 

Vassal, Phoebe (Penhallow-Grosse), 

Vassal, William, 92, 215 
Vaughan, Charles, 104, 182, 185 
Vergoose, see Goose 
Vernon, Fortesque, 74 
Vespucius, Americus, i 
Vetch, Samuel, 154 
Vial, John, 38, 46 
Vila, James, 85, 137 
Vinal, John, 177, 221 
Vincent, Ambrose, 185 
Vincent, James, 91, 141, 205 
Virginia, 19 
Vose, Henry, 109, 171 


Wadsworth, Benjamin, 133 

Wadsworth, Recompence, 42, 69 

Wadsworth, Susannah (Cock), 41 

Wadsworth, Timothy, 41, 42 

Waite, Gamaliel, 182 

Waite, Thomas, 137 

Wainwright, Francis, 158, 176 

Wainwright, Mr., 176 

Waldo, Jonathan, 170 

Waldo, Samuel, 204, 210 

Waldron, William, 60 

Walker, Abigail, 240 

Walker, Robert, 8, 224, 228 

Walker, Samuel, 173 

Walker, Sarah, 173 

Walker, Thomas, 240 

Wall, John, 212 

Walley, John, 148 

Walley, Thomas and Company, 174 



Walter, William, 65, 182 


England and France, 165 

French and Indian, 8, 212 

King Philip's, 39, 44, 47, 75 

Pequot, 81, 214 

Ward, Benjamin, 147, 149, 191, 192 
Ward, Goodman, 148, 149 
Ward, Mary, 191 
Wardwell, Frances (Cook), 85 
Warden, Jonathan, 85 
Warden, Nathaniel, 17 
Warren, John, 109, 232 
Warren, Joseph, 85, 98, 125, 166 
Washington Gardens, 158 
Washington, General George, 21, 49, 

68, 70, 97, 155, 193, 230, 242 
Wass, John, 131 
Wass, Mrs., 131 
Watch, The, 16, 231 
Watch houses, 16, 18, 96, 226 
Watchmen, 16, 17 
Water works, 88 
Waters, Lawrence, 35 
Watertown, 3, 29 

Weatherhead, , 137 

Webb, Elizabeth (Jackson), 66 

Webb, Frances (Bromfield), 66 

Webb, Henry, 30, 122, 138, 144 

Webb, Isaac, 124 

Webb, John, 59, 66 

Webb, John Evered, alias, 30, 136 

Webb, Margaret, 30 

Webb, Nathan, 69 

Webb, Rev. Mr., 60 

Webster, Daniel, 97 

Weir, Robert, 40, 240 

Welch, John, 202 

Welden, Captain, 12 

Wells (Welles), Arnold, 223, 233 

Wells, Arnold, Jr., 109 

Wells, Francis, 206 

Wells, Hannah (Arnold), 238 

Wells, John, 66 

Wells, Samuel, 230, 233, 238 

Welstead, WilHam, 60 
Wendell, Jacob, 97, 109, 1S8 
Wendell, John, 97, 217 
Wendell, Katharine (Oliver), loi 
Wendell, Oliver, 192, 195 
Wentworth, Edward, 44 
Wentworth, John, 39 
West Boston, 199, 222 
West Indies, 76 
West, Samuel, 239 
Whalley, the regicide, 62 
Wharton, Richard, 131, 210 
Wharton and Bowes, 181 
Wharves, 34, 131 

Battery, 33, S,^, 

Borland, 131, 146 

Clarke, 40 

Constitution, 77 

Griffen, 195, 214 

Halsey, 34, 39 

Hancock, 4, 40, 48, 71 

Lewis, 40 

Liverpool, 195 

Long, 82, 132, 138, 139, 144 

Minot's T, 132 

Poole, 146 

Rowe, 180, 195 

Scarlett, 34, 39, 48, 77, 1^0, 196 

T, 132 

TUley, 76 

Union, 37 

Ward, 147 

Wheatley, 146 

Woodward, 146 
Wheatley, Nathaniel, 146 
Wheeler, Daniel, 179 
Wheeler's pond, 179 
Wheeler, Thomas, 173 
Wheelwright, Jeremiah, 208 
Wheelwright, John, 208 
Wheelwright, Mary (Allen), 208 
Whigs, The, 157 
Whipper, The, 222 
White, Samuel, 69 
Whitefield, George, 100, 124, 194, 204, 

Wigglesworth, , 106 



Wilbore Bro., 231 

Wilbore, Samuel, 230 

Wilkes, Francis, 146 

Wilkes, John, 71, 215 

Wilkes, Mary, 215 

Wilkes, William, 33 

Wilkins, Richard, 124 

Willard, Daniel, 94 

Willard, Josiah, 126 

Willard, Samuel, 125 

William II, King, 64 

Williams, Benjamin, 75 

Williams, Inspector, 155 

Williams, John, 154 

Williams, Jonathan, 158 

Williams, Mary, 94 

Williams, Nathaniel, 106 

Williams, Nathaniel Jr., 94 

Williams, Roger, 220 

Williams, Thomas, 31 

Wilson, John, 8, 117, 118, 133, 140, 

144, 214, 217 
Wilson, Mary (Deering), 131 
Wilson, Mr., 3, 132, 218 
Wilson, William, 94 
Wiltshire, 30 
Winbourne, William, 35 
Windmill, Mrs. Tuthill's, 186, 190 
Windmill on Copp's Hill, 29 
Windmill on the Neck, 232 
Windmill, South and Federal Streets, 

WindmiU Walk, 28 
Windmills, 28, 29, 72, 190, 203, 225, 
Windsor, Connecticut, 35 
Wing, John, 129 
Winnisimmet, 5, 31, 32, 238 
Winslow, John, 82 
Winthrop, Adam, 47, 66 
Winthrop, Adam Jr., 66 
Winthrop, Adam, 3rd, 66, 154 

Winthrop, Ann, 47 

Winthrop children, 150 

Winthrop, Elizabeth (Hawkins-Long), 

47, 66 
Winthrop, Governor, 8, 34, 134 
Winthrop, Jane (Borland), 150 
Winthrop, John, 3, 123, 124, 143 
Winthrop (John), 6, 8, 15, 26, 38, 102, 

113, 117, 128, 132, 148, 150, 167, 


Winthrop, Governor John of Con- 
necticut, 47 

Winthrop, John Still, 150 

Winthrop, Judith, 124 

Winthrop, Mr., 33 

Winthrop, Robert C, 21 

Winthrop, Stephen, 124, 147 

Winthrop, Waite, 106 

Wiswel, Peleg, 69 

Witchcraft delusion, 64 

Witherle, Joshua, 242 

Wittington, Elizabeth, 129 

Wobum, 87 

Wood, William, 4, 28 

Woodmansy, Elizabeth, 131 

Woodmansy, John, 131 

Woodmansy, Robert, 106 

Woodstock, 6 

Woodward, Nathaniel, 74, 172 

Woodward, Robert, 173 

Woodward, Thomas, 224 

Workhouse, 17, 197, 221, 222, 223 

Wormal, Sarah, 138 

Wright, Ebenezer, 239 

Wright, Francis, 36 

Writs of Assistance, 108, 140 

Yankee Doodle, 243 
Yeale, David, 212 
Young, Arthur, 36 


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